Wrestling the octopus: Canada's bill C-24, America's RICO, and future directions for Canadian organized crime legislation /Saucier, Jordan M., January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (M.A.) - Carleton University, 2006. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 130-136). Also available in electronic format on the Internet.
Promoting the use of the special investigative techniques of Article 20 of the UNTOC to combat organised crimes in ThailandTianprasit, Tanatthep January 2018 (has links)
For many years, organised crime has been considered a serious threat to the world, as it affects not only national security but also economic well-being. Moreover, it is also the cause of many serious crimes. Given its nature, it is difficult for law enforcement officials to investigate and obtain evidence which can lead to the prosecution of high-ranking members of organised crime groups. For this reason, in 2000, the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) was introduced. Under this convention, many measures were provided to fight these serious crimes. The use of special investigative techniques, such as controlled delivery, electronic surveillance and undercover operations, has been recognised in Article 20 of the UNTOC. Therefore, members of the UNTOC, including Thailand, have to incorporate these special investigative techniques into domestic law. However, due to the different interpretations of the convention in each country, the effectiveness of the use of these special investigative techniques may vary. Furthermore, the use of these special investigative techniques may have an inevitable effect on human rights. Notably, this thesis reflects the law at April 2018. After the comparative study of the use of special investigative techniques between England and Wales and Thailand, it could be seen that the former has a better legislative approach than Thailand. In the case of special organisations to combat serious crimes, the National Crime Agency (NCA) of the UK has a higher budget, more staff and better transparency than the Department of Special Investigation (DSI) of Thailand. Moreover, in England and Wales, at the national and regional levels, the Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) provide double protection against the misuse of the special investigative techniques which are operated by law enforcement officials. On the contrary, in Thailand, although human rights are recognised in both the Constitution and Criminal Procedure Code, the Supreme Court is not greatly concerned about these rights, nor about the unlawful investigative proceedings. At the regional level, the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (AHRD) cannot be compared to the ECHR, because it does not have supranational institutions like the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) of the ECHR to protect the rights of the people of ASEAN. Last, but not least, in practice the patronage system and corruption are also considered to be the main problems in the investigation bureaux of the country and may affect the use of special investigative techniques.
09 June 2009
This thesis ascertains the factors that are responsible for the phenomenon of organized crime in Canada and India and suggests necessary measures for combating the same. The thesis explores the concept of organized crime, its history, threat perception, experience of the two countries and analyzes the effectiveness and critique of the legislations adopted in the direction. The thesis also analyzes the whole scenario in Canada and India in order to determine the factors behind the phenomenon. In the process, available literature as well as statistical data and information available on the web addresses of concerned governmental departments and agencies is reviewed to arrive at an understanding of the scenario from perspective of a developed and a developing country. The thesis concludes that ineffective legislative measures coupled with corruption and the social reality that there is a market for illegal products is responsible for the phenomenon of organized crime in Canada and India. Moreover, overemphasis on legislative and enforcement measures has been ineffective as a solution for the problem. The factors responsible for the phenomenon in the two countries can be classified into legislative inadequacies, societal preferences and secondary factors such as lack of study of political corruption, criminalization of politics, lack of political will, lack of research initiative in the area and abuse of provisions. Apart from overcoming the shortcomings of legislative measures, it is necessary to adopt a holistic approach to fight the phenomenon. The measures in the said direction include emphasis on preventive measures, creating public awareness to obligate public policy, overhauling of criminal justice system, revising and improving enforcement agencies’ training manuals, and revising the pay scales of police personnel. / Thesis (Master, Law) -- Queen's University, 2009-06-08 16:02:33.66
DiGiacomo, Richard J.
(has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense))--Naval Postgraduate School, June 2010. / Thesis Advisor(s): Strindberg, Anders ; Second Reader: Bellavita, Christopher. "June 2010." Description based on title screen as viewed on July 13, 2010. Author(s) subject terms: Prostitution, terrorist financing, lack of imagination, crime-terror nexus, transnational gangs, organized crime, criminal activity funding terrorism, terrorist and criminals, homegrown Includes bibliographical references (p. 63-73). Also available in print.
The development of organized crime legislation in Hong Kong traditional and contemporary approaches /Yip, Lionel Ross. January 1996 (has links)
Thesis (LL.M.)--University of Hong Kong, 1996. / "A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Laws at the University of Hong Kong." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 104-107). Also available in print.
26 October 2010
M.Comm. / Economists usually distinguish between five macroeconomic objectives, namely, high and sustainable economic growth, full employment, price stability, balance of payments stability and the equitable distribution of income. This research deals with the economics of organised crime. It aims to examine the relationship between organised crime and the five macroeconomic objectives. To prove that organised crime has an impact on macroeconomic stability, it is necessary to show that it involves large sums of money relative to overall economic activity. Crime has always been mentioned as a factor that has an impact on the economic growth of a country, but the extent to which crime constrains growth and by what mechanisms it limits growth and development is unknown. This can be attributed to the underground nature of most organised criminal activities, such as money laundering. Very little research has been done on the costs and the extent of organised crime on the macroeconomy of South Africa. In attempting to quantify the costs of crime relative to the macroeconomy of South Africa, this research identifies various organised criminal activities. It examines the extent of the costs and the threats they pose to the macroeconomic stability of South Africa. This research shows that the political transformation and the resultant globalisation of South Africa during the early 1990s provided an ideal opportunity for organised crime structures to expand. It also shows that organised crime imposes direct and indirect costs on households and businesses, and therefore on the economy of South Africa as a whole. Organised crime diverts funds that could otherwise be invested in productive capacity, it discourages foreign investment and induces the government to spend money on law enforcement, crime prevention and the administration of justice, instead of spending it on the creation of additional employment opportunities. Tax revenue is also lost to money laundering. The abuse of the informal economy by money launderers has an impact on growth. Crime has prevented the growth of the tourist industry to its full potential given the countrys reputation of violence. A loss of skilled personnel who left the country has also been experienced, citing crime as a reason to immigrate.
Esposito, Karin Audrey
Boston University. University Professors Program Senior theses. / PLEASE NOTE: Boston University Libraries did not receive an Authorization To Manage form for this thesis. It is therefore not openly accessible, though it may be available by request. If you are the author or principal advisor of this work and would like to request open access for it, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Thank you. / 2031-01-02
01 August 2012
This thesis explains how some organized crime outlaws, such as anti-Prohibitionists, the North American Mafia or La Cosa Nostra, outlaw motorcycle gangs, and Aboriginal street gangs, come to exist and thrive in Canadian society. It sets forth the historical development and nature of criminal organization laws in Canada, and compares the definition of “criminal organization” in the Criminal Code with other criminal law concepts, such as corporate criminals and white-collar criminals; conventional criminality or garden-variety predatory crime; terrorists; and criminal conspirators, parties, and accessories. It uses various concepts and assertions within criminological, sociological and psychological theories to explain the formation and perpetuation of the identity of individuals who engage in organized crime and who are members of organized crime groups. Aspects of social constructionism, social control and bond theory, differential association in the context of subcultures of violence, deviance and labelling, and social psychology theories are discussed to explain why some individuals, or some individuals who are criminals, become organized crime outlaws. Some of these reasons or explanations overlap and some complement one another. From these theoretical reasons or explanations, this thesis extracts a list of requisites that anti-organized crime measures should address in order to effectively combat organized crime. The conflicts among some of these requisites are set forth and reconciled, and the requisites are used to evaluate the present Canadian criminal organization provisions in the Criminal Code and to suggest non-criminal law as well as non-legal ways to effectively combat organized crime. After the application and discussion of each requisite, this thesis makes recommendations as to what anti-organized crime measures should include and how they should approach the problems posed by organized crime outlaws in this country.
Stoker, Roger John.
Thesis (M. Soc. Sc.)--University of Hong Kong, 1991.
Stoker, Roger John.
Thesis (M.Soc.Sc.)--University of Hong Kong, 1991. / Also available in print.
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