Traditionally, studies of popular music have focused on young people and youth cultures. This thesis builds on previous sociological research by exploring the salience, meaning and long-term social uses of popular music for people aged over thirty. The study employs an ethnographic approach to investigate the experiences of 'older' fans in northern and rare soul, rock, and electronic dance music 'scenes'. Methodologically, the research draws on participant observation, face-to-face and electronic interviews with over seventy fans, Web 2.0 data, and secondary sources. The thesis shows that using the internet in qualitative research can produce in-depth and rich data. The study demonstrates that music tastes are typically formed during a person's youth and then remain relatively stable through the life course. A central argument of this thesis is that long-term popular music consumption, and participation in scenes, is best understood as a thread of involvement. The thread of music involvement stresses the fluidity of cultural participation since popular music weaves through the life course with shifting meaning, engagement and experience. Moreover, the research illustrates a number of socia-cultural experiences of older fans such as: the importance of belonging, community, and friendship networks; gaining status and distinction through long-term involvement in popular music scenes; the changing nature of recreational drug-use during adulthood; the role of nostalgia; intergenerational transference of taste in the family; and the gendered nature of popular music consumption, which age adds particular significance to, as older women are often marginalised in popular music scenes. This thesis contributes to previous research by highlighting the significance of popular music for people aged over thirty. Case-studies of older fans of northern and rare soul, rock, and EDM demonstrate that popular music does not necessarily wane in importance as people grow older and that long-term involvement in popular music scenes can be a highly meaningful and salient feature of adult lives. In contrast to existing work, this thesis argues that leisure practices and popular music tastes that began during youth can be extended and re-worked in adulthood.
Guerra, Valeschka Martins
Moral rules are an important aspect of culture. Yet, to date no published scale exists to measure the endorsement of different moral codes. This thesis report the development of the CADS (Community, Autonomy and Divinity Scale), based on Shweder's (2003a; Shweder et aI., 1987) anthropological theory of moral codes, as a means to measure cross-cultural, sub-cultural, and individual differences in the contents of morality. Scale development, confirmatory factor analysis, convergent and discriminant validity are reported in Studies 1, 2, and 3, as well as analysis for structural invariance and meaningful differences across British and Brazilian cultural contexts. Findings suggest the CADS to be a reliable and valid scale, thereby enabling the cross-cultural quantitative study of similarities and differences in endorsement of moral codes. Following CADS' development, this thesis presents one experiment (Study 4) investigating the relationship between moral judgement and emotional reactions, suggesting that emotions act as mediators of the relationship between perceptions of moral code violations and moral judgement. Finally, Study 5 studies the power of the moral codes to predict honour concerns, and Study 6 replicates these findings, and most importantly, tests the CADS in six different cultural communities (Brazil, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, the UK, and the US). The variation of the moral codes endorsement across cultures, here operationally defined as nations, genders, and religious groups, is also investigated. Limitations of this work, as well as its theoretical and empirical implications for research in social psychology are discussed.
Inequality has been described as a 'global pandemic' that agonises poor young people as they struggle to assemble the necessary knowledge, skills and resources for adulthood. Being excluded from the wealth and opportunities others in society enjoy is a challenging experience. This thesis explores such experiences by looking at the almajiri system in Kano State in northern Nigeria. The almajirai are boys and young men who live with an Islamic teacher to study the Qur'an. In the context of attempts to universalise primary education and escalating fears of Muslim militancy they have attracted overwhelmingly negative attention. Informed by ethnographic and participatory fieldwork, this thesis traces young people's trajectories through the 'traditional' Qur'anic education system. A declining rural economy, a public education system in disarray, and frequent family breakups sustain demand for the system despite its waning status. Almajirai and their parents invoke their religious commitment and the educative effects of hardship to explain enrolment. Yet, their experiences threaten to undermine the almajirai's self-justifications. With inequalities on the rise, they acquire aspirations during their sojourns in urban areas that match badly with the ethos underpinning almajiri education. The 'modem' forms of childhood they wish for will likely elude them, and poverty bars many from accessing the 'modem' knowledge (Islamic and secular) necessary today to earn status or a stable livelihood. While tales of alienation and radicalisation lack empirical footing, the almajirai's future prospects are bleak. Extrapolating from how the almajirai engage with their constrained circumstances, I reflect on the forms of agency available to young people who are incorporated into society on adverse terms. I conclude that groups who, like the almajirai, suffer both economic and valuational disadvantage likely pursue strategies with self-defeating or socially corrosive effects. It is therefore imperative to address the structural forces causing their disadvantage
Yateem, A. A.
This thesis is based on twelve months (July 1987-June 1988) fieldwork carried out among the Sharqiyin tribes of South-East Arabia. It is a community study of Wadi Ham (U.A.E.), a community which constitutes part of a whole region known as al-Hajar. The Hajar is a countainous region which embraces several tribes that practise agriculture and pastoralism. The thesis is an ethnographic study of the Sharqiyin tribes of Wadi Ham with specific reference to their social organization and religious belief in general and authority and social control in particular. In practice this thesis sets itself up to examine the relationship between the secular and religious authority, and its role in the process of social control. It is also intended to illuminate the nature of the relationship that exists between the local authority of the tribal periphery and the central authority in the urban centres. Following a discussion on the nature of the problem, together with the relevant ethnography and history of the region, the ecological environment, the pattern of tribal settlements, and the administrative system are discussed. A description and analysis of the economic organization has been provided by focusing on the agricultural regime and the land tenure system. The thesis then turns to examine the principles which underlie both the tribal and social stratification systems. Additional discussion has been provided on the domestic group. Finally, direct emphasis has been placed on Hajari leadership; on the role of its secular and religious authority, of the centre and the periphery, in maintaining social control at the community level. The results of this thesis show, firstly, that in spite of the absence of saintly and holy lineages, religious authority continues to exist and plays its role in Islamic tribal society. Secondly, that, although marginal tribal societies are seen usually as in contradiction with the urban centre or central authority, this is not always the case. For the experience of the Wadi Ham reveals, firstly, that the relationship between the tribal periphery and the centre is a complementary one. Secondly, that there exists a wide field of mutual interests and co-operation between the religious and secular authorities in maintaining order and control in peripheral tribal communities.
Publicly promoted as 'the gift of life', organ donation offers a strong contrast with forms of gift giving familiar to anthropologists, where gift exchange is conducted to create and maintain relational networks. Allowing the removal of one's organs after death, to be transplanted into other bodies for the purpose of enhancing or extending life, is commonly understood, certainly in Britain, as a voluntary and anonymous gesture. It is presumed to entail no thought for any personal benefit and no intention of establishing a relationship with the recipients of one's organs. Implicit within this understanding of organ donation is a model of the Western person as an autonomous and bounded individual, operationalised in anthropology as an analytical tool with which to contrast 'other' economies of personhood. This thesis critically re-assesses public and academic acceptance of the popular image of organ donation, and challenges the anthropological model of the Western person, revealing the partial nature of both. Using ethnographic data from a three year intensive study involving health care professionals, the families of decreased organ donors and the recipients of transplanted organs, a framework is developed within which human organ transactions can be analysed in their entire cycle. A primary focus on attitudes towards the bodies, and body parts, of decreased organ donors reveals an array of shifting subjectivities. The term refers both to the diverse perspectives held by various categories of participants and to the oscillating perspectives of individual participants, the researcher included. Studying how human organs circulate undermines the assumption that agency is (only) autoproductive. Rather less voluntarism is present than popular imagery suggests. Further, a consideration of the relationship within which organs circulate serves to illustrate that the production of self implicates other (non)-selves. What emerges is the notion of connective personhood, whereby donor families and transplant recipients inevitably participate in a self-making social relationship, through sharing the substance of the deceased donor.
Slack, Roger Simon
Chapter one forms the first part of my explication of 'essential' reflexivity. It discusses the marmer in which analysts have sought to 'remedy' the problem of context, and the ways in which indexical utterances have been regarded as problematic by logicians, and latterly by sociological analysts. I argue that 'essential' reflexivity must treat members" utterances as contexted, and not seek to 'remedy' this feature of natural language. Chapter two discusses the marmer in which Garfinkel advocates' essential' reflexivity as a feature of accounts which is uninteresting to members. However, it is important to note that reflexivity is an essential component of accounts and the circumstances they describe. I show how Garfinkel's 'analytic mentality' produces a non-ironic treatment of members sense-making practices within the natural attitude. Chapter three is a treatment of the work of Edward Rose and his ethnoinquiries analytic mentality. It is arguably the first thorough treatment of Rose's 'small languages' project, which is used to illustrate the marmer in which natural language is employed by members as a descriptive resource. Rose's approach is also shown to yield a non-ironic diachronic analysis of the relationship of words to things in the world, and is contrasted with the work of Foucault. Chapter four discusses correspondence and coherence epistemologies in an attempt to show how we may illustrate the epistemological commitments of the two modes of reflexivity that are discussed in the thesis. I argue that 'essential' reflexivity may be regarded as employing a coherence theory wherein accounts are constitutive of the world, while 'stipulative' reflexivity' employs a correspondence theory that may privilege analytic accounts of the world. Chapter five discusses the reflexivities to be found within the sociology of scientific knowledge. It critically assess the 'strong programme', 'discourse analysis' and 'new literary forms' arguing that each arrogates interpretive privilege to the analyst. The chapter ends with a comparison between the 'stipulative' reflexivities and the ethnomethodological study of scientific practice. Chapter six treats the work of those anthropologists who follow Clifford and Marcus (1986). I show how a reflexivity concerned with the text and the production of texts can only be stipulative in that it arrogates interpretive privilege to analysts suggesting that such a treatment may re-contextualise artefacts and accounts. I return to the themes of the first two chapters in my critique of this mode of reflexivity, saying that we must treat accounts in context if they are to remain 'phenomenologically intact'.
Brown, D. W.
The study is concerned with the relationships between the legitimation of the State and the legitimation of the status of the individual in an administrative district of Eastern Liberia. There are three sections. In the first, background data essential to the exposition of the main theme is presented. The history of the District in the period prior to, and following, the establishment of Liberian rule is reviewed (Chapter 2), to show the ways in which the political structure , of the region was conducive to a colonial-style occupation, and to a process of incorporation involving minimum accommodation to existing interests. Present-day economic conditions are reviewed (Chapter 3) to establish the low level of socialization of the relations of production, and the limited extent of the penetration of market forces into the District. It is argued, however, that the District has not remained isolated in other ways from forces emanating from the State, and that incorporation has involved extraction of value on a considerable scale, in the name of the Liberian government. Three types of transfer (taxation, labour and land) are considered, which substantiate this theme (Chapter 4). The following section (Section B) is concerned with the ways in which these relationships of imbalance are stabilized and legitimated. First, the role of administrative employment in the process of incorporation is considered, focussing on the manner in which the allocation of resources, vis-a-vis the redistribution of wealth by the State, appears to be patterned according to a set of 'rules' of political competition (Chapters 5 and 6). These rules both introduce an element of predictability into government affairs, and yet, paradoxically, force the local population to accept a considerable degree of uncertainty in their relations with the government. In Chapter 7, consideration is given to the manner in which influences referred to in preceding chapters foster an idiosyncratic image of 'government' in the District, an image which serves both to extend the sphere of bureaucratic influence into the community and to create legitimacy for the established order, thereby. The two subsequent chapters are concerned, firstly, with the ways in which communitarian sentiments tend to become a focus for a counter-culture which draws upon the tribal - civilized contrast implicit in the dominant ideology of the State, and with the ways in which the politically divisive implications of this tendency are mitigated by forces at the local level (Chapter 8). Secondly, the manner in which Christianity in the District tends to support, rather than challenge, existing political relations is established (Chapter 9). Finally, (Section C), an extended case-study concerning a congressional election and an important political trial which followed this election is examined, to illustrate the ways in which the themes considered in the previous chapters relate to the actual processes of politics at the local level. It is argued that political trials such as the one under consideration function as important ritual events. The necessity for such rituals is related both to factors discussed earlier in the study and to conventional theory of ritual. It is suggested that contradictions exist within the structure of 'rules' fostered by the central government, and that the latter employs ritual techniques to segregate out from this structure those roles and relationships which are, at any one time, conducive to the maintenance of its interests in the hinterland.
Blackness in the absence of blackness : white appropriations of Rap Music and Hip-Hop Culture in Newcastle upon Tyne - explaining a cultural shiftLaidlaw, Andrew January 2011 (has links)
In this study I am concerned to discover how and why local youth in Newcastle upon Tyne are appropriating black culture, in the absence of a local black population to act as a reference guide. In doing so, I provide a new approach to the analysis and interpretation of white identity in a globalised world. Central to this approach is the focus on new ethnicities where the local is fused with the global in order to create identities free of the radical underpinning of whiteness and Englishness. Thus, I argue, these identities are truly hybrid in nature, and can neither be labelled white, or black, as they are in equal parts influenced by Geordie and African-American cultures. I highlight this further by showing that this syncretisation and blending of cultures has been occurring in the North East of England for over forty years. The study is divided into two parts. The first begins with a substantive literature review of critical reflections on white appropriations. I then define hip-hop and rap, trace their origins, and beyond that analyse their antecedents. I also take a critical look at my location of study in terms of its social deprivation and struggle with post-industrialism, and introduce the techniques behind my fieldwork. In the second part I present an extended ethnography. During the course of four separate fieldwork chapters, I consider varying aspects behind these white appropriations, in terms of local sensibilities and cultural affiliations, cultural isolation and long distance black bonding, the denial of race and the need for authenticity, in the context of this specific urban setting. The thesis concludes with a summary of the information gleaned from my fieldwork.
Howell, Francesca Ciancimino
This thesis focuses on the concept of sense of place in relation to five calendrical, place-based festivals in two regions of northern Italy: Lombardy and Piedmont. Drawing from interdisciplinary critical thought, including archaeology, environmental philosophy, ritual studies and perfonnance studies, among others, the thesis examines how place is honoured, experienced and embodied. The thesis reviews critical thought on the interanimation of place and society, demonstrating how the agency of place can emerge in ritualised community celebrations, such as feasting and festival. The fundamental argument put forth is that in heterotopic and polychronic space such as that offered by ritual and festival, a bridge can be created showing profound communication between humanity and place. The symbolic actions and traditions observed and studied here manifest local or regional identity, with specific gastronomic and agricultural customs that offer uncommon perfonnances of place-based traditions in annual community gatherings. Politics, history, identity and foodways are examined through the lens of engagement with place as well as with community. Theories on the agency of place, on temporality and materiality figure centrally in the argument, which illustrates how bonds and communication between place and humanity exhibit a sometimes surprisingly profound relational epistemology in late modem Western society. The analysis springs from both heuristic and henneneutic philosophies of methodology, which maintain a historical, philosophical and ecological perspective. Based upon an extensive examination of the critical literature and the thesis' ethnographic surveys, the Italian festival fieldwork is analysed through the use of an indexed' Scale of Engagement'.
Jepson, A. C.
Cyprus is a place that, particularly over recent months, is beginning to dismantle the scaffolding of political deadlock that has blighted the country for the past thirty years. The Turkish invasion of 1974 happened only thirteen years after Cyprus had gained independence from the British, and so the process of creating itself was abruptly and violently truncated. Life, of course, goes on, and this thesis broadly examines some aspects of that life through one very quotidian aspect of that continuity - gardening. What follows brings the practice of gardening, and gardens as cultural artefacts into the forefront of anthropological consideration. It also uses gardens as a starting point to build on the rich anthropology of Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean. Avoiding the niche that Cyprus inhabits as a political ‘problem’, the analysis acknowledges its liminality by dint of its physical location between three continents, and at least two ‘zones’ of anthropological theorising: namely the Mediterranean and the Arab World. A temptation to regionalise is resisted. Account is taken however, of local essentialising, which was a distinctive feature of the fieldwork. With EU expansion, the question of where Europe begins and ends is as political a preoccupation as it is a preoccupation of anthropological theorising. In one form or another, the discourse around the relationship with Europe has been present in the Greek world for a long time, and persists in Cyprus, and this is a thematic thread that runs through the thesis. Over the past thirty years, the south of the island has vigorously promoted itself as a holiday destination, and the main income for Cypriots is from tourism. The debates around the impact of tourism are examined both through the contests over the ‘environment’ and over what is the ‘authentic’ Cyprus. It is argued that the authentic Cyprus is happening in spite of the heavy use of pathos (bathos) in some political rhetoric that exploits the trauma of the invasion and subsequent events, and the thesis engages with this rhetoric. This authentic, ordinary Cyprus is found, for example, in the intimate gardens that refugees have created; in the abandoned vineyards that surround so many of the villages because of mass migration to the cities; and in gardens created as expressions of self, of status, or of ideology.
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