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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Productivity estimation of earthmoving operations using a discrete-event simulation model

Smith, Simon D. January 1995 (has links)
The earthmoving industry in the UK is described with reference to the major changes in emphasis over the past few decades. The sites that were chosen for study are described and the method of data collection outlined. A determinate model is developed. This is solved using a spreadsheet and the term match factor, indicating the efficiency of an earthmoving operation, is introduced. The disadvantages of the determinate model are discussed with the main conclusion that the variability in the earthmoving plant's working rates means that the production cannot be calculated accurately by determinate methods. A model is then developed based on the discrete-event models used to evaluate queuing systems. This model was initially tested on a computer spreadsheet but a dedicated program, in C, was later written. Discrete-event simulation requires the generation of random numbers and emphasis is placed on the determination of the probability distributions that accurately represent the real distributions of plant cycle times. A three stage validation process was used which involved both the acceptance from 'experts' of the modelled system (which was obtained both in the UK and the United States) and also the ability of the model to determine accurately the production of observed operations. The simulation model could then, once validated, be used as an experimental platform. Experiments on actual operations have indicated which of the input factors to an operation the output is most sensitive to. They have shown that the correct number of trucks and maximisation of the loader working rate is essential of efficient earthmoving.

The principles governing the dynamics of supply chains

Hosoda, T. January 2005 (has links)
An infinite horizon multi-echelon supply chain inventory problem has been analysed using stochastic analytical methods. A first-order autoregressive demand pattern is assumed and each player adopts the order-up-to (OUT) policy to place orders on its suppliers/production facilities. The results indicate three principles governing the dynamics of the supply chains. They are: " Altruistic Behaviour principle. " Intervention Information Sharing principle. " Time Compression principle. Each principle can significantly contribute to lower inventory related costs and a reduction in the bullwhip effect. The Altruistic Behaviour principle revealed herein shows that a significant amount of benefit comes from the player doing what is the best for the overall supply chain, rather than what is the best for local cost minimisation. This insight suggests that a sequence of optimal policies is not globally optimal. A supply chain integration scheme is presented that exploits this principle. As the ordering process contains complete information of market demand, there are no benefits of the sharing market demand information with upper echelon players. In contrast, sharing intervention event information has the potential to bring a large benefit to the upper echelon players for the reducing inventory costs. This leads to the Intervention Information Sharing principle. Further analysis reveals the Time Compression principle, which is that the level of the supply chain has no impact upon both the bullwhip effect and the variance of the total net stock level. The bullwhip is determined by the accumulated leadtime from the customer and the local replenishment lead-time. The variance of the total net stock level can be expressed as the variance of forecast error over the accumulated replenishment lead-time and is independent from the number of echelons to the end consumer. A new method is presented which enables the complicated analytical expressions of variances (or standard deviations) of net stock levels and orders in a multi-echelon supply chain model to be obtained without a specification of lead-time.

Systems thinking for foresight

Saritas, Ozcan January 2006 (has links)
No description available.

Knowledge acquisition and maritime logistics value : an inter-organisational relationship perspective

Lee, Eon-Seong January 2010 (has links)
Maritime logistics value (i.e. improving operational efficiency and service effectiveness in maritime logistics) is one of the strategic goals that maritime operators (i.e. port operators, shipping lines and freight forwarders) want to achieve. Due to the lack of a systematic approach towards maritime logistics management, however, existing literature has yet to clearly define what strategic direction should be taken to accomplish such goals. This thesis proposes that a knowledge-based strategy is the most desirable alternative, having diagnosed its effectiveness in creating and sustaining maritime logistics value. The thesis consists of theoretical and empirical sections. The theoretical part reviews the work of maritime logistics and operators within the context of global logistics and strategic management theory (especially, knowledge-based and inter-organisational relationship perspectives). The theoretical review clarifies the strategic objective of maritime operators, and highlights the importance of a knowledge management strategy towards such a business goal. Based on the literature review, the research develops a conceptual framework that shows the positive relationship between knowledge acquisition and maritime logistics value, and the role of social network embeddedness in acquiring knowledge. The empirical work undertaken to examine the conceptual relationship adopts a qualitative approach: an explorative case study and a Delphi survey. The explorative case study utilises an interview method with a semi-structured questionnaire, and two rounds of the Delphi survey are then conducted by collecting data from a panel of experts in the field. The two research methods are applied to the maritime logistics industry in Korea, where the strategic significance of maritime logistics value becomes ever more obvious. The empirical findings indicate that maritime operators acquire useful knowledge through being embedded in social co-operative and co-opetitive networks, and the acquired knowledge helps them to maximise the maritime logistics value. The work presented hereafter provides a meaningful insight for managers, policy makers and academic researchers into the knowledge management strategy and effective administration of a maritime logistics system in the context of interorganisational relationship. However, this thesis has not examined the way to apply the acquired knowledge on an internal basis of an organisation, and focuses solely on a qualitative approach. It is suggested that a quantitative and in-depth discussion on the knowledge-based maritime logistics research within an intra-organisational level be made by linking maritime operators’ strategy with macro-issues in global supply chains.

Depth or breadth : towards a contingency model of innovation strategy in the automotive sector

Rosenberg, Mike January 2010 (has links)
The thesis explores the strategic choices made by automotive manufacturers in developing and deploying technology that is discontinuous and potentially disruptive. It studies the deployment of seat belts, airbags, hybrid vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles, drawing on product deployment histories, patents and the opinions of industry experts. The thesis identifies two fundamental strategies called depth and breadth and shows how the different manufacturers’ approach to these four technologies is arrayed along a continuum between these two choices. The thesis contributes to the theory of the technology-based firm which focuses on the management of scale, scope, time and space by making operational the idea of scope with depth and breadth. It also explicitly links the theory to the literature on coevolution and dynamic capabilities and adds to the understanding of the co-evolutionary dynamics at play in the automotive industry by applying the idea of technological pathways to the technologies under study. This discussion yields some potentially interesting insight for practitioners. The thesis also reviews the literature concerning the potential changes to automotive power train technology and adds to it by using the theory of the technology-based firm as well as environmental literature and the non market strategy lens in order to develop a nonbiased view of the state of development of fuel cell and hybrid technology. Finally, the thesis provides a rigorous review of the use of patents in management science over the last 50 years and makes one of the first attempts in the academic literature to study patents using a patent mapping tool to help make sense of the large amounts of data available in line with the new ideas concerning the importance of developing visualisation techniques in data intensive scientific enquiry.

Changing ideas about corporate social responsibility CSR and development in Context : The case of Mauritius

Pillay, Renginee G. January 2009 (has links)
No description available.

The Relationship Between Collaboration Focused On Horizontal Intergration and Innovation within Agri-food SMEs

McCall, Clare January 2009 (has links)
No description available.

Business and sustainable development : An investigation of the drivers and barriers of implmentation and practices within organisations

Schwedler, Moritz von January 2010 (has links)
No description available.

Rehabilitating process and knowledge management through research for sustainable organisational benefits (Bringing the lab to life)

Tsagdis, Dimitrios January 2001 (has links)
No description available.

Sources of data for use in human factors studies in the process industry

Brazier, Andrew January 1996 (has links)
The desire for continuous improvement in safety performance has led the process industry to a situation where the main contribution to accident causation is the actions of people rather than equipment failure. Models of human behaviour and accident causation, and risk assessment techniques aim to improve safety by reducing human error rates. These models require appropriate data and this thesis examines sources of information that could be used to provide accurate data for use in human factors studies. Accident reporting systems are widely used by the process industry to record events resulting in loss. A survey of the systems used by companies has been carried out. This found that some of the information recorded in accident reports was relevant to human factors studies although it was generally limited to details of the behaviour of people "at the sharp end". Little consideration had been given to the actions of people working away from the plant or of the factors that affect human performance. Near miss reporting systems are now used by most companies in the process industry to increase the number of incidents from which they can learn about their safety performance. Most systems lack maturity and at present the provision of data for use in human factors studies is poor. This thesis describes studies carried out to determine the potential of near miss reporting systems to provide appropriate data. It was found that people find it difficult to determine what events and consequences might have happened because there is a lack of evidence. Simple risk assessment based on what people do, the hazards involved and overall unit objectives has been used to provide the required evidence. This has resulted in more effective human factors assessment. Near miss reporting has great potential to provide data for use in human factors studies but it should be considered as a living risk assessment exercise rather than an extension to accident reporting.

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