The influence of women in ancient Egypt : tour guiding curricula and the development of tour guiding competenciesRady, Maged Mohamed Abdelhalim Mohamed January 2008 (has links)
Many tourism writers have described the tour guide as a front-line player in the tourism industry, responsible for the success of tour programmes. Tour guides, their competences and the higher education curricula to develop these competences are the focus of this study. The overall aims of the study are to enhance the tour guiding curricula in universities in Egypt to make Egyptian tour guides more professional and better able to perform the different roles assigned to them. Many tour guides in Egypt under-perform in their diverse roles as a direct result of the training programmes and the curricula designed for these programmes. The study commences with a critical review of literature which identifies the many roles that are performed by tour guides of which a key role is that of cultural brokerage, who mediate between different cultures. The research progressed in three stages. The first stage in the research involved email interviews with tour guiding professors in Egyptian universities about the techniques they use to teach students about interpretation of artifacts, such as scenes depicting women in Ancient Egypt, particularly in relation to cultural brokerage and the extent to which these techniques help to prepare students as prospective tour guides in relation to the key role of cultural broker. Potential Arab and British tourists were invited to comment on their preferred interpretations of the scenes. Women in ancient Egypt were selected as the focus of this part of the study to emphasize the challenges involved for tour guides in interpreting different cultural contexts for tourists. Contrasts were made between women in ancient Egypt, modern-day Egypt and other modern-day cultural contexts and this was considered as an example of how tour guide should perform different roles while interpreting. The second stage of the research involved a study of the European standards for the tour guiding profession and the various approaches adopted in the constituent countries of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) to the design and delivery of tour guiding curricula. The research focused particularly on the Welsh and the Scottish tour guiding contexts because in both the training context for the cherished Blue Badge is a higher education institution, i.e. the situation is most similar to that in Egypt. This stage involved a questionnaire survey of Welsh and Scottish tour guides and interviews with the staff responsible for the design and delivery of the tour guiding curricula. Direct observation of continuing professional development provided by the Welsh Official Tour Guides Association was made and this allowed interaction with Welsh tour guides. The third stage of the research involved a detailed study of the Egyptian tour guide context and involved interviews with the professors of tour guiding departments in Egyptian universities, members of the Egyptian General Tourist Guides Syndicate and members of the Egyptian Travel Agents Association. As a result of this proposals were made for a new Egyptian tour guiding curriculum and these proposals were refined in the light of comments from the Egyptian stakeholders. The proposed curriculum resulted particularly from the analysis of the European standard for the tour guiding profession and the Welsh Blue Badge training programme. The main contribution of this study relates to an enhanced understanding of the different roles of tour guides and how the design of curricula for the tour guiding departments in Egyptian universities can improve the skills and competences of Egyptian tour guides in performing their expected roles, particularly the role of cultural broker.
Backpacker tourism, as a niche market of international tourism, is experiencing on-going signs of massification and commodification, and it is served by entrepreneurs with a variety of business motivations that range from lifestyle-orientation to profit-motivation. Since its beginnings in the 1970s, increasing numbers of former backpackers have turned from consumers to producers of tourist services and resettled into popular destinations - often into so-called 'backpacker enclaves'. In these enclaves, they open small accommodation facilities or other services, but little is known about the development of backpacker supply services. While network analysis has been applied in a variety of academic research areas, in the field of tourism studies, the study of networks has not been applied to backpacker tourism and its service providers. The subject of this research is therefore to shed light on the changing dynamics of social, communication and exchange networks between providers and consumers of services in the context of increasingly commoditised backpacker tourism. In two well-established urban and two rural backpacker destinations in Mexico and Malaysia, in-depth interviews were held with backpacker entrepreneurs. Both countries have a history of backpacker tourism since the 1960s and are located on regional backpacker trails. This research has shown that there the nature of backpacker tourism and its services is a reaction to the changing composition of the backpacker market and regulatory framework. Strategic skills in backpacker services that used to be acquired through strong social networks between hosts and guests have changed to exchange networks between growthoriented service providers and consumers. In Malaysia, as a result of weaker social and stronger exchange networks, the entrepreneurs' knowledge and innovation is now often acquired by means of copying other businesses approaches. In these highly commoditised and concentrated backpacker enclaves, the result is a strong division between producers and consumers, while in dispersed enclaves such as in the urban enclave of San Cristobal de las Casas, where backpackers spend extended amounts oftime and lifestyle, entrepreneurs-run businesses, social networks between producers and consumers of backpacker services continue to thrive. As a result, not only are social networks stronger,
The effect of context on strategic decision-making in public R & D organisations from the space sector: the cases of Mars Observer (MO) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)Silva, Rozane da Fonseca e January 2013 (has links)
This thesis focused on the role of context in influencing SDM in public R&D organisations from the space sector. To address this topic it examined the influences of context on the SDM process, implementation and outcomes of two large space projects developed by NASA, the USA space agency. By adopting a broad view of context and employing a qualitative design within a multi-theoretic perspective, this thesis joined a small group of works which approached this topic in a more integrative and encompassing way. Findings revealed a more complex strategic decision-making reality and role of context than it is usually covered in the majority of studies in the field, reaffirming the need for more of this kind of research in the future . Results confirm the essential role of decision implementation to the understanding of outcomes and show decision specifics as one very significant context variable in terms of influencing SDM and outcomes assessment. A general framework of the influences of context on SDM in the space sector was developed which more closely mirrors the reality of organisational decision-making as experienced by practitioners in the field, drawing particular attention to the temporal dimension of SDM and the dynamic, enacted nature of context. It also acknowledges the role of managers' cognitions and actions in determining the final impact of "non-decisive" context influences on strategic decisions. Overall, findings support the view of SDM as context specific and generally "unprogrammemable". Despite that, this thesis maintains that the understanding of the characteristics and dynamics of the context within which decisions are embedded and of its influences on strategic decisions can help putting expectations in perspective. By doing this, it can also help delimiting the realm within which managers can act in attempts to lead SDM processes to the desired direction and academics can work to try to advise how.
This study examines the history of the porcelain industry in Jingdezhen from the Ming dynasty to the present day, but with special emphasis on the Ming and Qing periods. After a chronological survey of the town's history from earliest times to 1949, various aspects of the production and distribution of porcelain are considered: the raw materials used and their manufacture, transport and marketing, management and labour,finance and overseas trade, and their significance in the industry's development is assessed. Among the problems that are examined throughout the study and in the conclusion are the reasons for the establishment of the industry in Jingdezhen in the first place, its great progress during the Ming dynasty and failure to modernise in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the connections between economic development, state involvement and technological progress
Darlow, M. J.
This report describes the theory of formula-based Line of Balance and the two extrer,e Line of Balance methods which can be used for scheduling housing projects. Of the two compromise methods which are then introduced, the decision rule method is the most im-l~ortant because it enables the schedule to be chosen on economic grounds. A computer llrogram called DARLOD is fully described, and is used to process data for a housing project. This project is used to illustrate the three most important Line of Balance scheduling methods. The unit house network has a great bearing on the fim:l cost of the housing project, on the scheduling method chosen, and on the final schedule. This report therefore shows how the design and construction decisions which determine the network shOUld be made so that a low cost, short duration schedule is obtained. Before scheduling a housing project it is necessary to detennine which scheduling method should be used. This report therefore relates JJine of Iialance to house building in Great Britain, and concludes that full Line of Balance scheduling by the methods described in this report is at present only economic for largc, non-speculative projects consisting of system or industrialized houses.
Ding, Ying Yong
This thesis provides, for the first time, a history of Alex. Cowan & Sons Ltd., one of Scotland's most famous papermaking companies. The firm was family-run for most of the period 1779 until 1965, the year it was taken over by Reed Paper Group, which closed it in 1975. The thesis begins with an outline of the firm's history, after which its various management functions are analysed over time. It reveals that the family influence was crucial in sustaining the firm's performance over a period of almost 200 years, during which the paper industry and paper consumption continued to expand, but in conditions of increasing national and international competition. Family control enabled decision making in the business to take place informally and quickly. The need for capital for expansion after World War Two resulted in the flotation of the company's shares in 1951, but family influence was still considerable until the takeover of 1965. The thesis discloses the very strong effects on the business of the Presbyterian faith held by the Cowan family, especially apparent up until the First World War years. The family's faith also accounts for the firm's excellent treatment of workers and the good facilities provided for them. The firm's early financial systems are innovative, and are carefully developed and efficient at every stage of its history. The firm's 'Protestant Work Ethic' also ensured that capital was reinvested both in the latest technology and in expansion at home and overseas. Sales and marketing was developed early in the firm and highly efficient across its life. The thesis produces a qualitative model of the firm's strategic processes, and sets its takeover and eventual closure in the context of the gradual decline of the British and Scottish papermaking industries, but making it clear that it was, over its life, a highly successful family firm.
The European arms industry as a European security and defence policy actor : a historical materialist view of EU military integrationOikonomou, Iraklis January 2007 (has links)
Since the late 1990s, the EU has become involved in the creation of a European Security and Defence Policy, intended to provide the Union with autonomous military capabilities. While academic interest on ESDP has been abundant, not much light has been shed on the development of its military-industrial aspects. This PhD thesis examines why and how an EU armaments policy came about as part of ESDP. The main argument put forward by the study is that the emergence of EU armaments policy should be viewed as a response to the consolidation and internationalisation of the European arms industry that culminated parallel to the birth of ESDP. The role of the internationalised European arms industry was pivotal in the formulation of the EU armaments policy, allowing for the conceptualisation of the industry as a powerful ESDP policy actor. The density of its interaction with EU institutions is analysed as an instance in the making of an EU politico-military-industrial complex. However, the effectiveness of arms-industrial actorness was mediated by persisting inter-state divergences and the contradictions between the political and the economic forms of the authority of capital.
With an increasing number of fashion retailers and textile manufacturers outsourcing products and extending their global supply base, risk management has gained significance in the textile and clothing supply chain in terms of: increasing flexibility and agility, achieving quick response and sustaining effective relationships with suppliers. However, there is limited research on risk management within this sector and even less empirical research conducted in this sector. This is quite surprising considering the volatile nature of this dynamic sector. Through the application of an in-depth single case study, this thesis explores the strategic role of risk and risk management in Marks and Spencer and examines key risk reducing strategies to sustain competitive advantage. The empirical findings from the case study provide some insightful results, particularly the inter-relationship between risk, design and supply network and their subsequent impact to a firm achieving competitive advantage.
The research presented in this thesis is centred on a study of room rate pricing in the Irish hotel industry which, since the late 1980s, has enjoyed a period of unparalleled expansion and has been an engine of growth for the economy. There has been little research on this aspect of the industry. Overall, the main research objective was to inquire into the way reality is perceived by hoteliers and to find out how they grapple with room pricing decisions. Ontologically, the research views pricing as a social and organisational practice embedded in the contextual setting of each hotel, rather than being a technical tool used to achieve economic rationality, as in more mainstream functionalist / positivist research. Therefore, the interpretivist research methodology and the research methods of qualitative interviewing and case studies were chosen. Two contrasting major case sites provided detailed insights into the practicalities of room pricing. The empirical findings clearly show that the manager is boundedly rational in the face of the inter-connectivity of room pricing with other customer-related and marketing decisions. Room pricing is also time-dependent and subject to uncertainty of market demand. Uncertainty can be reduced to an extent, by controlling price setting and proactive planning by the manager. This can be seen in the formal routines for setting guiding parameters (ceiling rack rate, mid-point budgeted yield and minimum floor price) in advance of the season, rules for discounting, routines to allocate blocks of rooms to bulk business etc., other informal routines and good marketing. However, a balance of uncertain demand remains, which tends to be handled reactively by intuition and luck, as the season unfolds. The findings suggest that room pricing is a function of context, cannot be subject to general rules and is path dependent on a spectrum between floor price and ceiling rack rate. Hoteliers wish to move the room rate along the continuum towards the rack rate, but face conflicting forces at macro and micro levels, yielding trade-offs and extensive complexity. The rational, optimising decision-maker of the Neo-Classical (NCE) model is rejected, due to its ahistorical nature and lack of congruence with empirical reality. A FIVE LEVEL institutional explanation, which connects micro and macro levels, is proposed, using Old Institutional Economic (OIE) and New Institutional Sociology (NIS) concepts. 10
Development of capabilities in Western professional services firms internationalising in fast-growing economiesVilleneuve-Moore, Amelie January 2013 (has links)
This research was inspired by both a practical and a theoretical challenge: how Western professional services firms (PSFs) internationalise into fast-growing economies. The research contributes to theory by proposing a model comprising groups of capabilities, within which different combinations of capabilities, labelled types, develop or change depending on the context and service offering. Eight capabilities and two types have been identified as important to firms internationalising into fast-growing economies. PSFs that deliver standardised offerings appear to perform well when they have Type A properties of the eight capabilities. PSFs that offer idiosyncratic and context-specific services appear to perform well when they have Type B properties of the eight capabilities. Some evidence supporting the concept of dynamic capabilities which renew, regenerate or refresh capabilities has been found. The research addresses a gap in three overlapping theoretical areas: internationalisation, capabilities and the context of professional services firms. This context continues to be important to practitioners as GDP growth in Western countries remains low, relative to the fast-growing economies, thereby presenting the need for firms to grow into these economies in order to survive. Much of the capabilities literature analyses the effects of a given capability, but has focused less on groups of capabilities. Finally the professional services industry is reported to be a leading growth industry, with an important impact on other industries; however it remains relatively under-researched. I have researched nine firms, using a case study approach to derive a theoretical model comprising groups of capabilities identified through the first two projects, which was then refined and examined over different time periods in the final project.
Page generated in 0.0496 seconds