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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Strategic behavior in competitive environments : experiments on markets and public good provision mechanisms

Orzen, Henrik January 2003 (has links)
No description available.

An empirical investigation of the impact of oil price changes in disparate systems : evidence from the UK and Libya

El-Sharif, Idris January 2005 (has links)
The impact of oil price changes on the demand for (and the supply of) the output of the oil and gas industry suggests that increased knowledge about the nature and effect of crude oil price movements is likely to be of interest to most institutions and organisations in the global economy. The importance of the energy sector is evident even in countries as widely divergent in industrial and financial structure as the UK and Libya. The two nations have fundamentally different economic structures: the UK operates a classical free-market, private capital-based system, whereas Libya has a more centrally-planned economy and has for many years been dominated by the productive activity of the oil and gas sector.Despite these differences, each country's financial strength appears to be vulnerable to fluctuations in oil prices; in countries such as the UK, this manifests itself most obviously in the potential impact on the values of shares in oil and gas firms. The sector is one of the largest on the London Stock Exchange, which, as a whole continues to dominate global non-domestic share trading and is critical to the health of the UK's financial services industry. In Libya, the nation's massive dependence on oil export revenues renders the economy especially prone to significant swings in oil prices. However, to date no study has attempted to compare directly the impact of price changes in such disparate environments, and this therefore: (i) investigates the relationship between various risk factors (including oil prices, exchange rates, and interest rates) and oil and gas share returns in the UK; (ii) replicates the same investigation for different sectors to allow the aboye results to be set in context: (iii) examines perceptions of how these risk factors affect the Libyan economy: and (iv)compares the characteristics and the influence of these factors in the UK and Libya at a macro-economic level.The results of parts (i) and (ii) of the empirical analysis suggest that oil price movements have a significant impact on UK-listed oil and gas firms, and that the finding is unique to that sector. This evidence, allied to that of previous studies in other parts of the world, suggests that the finding of a strong empirical link between oil prices and share values in the oil and gas sector is robust across time and national borders. The main finding from part (iii), reflecting a detailed interview survey in Libya, suggests that the state of the Libyan macro- and micro-economy is highly dependent on the oil price; the interviews also reveal a degree of concern about Libya's long-term ability to develop into a multi-industry economic system. The analysis of the impact of oil pricing volatility on macro-economic health indicates that, as predicted by the interviewees, the impact of price changes on the Libyan national economy is highly significant, whereas no significant relationship exists between oil price alterations and the state of the UK economy. Overall however, and despite the very different economic structures existing in the UK and Libya, oil price movements are is shown in the thesis to have impacts on the two countries that are fundamentally different in nature, but potentially highly significant in each case.

Growth expectations and asset prices in production economies and labor market matching models

Kaltenbrunner, Georg January 2007 (has links)
No description available.

Examination, extension and creation of methods for pricing options with early exercise features

Widdicks, Martin January 2002 (has links)
No description available.

Competitive behaviour-based price discrimination

Esteves, Rosa Branca January 2005 (has links)
Advances in information technologies have increasingly enabled firms to use consumers' past purchasing data to charge different prices to its own customers and to those customers that in some sense belong to the rival firm. At first glance this new form of price discrimination seems to be lucrative as it allows a firm to generate profitable incremental sales without damaging profits it can extract from its own customer base. However, as behaviour-based price discrimination gains popularity many interesting questions arise. Is it, really, in the best interest of firms to recognise customers with different past behaviour and to price discriminate accordingly? Or is it rather in their interest to avoid any possible learning and thereby price discrimination practices? Should consumers hide their true types, i.e., should they behave anonymously? Further, should government regulation restrict information collection and price discrimination practices? The study of these questions is the study of the profit and welfare effects of behaviourbased price discrimination. This is the central issue of this thesis. With that in mind, this thesis addresses three theoretical models. The first one is based on the hypothesis that the ability of firms to predict the preferences of individual customers for the purpose of price discrimination is less than perfect but is constantly improving due to advances in information technologies. Here the main goal will be to investigate how profits, consumer surplus and welfare evolve as price discrimination is based on more accurate information. The second model is a natural sequel of the former as it tries to model how firms might obtain a signal of a consumer's preferences. Whether or not a given consumer bought from the firm previously might be used as an accurate signal of a consumer's preferences. A key issue here will be to examine whether or not it is in the interest of firms to avoid learning and price discrimination and how can they attain that goal. Finally, the third model studies the interaction between purely informative advertising and price discrimination based on customers' past behaviour. As without advertising consumers are left out of the market, the welfare effects of price discrimination are guided by how will price discrimination affect each firm's advertising decisions in relation to the social optimal level of advertising.

On the existence and structure of equilibrium in price-setting games

Routledge, Robert Richard January 2011 (has links)
In this work the problematic issue of price determination in economic theory is re-examined. In the first chapter a state-of-the-art survey regarding the existence of equilibrium and the structure of the equilibrium set in price-setting games is provided. In chapter two a new core concept, the Bertrand core, is introduced and characterized. In chapter three a revealed preference perspective upon the Nash equilibria in price-setting games is provided. In chapter four, the issue of Bayesian equilibrium existence is addressed when traders have incomplete information regarding each others' types. Finally, a summary of possible future avenues for research in this area is provided.

The social construction of the meanings of price

Sparke, Sarah C. January 2013 (has links)
The activity of translating something into a monetary amount – the price - is central to markets. Yet we know remarkably little about the practice of pricing beyond theories of economic rationale or market positioning and, as a construct, price has remained largely within the economists’ domain. This research pushes for and contributes towards the need for more substantive studies of pricing. With particular emphasis on money-meanings, this research applies prior socio-economic research in an examination of discourses of the pricing process in order to better understand pricing as a social and meaning-full activity. In its focus on pricers this research contributes to the call for more studies of supply-side meaning-making within markets, and addresses the consumer-focussed imbalance in previously published price research

Analysis of price indices of electrical appliances in South Africa

Maluleke, Happy January 2014 (has links)
Thesis (M. Sc. (Statistics)) --University of Limpopo, 2014 / analysis of price indices of electrical appliances in South Africa is performed using monthly data from Statistics South Africa for the period January 1998 to December 2010, with 2005 as a base year. Time series analysis (exponential smoothing and ARIMA) and neural networks are employed in developing forecasting models. The results for single, double and triple exponential smoothing are compared and triple exponential smoothing is found to be the best model amongst the three to forecast the electrical price indices in South Africa. ARCH models were also employed for the variable that failed to pass the requirements from ARIMA. Comparing neural networks, ARIMA and triple exponential smoothing results, neural networks is found to be the best model for forecasting price indices of electrical appliances. Regression analysis was then applied to the lighting equipment variable to check for a monthly effect after its plot depicted some seasonality pattern. Only the month of February did not have an impact or an effect on time since it was found not to be significantly different from zero. Multivariate time series is also applied in checking the correlation between the variables. Keywords: Time series analysis, ARIMA, ARCH, multiple linear regression, exponential smoothing, neural networks, electrical price indices.

Price dispersion and consumer search : Evidence from the retail gasoline market and the supermarket industry in France / Recherche des consommateurs et dispersion des prix : analyses du marché des carburants et de la grande distribution en France

Chamayou, Etienne 21 September 2017 (has links)
Cette thèse est un travail empirique sur la dispersion des prix, c'est-à-dire le fait qu'un bien identique puisse être vendu à des prix différents, en violation de la célèbre loi du prix unique. L'approche s'inscrit dans une littérature initiée par Stigler (1961), qui note que "la dispersion des prix est (...) la mesure de l'ignorance dans le marché". Il en découle que de simples observations de prix peuvent révéler beaucoup d'information sur le fonctionnement d'un marché.Le premier chapitre étudie l'impact de la création d'une enseigne à bas prix sur le marché français de la distribution de carburant. Cette création implique que de nombreuses stations sont confrontées à une baisse de prix importante d'un proche concurrent. La réaction agrégée mesurée au niveau national est faible, mais masque des hausses et des baisses en proportions équivalentes. L'hétérogénéité des réactions souligne l'importante segmentation du marché. Le second chapitre, utilisant le même jeu de de données, examine la pertinence de modèles qui identifient la dispersion des prix à des équilibres en stratégies mixtes. Empiriquement, on observe que l'ordre des prix des stations concurrentes tend en effet à varier dans le temps, et que sa volatilité croit lorsque la distance qui sépare les points de vente augmente. La dispersion est donc croissante d'un coût recherche supporté par les consommateurs. Par ailleurs, l'enseigne des stations détermine largement leur stratégie de prix. Les stations qui pratiquent les prix les plus bas sont relativement plus susceptibles de maintenir des prix parfaitement alignés sur ceux des proches concurrents, tandis que la dispersion mesurée entre les stations plus onéreuses est corrélée positivement avec le coût du diesel et le nombre de stations présentes sur le marché. Ainsi, les résultats renforcent la thèse de la coexistence d'un marché proche d'une concurrence à la Bertrand avec un marché moins concurrentiel, où des stations tirent parti de frictions importantes.Le dernier chapitre s'intéresse à la grande distribution, s'appuyant sur des données collectées sur un comparateur de prix en ligne. J'observe que les comparaisons réalisées entre chaînes de magasins par le site sont relativement peu informatives compte tenu de l'hétérogénéité des résultats au niveau local. L'échantillon de produits retenu peut en outre conduire à des résultats largement différents. La volatilité des comparaisons augmente avec la distance séparant les supermarchés, ce qui, comme dans le cas du carburant, dénote la présence de coûts de recherche. A l'échelle locale, le niveau des prix ne croit pas avec la concentration approximée par les parts de marché, ce qui conduit à remettre en question la pertinence de cet indicateur en matière de politique publique. La dispersion est positivement corrélée au niveau des prix, ce qui suggère que l'imperfection de l'information permet effectivement aux supermarchés de pratiquer des prix plus élevés qu'en concurrence parfaite. / This thesis is an empirical study of price dispersion, namely the fact that a homogenous good can typically be purchased at various prices, in violation of the famous law of one price. The approach belongs to a literature initiated by Stigler (1961), which notes that “price dispersion is (...) the measure of ignorance in the market”. A noteworthy consequence is that simple price observations can be very informative about competition in a market.The first chapter analyses the impact of the creation of a discount chain on the French retail gasoline market. This creation implies that many gas stations are confronted with a sharp price decrease by a competitor. The aggregate reaction, measured at the national level, is weak but it conceals increases and decreases in equivalent proportions The heterogeneity of measured reactions highlights an important market segmentation. Using the same data, the second chapter explores the relevance of models which identify price dispersion with an equilibrium in mixed strategies. Empirically, the rank of competing gas stations is indeed observed to vary over time, and its volatility is positively correlated with the distance that separates the outlets. Dispersion thus increases with a search cost incurred by customers. The chain affiliation of gas stations largely determines their pricing strategies. Retailers which have low price policies are more likely than others to keep prices aligned with nearby competitors, while dispersion measured between more expensive gas stations is positively correlated with diesel cost and the number of sellers in the market. Results thus provide further support the coexistence of a market close to Bertrand competition with a less competitive market, where gas stations take advantage of significant frictions.The last chapter focuses on grocery stores, using data collected from an online price comparison website. Aggregate national chain comparisons that are displayed on the website are found to provide information of little value to consumers given the heterogeneity observed within store level comparison results. These can furthermore vary significantly depending on the set of compared products. Volatility tends to increase with the distance that separates supermarkets, which, as in the case of gasoline, suggests that search cost influence competition. Within local markets, the measured concentration is negatively correlated with price levels, which leads to question its effective relevance in terms of public policies. Price dispersion is found to increase with market price levels, which is consistent with sellers taking advantage of consumer search costs to post higher prices.

Abusive pricing policy for emerging economies : the case of excessive pricing and price predation in Latin America

Marquez, Carlos Pablo January 2012 (has links)
For several years, the literature has discussed whether a country’s particular economic circumstances should be taken into account in competition law and policy design. This thesis discusses whether economic growth should be considered as the guiding principle for Latin American Emerging Economies’ competition law and policy design. It specifically explains why having economic growth as competition policy’s guiding principle makes a difference in choosing superior rules and standards, among the large range of efficient rules. In order to explain how economic growth as a guiding principle has an impact on competition policy design, this thesis studies whether the analysis and application of the prohibitions and standards of abuse of dominance in emerging Latin American economies are appropriate, and why, having regard to economic growth, a different approach might be justified. To engage in the study of such questions this thesis centres on the regulation of dominance and the law governing abuse of dominance, in particular on predatory pricing and excessive pricing. After a careful analysis of such institutions, an optimal rule for the regulation of pricing abuses in these emerging economies is proposed. Similarly, having regard to economic growth as the policy’s guiding principle, the mainstream standards on excessive pricing and price predation are evaluated and a different approach is found to be justified. It is concluded that economic growth should be the principle guiding Latin American emerging economies’ competition law and policy design and it is demonstrated that this will grant these economies policy soundness and identity.

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