Situation of Families of prisoners
Sundaram, Madhava Soma P
Fear of crime
APPROACHES TO DIVERSION OF CHILD OFFENDERS IN SOUTH AFRICA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROGRAMME THEORIESSteyn, Francois 25 August 2011 (has links)
Diversion of children in conflict with the law has been practiced in South Africa since the early 1990s. From that time, the number of referrals and the scope of programmes burgeoned despite the absence of legislation to regulate diversion. The Child Justice Act (CJA) came into effect on 1 April 2010 and provides measures for assessment, referral and management of children who are eligible for diversion. It also stipulates the options for diversion intervention. This study investigates the theoretical foundations, methods, value and limitations of four diversion strategies, namely lifeskills training, mentoring, outdoor intervention and family group conferencing. Attention is also paid to the interventionsâ potential to realise the diversion aims of the CJA. Qualitative methods guided the research, in particular case study designs. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with the providers of the targeted diversion strategies. Programme documentation was also obtained in the form of training manuals and annual reports. In addition, interviews were conducted with Criminology and Social Work lecturers to further explore the theories that guide diversion strategies. Diversion programmes demonstrate particular understandings of the aetiology of child offending. The assumptions they make about the phenomenon to a large extent inform the methods used in the intervention process. Their assumptions include inadequate socialisation and personal abilities, absent and inimitable role models, negative life experiences and trauma, and reconciliation and reparation. Despite their unique assumptions, strategies appear to accommodate a fairly uniform profile of child offender. This raises questions about the assumptions of approaches regarding criminal behaviour vis-Ã -vis the risk factors they aim to address. Furthermore, parents feature as an important facilitator and inhibitor of diversion intervention. Their disinterest in or absence during significant intervention phases could restrict the outcomes and credibility of diversion programmes. Strategies that accommodate child offenders in groups are seemingly more inclined to exclude parents during the actual intervention. They may also fail to meet the individual intervention needs of participants as programmes are structured around a common goal for the group. Individual approaches, however, lack opportunities for vicarious learning. The time frames of diversion programmes and ad hoc followup procedures appear insufficient to optimally impact on criminal behaviour. Children who engaged in crime must acknowledge guilt for the offence in order to be diverted. Practice suggests that some children abuse the system in attempts to avoid formal prosecution. This could, in turn, compromise accountability which is a central aim of the CJA. Strategies show varying abilities to reintegrate diverted children with their families and communities. Moreover, only approaches that are fundamentally restorative in nature meaningfully involve the victims of offences. The lack of victim participation in diversion strategies fails to give effect to the reconciliation and reparation objectives of the CJA. Stigma stemming from contact with the criminal justice system appears difficult to avoid given the fixed location of service providers and some of the activities participants engage in. Despite these shortfalls, diversion shows promise in dealing with child offenders outside the ambit of formal justice procedures. It also prevents those who successfully complete the programmes from receiving a criminal record.
Janse van Rensburg, Andries Petrus
25 August 2011
School represents a critical phase of an individualâs life. Apart from educational gain, learners are socialised to become productive members of society. Violence in the school environment holds a range of adverse consequences for learners and educators alike. Efforts have been launched across the globe to determine, manage and prevent the complexities of school-based violence. South African institutions have added to this literature, although several aspects of school-based violence remain outside the academic spotlight. Even though the nature and extent of school-based violence has received substantial attention in recent years, studies are marked by methodological differences which make comparisons difficult. Research on coping strategies used by adolescents is still in its infancy. This also pertains to the lack of evidence on factors influencing the use of different strategies, in particular from a gender perspective. Democratic change necessitated changes in the education system, which inevitably had an impact on the manner in which school administrators manage and prevent school-based violence. However, little is known about the disciplinary methods and violence prevention strategies applied by educators, along with challenges they may face in this regard. In order to address these shortfalls, an investigation was launched to ascertain how schools deal with violence, with particular focus on learnersâ coping and school administratorsâ management strategies. Subsequently, the dissertation set out to describe and explore the nature, extent, coping strategies and management of school-based violence in two schools in Moakeng, Kroonstad, Free State province. The study stems from a partnership between the Centre for Health Systems Research and Development (CHSR&D) and the Department of Criminology (both from University of the Free State), and the Alternatives to Violence Project (AVP). In order to accommodate different target groups (learners and educators) and different sources of information, a mixed methods approach was utilised. The research design was a partially mixed sequential dominant status design that consisted of a survey and personal interviews. The self-administered survey was conducted among 710 learners with a structured questionnaire, while six educators took part in semi-structured personal interviews. Mixed methods research inherently guarantees a level of triangulation, which promoted the validity and reliability of the data. The results confirm the presence of violence in the selected schools. Higher levels of violence were recorded among the learners when compared to other South African studies. Different types of violence were identified, both between learners and between learners and educators. The causes of violence featured across all six levels of the ecological systems theory model. The study identified numerous long-term consequences for learners who are victimised by school-based violence. Learners applied different coping strategies, although it appears that problem-focused coping was used more often. Little differences were found between male and female victimsâ use of coping strategies, with the exception of emotion-focused strategies. In light of the high levels of violence, the results suggest that learners have little confidence in their schoolsâ administrators to effectively manage and prevent violence. An overall lack of learner supervision in the schools was reported, along with a lack of physical security measures. Educators were found to follow official guidelines relating to disciplinary methods, even though corporal punishment was widely used in the schools. Finally, the schools did not have strong relationships with stakeholders such as the local police and governmental structures at the district and provincial levels. It was concluded that the schools under scrutiny were marked by different types, causes, effects and reactions to violence. Seen broadly, it was identified that 1) learners apply a range of different coping strategies to deal with victimisation in school, which can be perceived as mostly positive, and 2) that educators lacked skills in managing and preventing the violent behaviour of learners. The findings lay a foundation to further explore aspects of school-based violence, ultimately to inform policy and to ensure an environment conducive to learning.
Birdsong, Conner Key
15 July 2017
<p> Decades of research show that among first time offenders Blacks receive a harsher punishment in general than Whites, even after controlling for legally relevant and non-relevant factors. Sentencing disparities between Blacks and Whites contain the presence of colorism. Color is an important component of individual appearance and could send attitudes about one’s demeanor, values, remorse, honesty, and even guilt (Burch, 2015). The current research aims to examine the relationship between the skin tone of capital case inmates and perceived levels of trustworthiness and innocent appearances. Photographs of convicted capital case inmates were shown to undergraduate, entry-level criminal justice students to determine whether the skin tones of capital case inmates influence their views of trustworthiness and innocent appearances. These views were obtained by rating the photographs of capital inmates on two scales measuring levels of trustworthiness and innocence. An analysis of variance was conducted to compare mean ratings of trustworthiness and innocence for each skin tone category. The results revealed a significant relationship between skin tone and perceived levels of trustworthiness. Specifically, student raters rated a light skin photograph higher on trustworthiness when a light skin photograph preceded a dark skin photograph. A discussion of these results, policy implications, and limitations are reviewed.</p><p>
Krieger, Clifford N., III
02 June 2017
<p> This study examined the impact of secondary traumatic stress on personnel who work on investigations of crimes against children. An online survey was deployed via Qualtrics to investigators and forensic interviewers of child advocacy centers examining their experiences from the initial incident to the sentencing of the perpetrator. Prior studies have shown that exposures to intimate details of crimes against children have placed secondary stress on the investigators and interviewers. The survey was administered to investigators and interviewers of child crime victims in Johnson County regarding their experiences with work stress, and stress in their personal lives resulting from their involvement in these investigations. The research examined indicators of Secondary Traumatic Stress and coping mechanism of investigators and interviewers involved in crimes against children investigations. Findings indicated a statistically significant negative association between having unintended thoughts about the victim and alcohol use. Findings will be used to broaden the understanding of STS and coping mechanisms among law enforcement personnel and to identify potential risks and protective factors for investigators of crimes against children. The survey was conducted over a two-week period and the study period ended on March 15, 2017.</p>
16 May 2017
<p> The recent decline in police legitimacy (Gallup Poll, 2015) has increased the need for procedural justice. Law enforcement agencies that employ procedural justice can restore legitimacy, build trust, and enhance citizen satisfaction. Using secondary data collected from 99 homeless injecting drug users in Skid Row, Los Angeles, this study shows that despite the legal outcome of a police encounter (i.e., arrest, citation), when officers utilize procedural justice (e.g., act fairly, treat the individual with respect, and refrain from using unnecessary force, yelling or using inappropriate language), citizen satisfaction with the encounter is positive. This study provides compelling evidence for the need for procedurally just practices to re-establish the diminishing legitimacy of and trust in law enforcement agencies.</p>
McCollough, Kevin D.
22 November 2017
<p> The co-evolution of the operational art and technology in the military arena may have applications for emergency management operations. The application of network-based systems towards disaster management and public safety has the potential to capitalize on lessons learned from the military to improve command and control, speed of communication and operational agility. In order to react to a constantly evolving operational picture while maintaining forces spread across great distances, the military has developed network-based organizations and command and control structures to capitalize on advances in technology. These techniques and the understanding and development of local networks could have a similar impact on domestic disaster relief. In today’s asymmetric operational environment, commanders have the ability and doctrine to develop the situation remotely, process raw data into actionable intelligence and push direction and guidance down to operating forces at a rapid rate. The size and scope of disasters affecting the populace today require a more agile and networked organizational structure. This research will explore whether the same netcentric techniques and practices used by the military can be used in domestic disaster response.</p><p>
The lived experiences of Police and Crime Commissioners in the early years of their tenure in England and WalesCliff, David January 2017 (has links)
The 41 Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) elected in 2012 are a recent addition to developing, informing and holding to account the police and their processes. Their key roles: to develop police plans; to hold Chief Constables to account; and to connect with communities, are controversial and they exist at the interface of a wide range of governmental and community systems. This has elicited a range of approaches and strategies as they attempt to execute their role in a strategic territory that is complex, diverse, rapidly changing and subject to unprecedented real terms resource reduction. Any attempt to research the leadership and other developmental needs of this group has to be predicated by a greater appreciation of this complex environment. This doctoral thesis attempts to make sense of the early years incumbency of the PCCs, by focusing on the lived experience of a cross section of them, drawing insights into the challenges they face and their support and developmental needs. Thematic content analyses of semi-structured interview data reveal four key findings, which have serious implications for the leadership role of PCCs in the UK in a fast-changing, dynamic 21st Century policing and crime prevention environment. First, the data reveal that after a turbulent start born of rapid implementation, debates over democratic legitimacy and unprecedented media forces, PCCs would appear to access the public and influence local agendas far more than their predecessor governance structures. Second, PCCs organisationally separate, but nonetheless dyadic role with Chief Constables, appears mediated by their ultimate accountability to the electorate in the communities they serve. This appears to offer an opportunity for both greater police accountability suffused with support in ensuring that local policing occurs in a manner that balances the often competing needs of communities against an increasingly austere funding landscape. This austerity requires radical changes of practice and policies and new, often innovative and inclusive resource partnerships with the community. Third, early experiences of PCCs were in many cases avoidably turbulent and institutional, skills and other support needs of PCCs have yet to crystallise however insights still have been gained. Finally, PCCs are significant change agents within the organisational system they serve offering both a proto experience for proposed mayoral strategies being introduced by government and fuelling the debate about how mayoral structures will stand alongside PCCs. The debate about the inclusion of the public in law enforcement and their systemic inclusion as a collective actor within an organisational framework that encompasses large social fields, lends itself to increasing use of Distributed Leadership approaches by many PCCs. The major limitations of this study include: the challenges involved in accessing elite posts; the rapidly changing politico-economic environment, coupled with changes in the nature of the post itself (its political uncertainty and potentially short lifespan by dint of the variant policies of political parties); participants in the study, were predominantly male and all from Labour, or Tory orientation; and the fact that opportunities to interview Independent PCCs did not present themselves as hoped which may have added an additional dimension to perceptions on the nature of democracy in the role. Thus, four potential areas for further research were identified. Firstly, there is a need to explore further the nature of the dyadic relationship that exists between PCCs and the Chief Constables. Secondly, the opportunities existing for PCCs to become total commissioners of all police services and crime and 4 disorder related activity needs further investigation. Thirdly, since the perceptions of public engagement in the study were very much that of the PCCs; opportunities exist to explore the public's experience of the PCC role. This could not only scope in issues such as inclusion, involvement and perceived accountability of the police but also could include whether the role has been able to re-establish trust between the public and police. Finally, the issue of accountability in public office and whether this is achieved by four-year election cycles or other governance methods requires critical investigation.
Navigation through chaos : can the introduction of a time critical aide memoire improve the effectiveness of the law enforcement resposne to threats to life by organised crime groups?Merill, William Andrew January 2017 (has links)
No description available.
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