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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

DocumentMiner : A temporal text mining framework for business intelligence

Karanikas, Haralampos January 2008 (has links)
No description available.
32

A Method for the Articulation of Users' Requirements for Personalised Information Provision

Ousmanou, Khadidjatou January 2007 (has links)
The knowledge economy and the wide dissemination of information supported by infonnation and communication technology (lCT) have created opportunities for people to access infonnation at anytime and from anywhere. They can be endorsed when constructing knowledge in a practical and real-time fashion. The technological advances have also increased the workload on individual users who have to sift through large volume of data to find relevant infonnation. Although search engines can return suitable infonnation sources based on users' queries, this is only to a point. While we live in a 'one size fits all' world, we are not all the same. Therefore there is a need to support a broad and diverse community of users when they require infonnation for improving qualifications or enhancing productivity in the workplace. However, the design of personalised infonnation provision is challenging because there is a need for mechanisms to assist the capturing of users' infonnation requirements. Infonnation provision to support .users' knowledge construction depends largely on understanding users' infonnation requirements. The requirements represent ,. personalised preferences for what infonnation content is required and how the selected content should be presented and delivered to meet individuals' needs. Modelling the personalised capability in users' requirements is essential for effective infonnation provision. Such modelling is required to produce a holistic and integrated representation of infonnation content provision which ensure individual users' satisfaction. Subsequently it imposes challenges to the existing methods, because they normally provide the techniques which focus independently on specific modelling aspects, e.g., processes, functions, data, and infrastructure. The requirements specifications generated by these techniques are sometimes fragmented and difficult to be coherently integrated. The main contribution of this PhD research lies in the delivery of a method for the articulation of users' requirements (MATURE) to assist personalised infonnation prOVISIOn in infonnation systems. The method has adopted Constructivism and Semiotics paradigms which enabled the rigorous examination of users' behaviours during infonnation requests. MATURE allows users to interactively specify infonnation requirements which are systematically encapsulated in a user requirements space. The users requirements are analysed and transfonned into infonnation provision specifications through the process of articulates, maps and configures. The ' MATURE ontology model conceptualises semantic units which represent processes with embedded nonns. The ontology controls systemically the process analysis and the documentation of infonnation provision specifications in an integrated manner. A number of techniques, such as user profiling, learning'object schema, nonn constructor, cognitive style assessment, and documentations of specifications, have been developed to enable the technical execution of the ontolqgy model. The infonnation provision specifications contribute to the packaging: of infonnation content that meet users' needs. The method has been applied and validated using case studies in e-Learning settings.
33

Information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers : an interdisciplinary study

Jamali Mahmuei, Hamid Reza January 2008 (has links)
The study of information-seeking behaviour of scientists has been one of the main concerns of librarians and information scientists since mid twentieth century and yet we need to improve our understanding of their information behaviour in order to maximise the efficiency of information services provided. This thesis studies the information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers with an intradisciplinary approach in order to look at similarities and dissimilarities among the subfields within physics and astronomy. The study also looks at the information-seeking behaviour of people with different academic status and investigates the information-seeking activities of physicists and astronomers in different stages of research projects with the focus of the thesis being research related information-seeking behaviour. Moreover, the research investigates reading behaviour and publishing patterns of physicists and astronomers. The study is a mixed-methods study that uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The population of the study included the staff and PhD students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy of University College London. Fifty-six face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted, an online questionnaire survey of 114 respondents (out of 242 sample, 47% response rate) was carried out and 88 information-event cards were completed by participants. The findings of the study showed that although some similarities exist in information-seeking behaviour of people in the different subfields of physics and astronomy, each subfield has its own characteristics. Variations were found with regard to different aspects of information-seeking behaviour including the reliance on e-print archives and journal articles, methods used for keeping up-to-date and methods used for identifying articles. The study showed the importance of human information sources and informal communication in the information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers and highlighted the need for and the value of looking at narrower subject communities within disciplines for a deeper understanding of the information behaviour of scientists.
34

Related scientific information : a study on user-defined relevance

Beresi, Ulises Cervino January 2011 (has links)
This dissertation presents an investigation into the manifestations of relevance observed in the context of related scientific information. The main motivation is to observe if researchers, in the context of knowledge discovery, use different criteria to judge the relevance of the information presented. Additionally, the effects that discipline and research experience background may have on these manifestations are investigated. The scenario selected to carry out the observation is that of Literature Based Discovery (LBD). LBD is a trial-error interactive search strategy, developed by Swanson (1986a), which supports the finding and retrieving of complementary bodies of literature – sets of articles that are bibliographically non-interactive yet logically connected. Research scientists from three different disciplines and research experience backgrounds are observed while they interact with an LBD system built for the purposes of this study. Their cognitive processes and interactions are recorded and analysed. To aid in the analysis of the data, the concept of relevance criteria profiles is developed. Relevance criteria profiles are a technique to count and group the expressions of relevance criteria as observed during the search sessions. These offer the possibility of aggregating the observations into group profiles as well as the ability to measure the (dis)similarities that may arise in between profiles. As relevance criteria profiles provide a global view of the criteria used to judge relevance, a complementary visualisation technique is also developed. This technique displays the relevance judgement processes, as well as the interactions, in a sequential fashion allowing the researcher to perform temporal analyses on the session data. The results show that researchers do use a variety of criteria when judging the relevance of information in the context of LBD. Moreover, individuals use these criteria in different frequencies; both discipline and research experience background seem to influence these frequencies however they may not be the only intervening factors. The observed interaction patterns suggest that researchers approach the problem in two stages: i) an initial more exploratory stage followed by ii) a more focused and engaged stage. The main contribution of this thesis is the observation of these manifestations of relevance together with the interaction patterns. The final recommendation offered is that the multi-dimensional nature of relevance in this context should be addressed when evaluating LBD systems. Additionally, it is acknowledged that certain interaction behaviours may also be used during the design and testing of such systems.
35

Database federation, resource interoperability and digital identity, for management and exploitation of contemporary biological data

Thorisson, Gudmundur A. January 2011 (has links)
Modern research into the genetic basis of human health and disease is increasingly dominated by high-throughput experimentation and routine generation of large volumes of complex genotype to phenotype (G2P) information. Efforts to effectively manage, integrate, analyse and interpret this wealth of data face substantial challenges. This thesis discusses informatics approaches to addressing some of these challenges, primarily in the context of disease genetics. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) is widely used in the field, but translation of findings into scientific knowledge is hampered by heterogeneous and incomplete reporting, restrictions on sharing of primary data, publication bias and other factors. The central focus of the work was design and implementation of a core informatics infrastructure for centralised gathering and presentation of GWAS results. The resulting open-access HGVbaseG2P genetic association database and web-based tools for search, retrieval and graphical genome viewing increase overall usefulness of published GWAS findings. HGVbaseG2P conceptual modelling activities were also merged into a collaborative standardisation effort with international partners. A key outcome of this joint work is a minimal model for phenotype data which, together with ontologies and other standards, lays the foundation for a federated network of semantically and syntactically interoperable, distributed G2P databases. Attempts to gather complete aggregate representations of primary GWAS data into HGVbaseG2P were largely unsuccessful, chiefly due to concerns over re-identification of study participants. This led to a separate line of inquiry which explored - via in-depth field analysis, workshop organisation and other community outreach activities – potential applications of federated identity technologies for unambiguously identifying researchers online. Results suggest two broad use cases for user-centric researcher identities - i) practical, streamlined data access management and ii) tracking digital contributions for the purpose of attribution - which are critical to facilitating and incentivising sharing of GWAS (and other) research data.
36

Supporting navigation using different types of spatial information : an experimental human factors study

Nixon, James Anthony Kidby January 2008 (has links)
This thesis presents research which examines how the display of location-based information on a mobile device affects navigation. The research was informed by current literature and user research conducted with Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue Services. Experimental results are explained in terms of Passini’s (1980) model of wayfinding. Design guidelines and a human-factors framework for mobile location-based services are also presented. Cognitive task analysis and semi-structured interviews were used to conduct a user requirement study with firefighters from Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue Services. Following this study, an experimental programme was developed to test how different methods of presenting information and displaying different types of information affected navigation. Measurements included time taken to navigate a route, workload, perceived usability and perceived navigational ability. A small scale observational study examined user behaviour while navigating with GPS enabled information. Finally, a focus group was used to evaluate the results from the experimental work with Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue Services. Qualitative studies suggest that firefighters could use mobile, location based information to enhance navigation in large incidents. This information should be easy to understand and act on, incurring the minimum of cognitive demand. To achieve these requirements, the type of information presented on a paper map should not simply be transferred directly to a mobile device but must be adapted. The type of information displayed must also take into account the environment to maximise navigation efficiency and minimise cognitive demand. In the inside environment, simplified information showing only main features such as staircases and route changes should be displayed. In the outside environment paths and a selection of large, permanent features such as buildings support navigation most effectively. Evaluation with the fire service indicates that firefighters concur with the results of the experimental program. Major areas of further research include collaborative designs involving multiple mobile services and further experimental work examining how the presentation of specific features affects navigation in the outside environment.
37

Foundations for a Humanist informatics

Beeson, Ian Arthur January 2013 (has links)
This thesis consists of a selection of my papers, with a linking narrative. The aim of the narrative is to bring out the lines of inquiry in the papers more clearly. to provide foundations for a 'humanist informatics'. While the discipline of informatics has generally been geared towards technical or abstract representation, technological innovation, and technocratic control, a humanist informatics would focus instead on how information is produced and used by humans, and on how humans experience information and information technologies in their lives. The research method has been to review the papers and categorise them into four main themes, and from an initial analysis produce an outline argument consistent with the development of a humanist informatics. A more detailed treatment of a representative subset of papers then follows, and is combined with supporting but independent analyses of humanism and informatics, to produce a fuller account of the bases for a humanist informatics. Of the many available strands of humanism, the approach brought out here, combining existential and civic varieties, identifies the human being as at the same time an individual creature and a member of society. The analysis identifies some key characteristics for a humanist informatics, including these: • lnformatics must have at its centre a study of information, not as objective material, but in terms of how it is produced and used by human beings. • Suitable methodologies are needed to explore and describe people's lived experience of information and information technologies. • The processes by which information is produced and used should be discovered empirically. From a humanist perspective, experimentation and discovery are more fundamental than design, coherence is achieved through narrative and communication rather than by system design, and tactics have a larger part to play than strategies. • A humanist informatics should include study of wider and longer term issues in the production and use of information, and any generally deleterious impacts of the increasing power and reach of information technologies should be resisted. 1
38

Cataloguing estate records and the needs of the user : a comparative study

Mathias, J. D. S. January 2007 (has links)
No description available.
39

Relentless Accumulation : a Critical History of Collection Growth in American Research University Libraries, 1945-1979

Jones, David Edgar January 2009 (has links)
No description available.
40

Fragment weighting schemes for similarity-based virtual screening

Arif, Shereena M. January 2010 (has links)
No description available.

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