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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

‘Dai che mi vesto da puttana!’ : cultural representations of prostitution in Italy, 1955-1990

Turno, Michela January 2012 (has links)
This thesis considers the mediation of the symbolic representation of the (female street) prostitute by the media in the second half of the twentieth century in Italy. The reality of ‘being’, ‘acting’ or ‘working’ as a prostitute during this complex period between the Italian economic boom, the emergence of worker, student and feminist movements, and the transformation of the Italian sex trade in the late 1980s, has undergone a series of cultural and strategic misrepresentations. The unexpected emergence of a small, unusually well-organized and self-conscious group of prostitutes opened a critical front: questioning and unsettling established representational narratives on paid sex, and breaking the loud silence of Italian feminism on prostitution. This research provides new insight into what these narratives - produced both by prostitutes themselves and by others – simultaneously reveal and conceal: prostitutes and violence against them, masculinity and gender identities. The historical silence of prostitutes, the gaps and precisely what is omitted from the documents require multiple and simultaneous levels of investigation and interpretation framed within an interdisciplinary approach. History, cultural studies, gender and feminist film studies are brought together, allowing the investigation of a range of sources, such as fiction, feminist writings, autobiographies, films, alongside Government Acts, newspaper articles, oral and archival documents. Most of the chosen texts and films have not been previously studied in any depth; their analysis contributes to identify the cultural strategies used to deal with, defer or ‘resolve’ social anxiety towards, and within, gender and gender relationships. This thesis investigates the relationship between feminism and prostitution and provides an understanding of the way that prostitutes have found a public voice, while it reveals the subversive connotation implied in the act of prostitution as ‘performed’, and thus reinterpreted, by prostitute activists.
2

Voices of the unheard : perceptions of the success of interventions with commercially sexually exploited girls in three countries

Manion, Heather Kathleen January 2006 (has links)
The following qualitative study explored the perceptions of success of interventions for young girls involved in commercial sexual exploitation. It stressed the importance of giving young girls (and their advocates) a chance to express their opinions on intervention strategies affecting them. The study further argued that their voices are crucial to feed into an international discourse on intervention strategies that addresses international aspects of the commercial sex trade. The research focused on three Commonwealth cities: London (United Kingdom), Vancouver (Canada), and Sydney (Australia). Sexual exploitation of children is a pervasive and complex phenomenon. We are now, arguably, more familiar with the extent, process and effects of it. An increase in media awareness and national and international legal frameworks has provided new opportunities to examine the issue locally and globally. Nonetheless, little research has examined the intervention strategies put in place to tackle commercial sexual exploitation and fewer still have looked pan-nationally at the success of those interventions. Primary data collection incorporated interviews and observation with young people and social professionals, police, health workers, and researchers. This thesis also explored the historical, geographic, and soclo-political context of youth prostitution through relevant literature and secondary data and richly depicted youth prostitution and under-resourced services struggling to provide multi-agency collaboration. All too often, overstretched staff within serVicesl acked the resourcest o comprehendf ully or integratet he comple)(Ityo f success or fluidity of macro global issues into their practice. An emerging recommendation from this research was predicated on appreciating the different layers, resulting conflicts and synergies of success of intervention (individual, family/community, regional/national, international). Successful intervention depends on how well success has been defined and agreed by stakeholders (for example young people, practitioners, funders and managers) and an understanding of how those views differ. Since young people involved in prostitution appeared to be becoming harder to reach, the importance of their voice is increasingly paramount and may most effectively and safely be represented by trusted advocates in the different (local and global) forums. The results of this research help to build a case for multi-level dialogue and cross-national collaboration, to address international problems complicating local practice, to better define success, and to share good practice and effective interventions.
3

Beyond gender : an examination of exploitation in sex work

Jenkins, Suzanne January 2009 (has links)
Although there are conflicting perspectives on prostitution in the feminist literature, female prostitutes are usually regarded as victims of gender-specific exploitation, either in the form of sexual domination or socio-economic inequality. Male prostitution has usually been excluded from feminist analyses on the basis that it is thought to be less exploitative than female prostitution. In this thesis, I expand upon feminist theories of gendered exploitation by comparing the experiences of male, female and transgendered escort sex workers. Using a qualitative approach, my research explores whether prostitution is inherently exploitative and what It conditions create and exacerbate sex workers' vulnerability to victimisation, including the influence of current legal approaches to prostitution.
4

Sex slaves and discourse masters : the historical construction of 'trafficking in women'

Doezema, Jo January 2004 (has links)
No description available.
5

An exploration of coping in sex work

Jones, Lisa January 2015 (has links)
This thesis is an exploration of the coping strategies used by women involved in sex work, to manage the different risks inherent in the field. The literature review considers the ways in which women seek to manage a stigmatised identity in order to promote their own psychological wellbeing. The research paper explores the reasons women remain in street based sex work, and, using grounded theory, seeks to understand how psychological and social factors work to both promote resilience and maintain involvement. Finally, the critical appraisal reflects on the methodological approaches necessary to conduct a research project with street-based sex workers, and explores the management of risk in this context.
6

Does prostitution violate human dignity?

Shepherd, Benjamin James January 2015 (has links)
Traditionally, the law has largely ‘understood’ and regulated prostitution on the basis of some form of moral reflection on the sale of sex. Such a reflection is evident in recent policy efforts to criminalise the sale and/or purchase of sex, as outlined in inter alia the so-called ‘Honeyball Report’. The report suggests that prostitution is a violation of human dignity, which leads to a call to action to criminalise the purchase of sex. This study engages with this proposition, and poses the question: ‘Does prostitution violate human dignity? There are three core themes of dignity identified across the literature, in human rights theory and in international human rights law, as well as in Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), grounded in an understanding that human dignity is inherent and inalienable in all persons. As the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and its associated international conventions recognize, this concept of inherent human dignity is the bedrock upon which human rights are founded. Modern conceptualisations of human dignity constructed by US scholars are appraised and three key descriptive elements of dignity; Inherence, Personal Inviolability and Autonomy are drawn together to form a model, called ‘IPA’ dignity. Thereafter, the idea of dignity violation is explored and examined using the jurisprudence of Article 3 ECHR to demonstrate judicial recognition of the idea of violation. This ‘violation’ of dignity as expounded examines various ways in which dignity may be violated. The model is critiqued, and it is established that in order to answer the hypothesis question, a descriptive model of dignity requires some normative framework in order that it be utilised to assess the dignity violation of sex workers in prostitution. The model is considered in a normative usage, according to the natural law theory of John Finnis in Natural Law and Natural Rights, in which Finnis sets out a normative call to action for the promotion of certain objective goods, the collective of which amounts to a life ‘worth pursuing’. To provide a sociological context for the study, the subject of prostitution is introduced as it is understood in the academic discipline of sociology, and relevant literature therein is reviewed around the central issue of what is termed here ‘the prostitution encounter’; that is, the sale/purchase of sexual services. A sociological explanatory model called the Gender and Male Violence Model (GMV) is justified as most appropriate for the study. Narratives taken from the seminal literature in the sociology of prostitution are analysed using a phenomenological method to consider the experiences of the sex worker of the prostitution encounter, and an evaluation is made as to potential modes of dignity violation within the prostitution encounter. This leads to an indication that the human dignity, modelled as IPA dignity and framed with the normative call to action of Finnis which directs that human agents should promote human flourishing and, a fortiori dignity, may be violated. Using these methods, the study concludes by indicating that prostitution may indeed violate human dignity.
7

Meaning(s) in 'sustainable tourism' : a social semiotic approach

Sorokina, Nadezda January 2013 (has links)
It can be argued that ”sustainable tourism” is considered to be a solution for ensuring the industry’s long-term survival. However, the concept of “sustainable tourism” is contested. A key issue is a lack of consensus in how stakeholders define “sustainable tourism”, and this creates communication challenges when different stakeholders discuss the concept. Within the field of sustainable tourism, there is limited literature on the meanings that stakeholder groups attribute to the concept of “sustainable tourism”. This study aims to address this theoretical gap, by exploring the meanings that stakeholders attribute to “sustainable tourism”, and the potential for the creation of shared meanings. This thesis addresses this gap by applying a social semiotic approach to exploring the meanings attributed to “sustainable tourism” by various stakeholder groups. Social semiotics is a theory that studies meanings created in groups, and is applied in this thesis as an analysis of “sustainable tourism” stakeholders’ web-pages. A total of 18 webpages from five stakeholder groups: the Public sector, the Tourism industry, Universities and research centres, the Third sector and Environmental and tourism consultancies, have been analysed for the purpose of this study. The findings of the thesis add value to both theory and practice. The theoretical contribution is twofold. Conceptually, the study has contributed to the theory of “sustainable tourism” by establishing that there is no orderliness in the ways that stakeholders conceptualise “sustainable tourism” meanings. Instead, further fragmentation of values, according to clusters or individual organisations within stakeholder groups, occurs. The meanings identified in this study can be organised into five dualities and tensions, and represent the positions in power relations in “sustainable tourism”. Methodologically, the study has contributed to the body of knowledge by introducing social semiotics into “sustainable tourism” research methodology, and by developing an original and replicable research instrument based on methods of social semiotics. The practical implications of the thesis are twofold as well. The meanings identified in the study can help breach perceptual gap between organisations in different stakeholder groups and clusters, promoting more effective communication, inclusion and participation in “sustainable tourism”. Furthermore, the original research instrument developed for this study can be adopted by practitioners for the analysis of their own webpage for the meanings conveyed.
8

What I do, not who I am? An exploration of the pathways of women involved in sex work

Dodsworth, Jane January 2008 (has links)
This study investigates factors influencing women's involvement in sex work, their experiences, and their perception of their ability to manage roles and identities. The aim was to hear the stories of those involved, focusing on the meaning for women of their childhood and the pathways taken in adult life. Whilst reasons for entry into sex work are well documented, reasons for exiting or continuing, particularly from the perspective of those involved, are less clear. From an examination of the narratives of twenty four women, this study focuses on whether it is possible to identify key factors influencing routes into, out of, and continued involvement in sex work. Qualitative research methods were used as these are particularly suited to uncovering meanings assigned to experiences. In depth interviews were undertaken, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. Data analysis drawing also on developmental theories of attachment and resilience identified themes of continuity and discontinuity, managing and not managing, arising from the sense women made of childhood, adult and sex work experiences. Three different psychological and behavioural strategies were identified, each leading to different pathways through often similar experiences. These differences informed, and were informed by, a sense of identity, of agency and choice about involvement, continued involvement and exiting. The study concludes that although age of first involvement in sex work is an important factor in influencing outcome, so also is the experience of childhood and adult adversity and the sense made of it by those involved. The findings suggest that early damaging experiences, which may increase the likelihood of involvement, also affect the consequent ability to deal with the experience of sex work and simultaneously 'manage' other life experiences. This provides an important perspective for reflecting on the sex work/victim-hood discourses and has relevance for future service provision, suggesting that from policy level down, there is a need to develop the facilitation of the provision of a 'secure base' for those involved in sex work which has meaning for them.
9

Representations of prostitution in modern Irish culture

McGurren, C. January 2014 (has links)
This thesis offers new ways to read the prostitute body in Ireland, by undertaking a feminist examination of the categorisation and censorship of Irish women's sexuality through issues of prostitution. Specifically, it evaluates cultural representations of female sex workers in literature, on screen and online since 1980. This research asks questions about women's agency and the elements of performativity involved in soliciting sex, as well as analysing how the prostitute has become an embodied symbol of modernity in Ireland. By using a feminist cultural studies approach which takes in literature, television, for, radio and the media, and.moves between canonical and non-canonical texts, this project offers an intertextual and interdisciplinary critique of the representation of prostitution in modern Irish culture. Second wave feminism has produced a number of reductive rhetorical claims about the victimised status of sex workers, and this study aims to provide a more nuanced reading of prostitution ill contemporary Ireland. This project works in two ways: the first section involves a consideration of the self-representation and constructed personae of sex workers through memoirs and online forums. Section II examines how the prostitute figure has been reproduced in a range of cultural formats, suggesting modes of embodiment and resistance. I engage with current debates on decriminalisation, nation, and sex trafficking to show that prostitution is a crucial political issue for feminism. This thesis highlights the cultural construction of the prostitute during a period of rapid change in socio-sexual attitudes. The evolving sex industry is at the intersection of old and new Ireland: it highlights issues of cosmopolitanism, migration, racism, and marginality. By drawing together cross-media representations of prostitution in our society, this thesis illustrates the importance of the discourse of prostitution to interrogating the social positioning of women in 21st century Ireland.
10

Not getting away with it : addressing violence against sex workers as hate crime in Merseyside

Campbell, Rosemary January 2016 (has links)
Adopting a participatory approach, this thesis examines Merseyside Police’s treatment of violent and other crimes against sex workers as hate crime - through the lens of what is referred to as the ‘Merseyside hate crime approach’ The first academic study to do so, it describes the development of the approach and explores the key elements which constitute it. It proposes the approach is a banner encompassing a range of policing and partnership initiatives - not just the inclusion of sex workers in the force’s hate crime policy, but including, critically, a wider shift from enforcement to protection-focused policing and improved support for sex worker victims of crime. Based on analysis of data from interviews with 22 sex workers and 39 police officers, it reports support for the approach and the notion that sex workers can be victims of hate crime. It argues that sex workers’ experiences of victimisation fit a number of definitions of hate crime, straddling those foregrounding prejudice and those foregrounding the targeting of ‘perceived vulnerability’. As such they can be included as a hate crime group and there are tangible benefits for inclusion. However, the thesis asserts there is some way to go in fully integrating sex workers into hate crime procedures in Merseyside. It supports the further development of an inclusive model for understanding hate crime which includes non-established hate crime groups and recognises intersectionality. It argues that the hate crime approach to sex work is progressive - within the UK framework of the quasi-criminalisation of sex work, it offers a rights-based approach to addressing violence against sex workers. Nonetheless, it cautions the approach should not be seen as an end it itself in the regulation of sex work, with international research evidence pointing to decriminalisation as a more conducive framework to address crimes against sex workers.

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