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Burial Performance Between Different Head Shapes and Skulls Amongst Head-First Burrowing Fishes

Burrowing is most energy costly behavior. Many vertebrates burrow head-first into the sediment. Interestingly, head-first burial fishes differ in head shapes by having either a flatten or conical head shape. Head shape determines the penetration force magnitudes, but it is important for their neurocranium to avoid overwhelming cranial stresses from those burial forces. There is minimal research on the penetration force (N), rotational resistance (Nmm), and cranial stress (Pa) for different head shapes. Here, we selected four members with different head shapes: Tetraodon miurus (Bulky), Iniistius pavo (knife edge), Bunocephalus coracoideus (shovel), and Cheilio inermis (knife point). We constructed 3D head shape models and controlled the surface areas. We recorded penetration force (N) and torque (Nmm) for each model. We also constructed the neurocranium models and loaded them in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine the stress magnitudes and concentrations. Our results show that bulky penetrated with highest penetration force, and knife point and shovel penetrated the minimum force. Knife edge experienced the greatest sediment resistance. Knife point succumbed to highest stress magnitude. The premaxillae and maxillae were the bones constraining burial for shovel. The parasphenoid bone constrained knife edge, knife point, and bulky during burial. From our results, having larger wide head dimensions and larger volumes generated greater penetration forces. Those with a flatten head succumbed to high sediment rotational resistance. Bone arrangements influences stress magnitudes because those with different skull shapes, yet same bone arrangements were constrained by the same bone. It seems there is a tradeoff between penetration force and cranial stress magnitudes. Fish use their parasphenoid for feeding and burial for those in our study, so there may be relationship between burial and feeding.
Date24 April 2023
CreatorsMartinez, Marcos
ContributorsStanden, Emily M.
PublisherUniversité d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa
Source SetsUniversité d’Ottawa
Detected LanguageEnglish
RightsAttribution 4.0 International,

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