1 
The Study of Inhomogeneous Cosmologies Through Spacetime MatchingsGiang, Dan 03 March 2010 (has links)
Our universe is inherently inhomogeneous yet it is common in the study of cosmology to model our universe after the homogeneous and isotropic FriedmannLemaıtreRobersonWalker (FLRW) model. In this thesis spacetime matchings are applied to investigate more general inhomogeneous cosmologies. The Cheese Slice universe, constructed from matching together FLRW and Kasner regions satisfying the Darmois matching conditions, is used as a prime example of an inhomogeneous cosmology. Some observational consequences of this model are presented. The lookback time verses redshift relation is calculated using a numerical algorithm and it is shown that the relative thickness of the Kasner regions have the greatest impact on anisotropies an observer would see. The number of layers and distribution of layers play a smaller role in this regard. The relative thickness of the Kasner slice should be on the order of one ten thousandth the thickness of the FLRW regions to have the anisotropies fall within the observed CMB limit. The approach to the singularity of a spacetime matching is examined. A criterion is presented for a matched spacetime to be considered Asymptotically Velocity Term Dominated (AVTD). Both sides of the matching must be AVTD and each leaf of the respective foliations mush match as well. It is demonstrated that the open and flat Cheese Slice universe are both AVTD and the singularity is also of AVTD type. The Cheese Slice model is then examined as a braneworld construction. The possibility of a Cheese Slice brane satisfying all the energy conditions is shown. However, the embedding of such a brane into a symmetric bulk is nontrivial. The general embedding of a matched spacetime into a bulk is investigated using a Taylor series approximation of the bulk. It is found that the energymomentum tensor of such a brane cannot have discrete jumps if the embedding does not have a corner. A 3+1+1 decomposition of the bulk spacetime is then carried out. With the spacetime being deconstructed along two preferred timelike hypersurfaces, this becomes a natural environment to discuss the matching of branes. We find that there are conditions on
the matter content of the branes to be matched if an observer on the brane is to see the matching surface as a boundary surface with no additional stress energy. Matching more than two bulks is also examined and shown to allow for more general brane configurations.

2 
Measuring Blood Pressure using Microbubbles and UltrasoundTremblayDarveau, Charles 02 January 2012 (has links)
Gas microbubbles have a high compressibility, which make them very efficient sound scatterers. As another consequence of their high compressibility, microbubbles can be compressed by the pressure of the fluid around them, which affects their scattering properties. Due to recent progress in shelled ultrasound contrast agents and the development of almost monodispersed microbubbles, we believe it could now be possible to measure blood pressure using microbubbles as noninvasive manometers, an idea first suggested more than 30 years ago. In this thesis, both simulations and in vitro experiments will be used to investigate the changes related to the resonance of bubbles and how the concept of bubble size population affects the accuracy of this technique. In particular, it will be shown how shell dynamics dominates the response of microbubbles to blood pressure.

3 
The Study of Inhomogeneous Cosmologies Through Spacetime MatchingsGiang, Dan 03 March 2010 (has links)
Our universe is inherently inhomogeneous yet it is common in the study of cosmology to model our universe after the homogeneous and isotropic FriedmannLemaıtreRobersonWalker (FLRW) model. In this thesis spacetime matchings are applied to investigate more general inhomogeneous cosmologies. The Cheese Slice universe, constructed from matching together FLRW and Kasner regions satisfying the Darmois matching conditions, is used as a prime example of an inhomogeneous cosmology. Some observational consequences of this model are presented. The lookback time verses redshift relation is calculated using a numerical algorithm and it is shown that the relative thickness of the Kasner regions have the greatest impact on anisotropies an observer would see. The number of layers and distribution of layers play a smaller role in this regard. The relative thickness of the Kasner slice should be on the order of one ten thousandth the thickness of the FLRW regions to have the anisotropies fall within the observed CMB limit. The approach to the singularity of a spacetime matching is examined. A criterion is presented for a matched spacetime to be considered Asymptotically Velocity Term Dominated (AVTD). Both sides of the matching must be AVTD and each leaf of the respective foliations mush match as well. It is demonstrated that the open and flat Cheese Slice universe are both AVTD and the singularity is also of AVTD type. The Cheese Slice model is then examined as a braneworld construction. The possibility of a Cheese Slice brane satisfying all the energy conditions is shown. However, the embedding of such a brane into a symmetric bulk is nontrivial. The general embedding of a matched spacetime into a bulk is investigated using a Taylor series approximation of the bulk. It is found that the energymomentum tensor of such a brane cannot have discrete jumps if the embedding does not have a corner. A 3+1+1 decomposition of the bulk spacetime is then carried out. With the spacetime being deconstructed along two preferred timelike hypersurfaces, this becomes a natural environment to discuss the matching of branes. We find that there are conditions on
the matter content of the branes to be matched if an observer on the brane is to see the matching surface as a boundary surface with no additional stress energy. Matching more than two bulks is also examined and shown to allow for more general brane configurations.

4 
Measuring Blood Pressure using Microbubbles and UltrasoundTremblayDarveau, Charles 02 January 2012 (has links)
Gas microbubbles have a high compressibility, which make them very efficient sound scatterers. As another consequence of their high compressibility, microbubbles can be compressed by the pressure of the fluid around them, which affects their scattering properties. Due to recent progress in shelled ultrasound contrast agents and the development of almost monodispersed microbubbles, we believe it could now be possible to measure blood pressure using microbubbles as noninvasive manometers, an idea first suggested more than 30 years ago. In this thesis, both simulations and in vitro experiments will be used to investigate the changes related to the resonance of bubbles and how the concept of bubble size population affects the accuracy of this technique. In particular, it will be shown how shell dynamics dominates the response of microbubbles to blood pressure.

5 
Simulation studies on shape and growth kinetics for fractal aggregates in aerosol and colloidal systemsHeinson, William Raymond January 1900 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy / Physics / Amitabha Chakrabarti / The aim of this work is to explore, using computational techniques that simulate the motion and subsequent aggregation of particles in aerosol and colloidal systems, many common but not well studied systems that form fractal clusters. Primarily the focus is on cluster shape and growth kinetics. The structure of clusters made under diffusion limited clustercluster aggregation (DLCA) is looked at. More specifically, the shape anisotropy is found to have an inverse relationship on the scaling prefactor "k"_"0" and have no effect on the fractal dimension "D"_"f". An analytical model that predicts the shape and fractal dimension of diffusion limited clustercluster aggregates is tested and successfully predicts cluster shape and dimensionality. Growth kinetics of clustercluster aggregation in the free molecular regime where the system starts with ballistic motion and then transitions to diffusive motion as the aggregates grow in size is studied. It is shown that the kinetic exponent will crossover from the ballistic to the diffusional values and the onset of this crossover is predicted by when the nearest neighbor Knudsen number reaches unity. Simulations were carried out for a system in which molten particles coalesce into spheres, then cool till coalescing stops and finally the polydispersed monomers stick at point contacts to form fractal clusters. The kinetic exponent and overall cluster structure for these aggregates was found to be in agreement with DLCA that started with monodispersed monomers. Colloidal aggregation in the presence of shear was studied in detail. Study of a colloidal system characterized a by shortrange attractive potential showed that weak shear enhanced the aggregation process. Strong shear led to fragmentation and subsequent nucleation as cluster growth rebounded after an induction time.

6 
The Microcanonical Density of States and Causal Dynamical TriangulationsThomson, Mitchell 17 February 2011 (has links)
Brown and York's gravitational microcanonical density of states is extended to general spacetime dimension and shown to be dependent upon features of the 4 dimensional gravitational action for its interpretation. Black hole entropy is calculated from the density of states path integral in general spacetime dimension, and the interpretation is shown to be likewise dependent upon the dimension of spacetime. The entropy of de Sitter and Rindler horizons are calculated using the black hole density of states and the notion of local horizon entropy density is shown to be supported. The applicability of the microcanonical ensemble to black hole mechanics is discussed at a fundamental level focussing on the absence of angular velocity as an external parameter in the gravitational Hamiltonian. The rotational ensemble and a new ensemble  the angular momentum ensemble  are introduced following Jaynes' information theory approach to statistical mechanics and proposed as more compelling candidates to calculate black hole entropy as a function of state.
A program to calculate the density of states path integral nonperturbatively using causal dynamical triangulations is initiated. Regge calculus expressions for extrinsic curvature are extended to the case of Lorentzian hypersurfaces and used to derive Regge calculus expressions for quasilocal energymomentum. The Regge version of the black hole density of states action is derived and specialised to the 3d and 4d spacetime constructions of causal dynamical triangulations.
Finally, the recent suggestion that entropy is observer dependent is shown to be incompatible with the Tolman law for the equilibrium temperature in a gravitational field.

7 
A measurement of Z(vv̄)[photon] cross section and limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings at [square root of]s = 7 TeV using CMSShrestha, Shruti January 1900 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy / Department of Physics / Yurii Maravin / In this thesis, the first measurement of Z(vv̄)[photon] cross section in pp collisions at [square root of]s = 7 TeV has been done using data collected by the CMS detector. The measured cross section is 21.3 ± 4.2 (stat.) ± 4.3 (syst.) ± 0.5 (lumi.) fb. This measurement is based on the observations of events with missing transverse energy in excess of 130 GeV and photon in the rapidity range [eta] < 1.44 of transverse momentum in excess of 145 GeV in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb⁻¹. This measured cross section is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 21.9 ± 1.1 fb from BAUR. Further, neutral triple gauge couplings involving Z bosons and photons have been studied. No evidence for the presence of such couplings is observed and is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model. We set the most stringent limits to date on these triple gauge couplings.

8 
Quantum Cryptography: From Theory to PracticeMa, Xiongfeng 26 February 2009 (has links)
Quantum cryptography or quantum key distribution (QKD) applies fundamental laws of quantum physics to guarantee secure communication. The security of quantum cryptography was proven in the last decade. Many security analyses are based on the assumption that QKD system components are idealized. In practice, inevitable device imperfections may compromise security unless these imperfections are well investigated.
A highly attenuated laser pulse which gives a weak coherent state is widely used in QKD experiments. A weak coherent state has multiphoton components, which opens up a security loophole to the sophisticated eavesdropper. With a small adjustment of the hardware, we will prove that the decoy state method can close this loophole and substantially improve the QKD performance. We also propose a few practical decoy state protocols, study statistical fluctuations and perform experimental demonstrations. Moreover, we will apply the methods from entanglement distillation protocols based on twoway classical communication to improve the decoy state QKD performance. Furthermore, we study the decoy state methods for other single photon sources, such as triggering parametric downconversion (PDC) source. Note that our work, decoy state protocol, has attracted a lot of scientific and media interest. The decoy state QKD becomes a standard technique for prepareandmeasure QKD schemes.
Aside from singlephotonbased QKD schemes, there is another type of scheme based on entangled photon sources. A PDC source is commonly used as an entangled photon source. We propose a model and postprocessing scheme for the entanglementbased QKD with a PDC source. Although the model is proposed to study the entanglementbased QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other nonQKD experiments involving a PDC source. By simulating a real PDC experiment, we show that the entanglementbased QKD can achieve longer maximal secure distance than the singlephotonbased QKD schemes.
We propose a timeshift attack that exploits the efficiency mismatch of two single photon detectors in a QKD system. This eavesdropping strategy can be realized by current technology. We will also discuss counter measures against the attack and study the security of a QKD system with efficiency mismatch detectors.

9 
Quantum Cryptography: From Theory to PracticeMa, Xiongfeng 26 February 2009 (has links)
Quantum cryptography or quantum key distribution (QKD) applies fundamental laws of quantum physics to guarantee secure communication. The security of quantum cryptography was proven in the last decade. Many security analyses are based on the assumption that QKD system components are idealized. In practice, inevitable device imperfections may compromise security unless these imperfections are well investigated.
A highly attenuated laser pulse which gives a weak coherent state is widely used in QKD experiments. A weak coherent state has multiphoton components, which opens up a security loophole to the sophisticated eavesdropper. With a small adjustment of the hardware, we will prove that the decoy state method can close this loophole and substantially improve the QKD performance. We also propose a few practical decoy state protocols, study statistical fluctuations and perform experimental demonstrations. Moreover, we will apply the methods from entanglement distillation protocols based on twoway classical communication to improve the decoy state QKD performance. Furthermore, we study the decoy state methods for other single photon sources, such as triggering parametric downconversion (PDC) source. Note that our work, decoy state protocol, has attracted a lot of scientific and media interest. The decoy state QKD becomes a standard technique for prepareandmeasure QKD schemes.
Aside from singlephotonbased QKD schemes, there is another type of scheme based on entangled photon sources. A PDC source is commonly used as an entangled photon source. We propose a model and postprocessing scheme for the entanglementbased QKD with a PDC source. Although the model is proposed to study the entanglementbased QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other nonQKD experiments involving a PDC source. By simulating a real PDC experiment, we show that the entanglementbased QKD can achieve longer maximal secure distance than the singlephotonbased QKD schemes.
We propose a timeshift attack that exploits the efficiency mismatch of two single photon detectors in a QKD system. This eavesdropping strategy can be realized by current technology. We will also discuss counter measures against the attack and study the security of a QKD system with efficiency mismatch detectors.

10 
The Microcanonical Density of States and Causal Dynamical TriangulationsThomson, Mitchell 17 February 2011 (has links)
Brown and York's gravitational microcanonical density of states is extended to general spacetime dimension and shown to be dependent upon features of the 4 dimensional gravitational action for its interpretation. Black hole entropy is calculated from the density of states path integral in general spacetime dimension, and the interpretation is shown to be likewise dependent upon the dimension of spacetime. The entropy of de Sitter and Rindler horizons are calculated using the black hole density of states and the notion of local horizon entropy density is shown to be supported. The applicability of the microcanonical ensemble to black hole mechanics is discussed at a fundamental level focussing on the absence of angular velocity as an external parameter in the gravitational Hamiltonian. The rotational ensemble and a new ensemble  the angular momentum ensemble  are introduced following Jaynes' information theory approach to statistical mechanics and proposed as more compelling candidates to calculate black hole entropy as a function of state.
A program to calculate the density of states path integral nonperturbatively using causal dynamical triangulations is initiated. Regge calculus expressions for extrinsic curvature are extended to the case of Lorentzian hypersurfaces and used to derive Regge calculus expressions for quasilocal energymomentum. The Regge version of the black hole density of states action is derived and specialised to the 3d and 4d spacetime constructions of causal dynamical triangulations.
Finally, the recent suggestion that entropy is observer dependent is shown to be incompatible with the Tolman law for the equilibrium temperature in a gravitational field.

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