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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Internet interpersonal communications : an industrial design approach to interfaces and products

Roa, Seungwan January 2004 (has links)
The Internet provides interpersonal communication that does not merely emulate the 'real' world but offers radically innovative design options; this study investigates related theoretical contexts to expound new conclusions which recognise both non-pre-existing needs and long-term concerns from an industrial design perspective. The study consists of a contextual section and a practice-related section, and generates preliminary design recommendations in the contextual section as a result of exploring and reviewing: 1) socio-psychological; 2) socio-technological; and 3) technological contexts related to internet interpersonal communication. The preliminary design recommendations are based on the most significant internet interpersonal communication potential identified in the contextual section: 1) the absence of the physical body, 2) the need for artificial interfaces, 3) requirements of human-to-human interaction, and 4) support of controllability. The practice-related section, utilising simulated practice activity, assesses each preliminary design recommendation in terms of its degree of practicality and efficiency, and concludes with an identification of the most important principles for internet interpersonal communication interface and product design as below: a) To design the interface as an efficient self-presenter considering human-tohuman interaction preferentially, and b) To harmonise the technological provisions and distinct internet interpersonal communication opportunities as a benefit for individual users. The preliminary design recommendations are further revised with respect to their hierarchical relations in connection with the principles above, and it is suggested that 'omni-dimensional interface/design' would be a sensible direction for internet interpersonal communication interface and product design as well as for most design disciplines related to information communications technologies. In addition, industrial designers focusing on service design could offer effective and efficient guidance to an industry in which technology is becoming less tangible and in which multidisciplinary collaboration is necessary
2

Web site link prediction and semantic relatedness of web pages

Jayalal, S. G. V. S. January 2005 (has links)
Relying solely on Web browsers to navigate large Web sites has created some navigation problems for users. Many researchers have stressed the importance of improving site user orientation and have suggested the use of information visualisation techniques, in particular "site maps" or "overview diagrams" to address this issue. Link prediction and the semantic relatedness of Web pages have been incorporated into such site maps. This thesis addresses disorientation within Web sites by presenting a visualisation of the site in order to answer one of the three fundamental questions identified by Nielsen and others that users might ask when they become disoriented while navigating a Web site, namely, Where am I now? Where have I been? Where can I go next? A method for making link predictions, which is based on Markov chains, has been developed and implemented in order to answer the third question, "where can I go next?". The method utilises information about the path already followed by the user. In addition to link prediction, pages which are semantically similar to the "current" page are automatically identified using an approach which is based on lexical chains. The proposed approach for link prediction using an exponentially-smoothed transition probability matrix incorporating site usage data over a time period was evaluated by comparing with similar approach developed by Sarukkai. The proposed semantic relatedness approach using weighted lexical chains was empirically compared with an earlier approach developed by Green using synset weight vectors. In conclusion, this thesis argues that Web site link prediction and the identification of semantically-related Web pages can be used to overcome disorientation. The approaches proposed are demonstrated to be superior to earlier methods.
3

Generating natural language explanations for entailments in ontologies

Nguyen, Tu January 2013 (has links)
Building an error-free and high-quality ontology in OWL (Web Ontology Language)---the latest standard ontology language endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium---is not an easy task for domain experts, who usually have limited knowledge of OWL and logic. One sign of an erroneous ontology is the occurrence of undesired inferences (or entailments), often caused by interactions among (apparently innocuous) axioms within the ontology. This suggests the need for a tool that allows developers to inspect why such an entailment follows from the ontology in order to debug and repair it. This thesis aims to address the above problem by advancing knowledge and techniques in generating explanations for entailments in OWL ontologies. We build on earlier work on identifying minimal subsets of the ontology from which an entailment can be drawn---known technically as justifications. Our main focus is on planning (at a logical level) an explanation that links a justification (premises) to its entailment (conclusion); we also consider how best to express the explanation in English. Among other innovations, we propose a method for assessing the understandability of explanations, so that the easiest can be selected from a set of alternatives. Our findings make a theoretical contribution to Natural Language Generation and Knowledge Representation. They could also play a practical role in improving the explanation facilities in ontology development tools, considering especially the requirements of users who are not expert in OWL.
4

Extraction and summarization of units of information from web text

Lyons, Seamus January 2008 (has links)
No description available.
5

The attitudes of public library staff to the Internet and evaluations of Internet training

Spacey, Rachel Elizabeth January 2003 (has links)
The aim of this study was to measure the attitudes of public library staff towards the Internet. Opinions of training received by staff for use of the Internet were also recorded and the relationship between attitudes and training was analysed and considered. This was deemed of value at a time when public library staff were about to embark on the largest public library training initiative ever undertaken for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the installation ofPCs with Internet access in every public library as part of the People's Network. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods were utilised including a questionnaire which incorporated an amended version of the Technology Acceptance Model completed by more than 900 public library staff, interviews with managers, focus groups with a cross-section of staff and an online bulletin board. The study found that the attitudes of most public library staffwere positive towards using the Internet at work. Negativity towards the Internet related to discomfort with the cultural changes taking place in public libraries as a result ofiCT. Attitudes were found to have an integral role in relation to public library staff's willingness to use the Internet; in particular, perceptions of usefulness were very influential. Helping the public use the Internet was generally regarded as a positive experience although finding the time to assist library users was difficult. Training, support and assistance for use of the Internet was well rated although a minority of respondents had not received any training. Ratings of the usefulness of Internet training were related to perceptions of the usefulness, ease of use and intention to use the Internet at work. The popularity of self-directed learning denoted the increased potential for online learning in the future. In contrast with findings from the literature review, informal learning methods such as on-the-job and cascade training were well rated by staff for use of the Internet. The findings of this study suggest that seemingly throwaway comments deriding a new innovation or practice in the public library sphere cannot be easily dismissed and may point to deeper concerns about change and lay bare negative attitudes. In addition, staff demonstrating pessimistic and unconstructive remarks appear to be influential. More worryingly, these attitudes may mean that staff will not use a new technology in the way that managers, policy makers and funding bodies envisage.
6

End-user driven development of information systems : revisiting Vickers' notion of 'appreciation'

Cooray, Shavindrie Flavia January 2009 (has links)
This research is concerned with an investigation into the reported failures in information systems programmes and of the underlying cause of these failures. The research revealed that end user participation is an important part of the information systems design process for it is rarely the technology that fails but a failure of the information system to meet the expectations of the end user. Research into the literature indicates that a major problem encountered when attempting end user driven participation is that there is a gap in communication between the end users who are experts in the business domain and the developers who are experts in technology. The literature reveals that the challenge of managing this gap in a user driven manner is still the subject of much research. Many attempts to manage the gap that have been reported can be criticised since they are driven by the technical developer and not the end user despite recognising that it is the end user who will be using the information system on a daily basis. The research reported in this thesis provides an account of a unique use of Vickers' notion of Appreciation coupled with the mnemonic PEArL applied in order to first, enable end users to define their information system in a rich and enhanced manner and second, to provide a pathway for end users to 'navigate' the gap (between end users and developers) in a coherent and traceable manner. The developed approach is then applied to a field study in a leading public library in the UK from which lessons are learnt about the approach itself and about end-user driven development of information systems.
7

Template rule development for information extraction: The net method

Zeranou, Kalliopi January 2008 (has links)
Information Extraction (IE) is becoming increasingly important for the semantic analysis of free-text documents stored in large document repositories, such as the Web. Once free-text is analysed for the recognition of concepts and concept interrelations in events and facts of interest, the resulting structured information becomes a valuable knowledge resource. This resource can be of further use in other information management technologies, such as document summarisation, ontology development, semantic document indexing, question answering, etc., or can be further exploited by data mining and reasoning technologies.
8

Optimised probabilistic data structures for forwarding in information centric networking

Carrea, Laura January 2013 (has links)
In this thesis, a probabilistic approach to the problem of packet forwarding in information centric networks is analysed and further developed. This type of networks are based on information identifiers rather than on the traditional host addresses. The approach is compact forwarding where the Bloom filter is the key method for aggregating forwarding information that allows moving packets at line speed labelled with fiat identifiers. The Bloom filter reduces state at the nodes, simplifies multicast delivery and introduces new trade-offs in the traditional routing and forwarding design space. However) it is a lassy method which produces some potential bandwidth penalties, loops, packet storms, and security issues due to false positives. This thesis focuses on false posit ive control for the probabilistic in-packet forwarding method and proposes two approaches either to reduce false positives or to exploit them in a useful way. One approach consists of a mechanism to carefully select the number of hash functions to use to generate the Bloom filter, The mechanism on average offers the minimum false positive occurrences depending on the traffic along the links. The other approach is a variation of the Bloom filter, the optihash, that can give better performance with respect to the Bloom filter at a cost of slightly more processing. The optihash is constructed with a family of functions that allows an optimisation which can be performed according to different metrics. Two general metrics are proposed in detail and some other, appJicationspeCific, are explored for in-packet forwarding techniques in different types of networks. The time complexity/false positive trade-off is thoroughly investigated and the evaluation of the optihasb as an alternative to the Bloom filter is performed for in-packet compact forwarding.
9

Adaptive domain modelling for information retrieval

Albakour, M-Dyaa January 2012 (has links)
No description available.
10

PowerAqua : open question answering on the semantic web

Lopez, Vanessa January 2011 (has links)
With the rapid growth of semantic information in the Web, the processes of searching and querying These very large amounts of heterogeneous content have become increasingly challenging. This research tackles the problem of supporting users in querying and exploring information across multiple and heterogeneous Semantic Web (SW) sources. A review of literature on ontology-based Question Answering reveals the limitations of existing technology. Our approach is based on providing a natural language Question Answering interface for the SW, PowerAqua. The realization of PowerAqua represents a considerable advance with respect to other systems, which restrict their scope to an ontology-specific or homogeneous fraction of the publicly available SW content. To our knowledge, PowerAqua is the only system that is able to take advantage of the semantic data available on the Web to interpret and answer user queries posed in natural language. In particular, PowerAqua is uniquely able to answer queries by combining and aggregating information, which can be distributed across heterogeneous semantic resources. Here, we provide a complete overview of our work on PowerAqua, including: the research challenges it addresses; its architecture; the techniques we have realised to map queries to semantic data, to integrate partial answers drawn from different semantic resources and to rank alternative answers; and the evaluation studies we have performed, to assess the performance of PowerAqua. We believe our experiences can be extrapolated to a variety of end-user applications that wish to open up to large scale and heterogeneous structured datasets, to be able to exploit effectively what possibly is the greatest wealth of data in the history of Artificial Intelligence.

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