The Trafficking of Nepalese women to various parts of India for sexual purposes has a long history and is an extremely sensitive issue. Despite the focus by non governmental organisations and various plans being formulated by the Nepalese government to ameliorate the problem of trafficking of women, the situation of returnee trafficked women is largely unknown. Analysis of the lived experiences of Nepalese trafficked women shows that trafficking is linked with gender, migration, poverty, work, sex, money, power and violence. Women may be able to escape trafficking physically; however legal and social labelling of women continues to affect all aspects of their lives. These labels are linked with the women’s perceived sexuality and build on sexual trauma and violence the women encounter in trafficking. After leaving trafficking settings these processes of social labelling often negatively characterise women as ‘bad women’, as morally and socially degraded and/or as a criminals responsible for HIV/AIDS transmission. Trafficked women are eventually blamed for bringing ‘shame’ to their families and society at large. These consequences are not desirable, but are imposed by Nepalese society, and contribute to various forms of samajik bahiskar (social rejection) enforced on women on their return disqualifying them from achieving the formal citizenship that they are entitled to. This samajik bahiskar sets trafficked women apart from other women and prevents them taking part in religious ceremonies within the family and communities; setting up businesses and cooperatives; accessing services and resources for example health, education, daily wages and legal assistance, and receiving skills training. This study examines the processes and consequences of samajik bahiskar experienced by trafficked women in Nepal and how these processes interact with the socio-cultural context of Nepal from the perspectives of trafficked women who have returned from various trafficking settings in Nepal and India. This study also explores the contexts in which women are stigmatised, labels are attributed to them, samajik bahiskar is constructed, the consequences are experienced and tactics and strategies employed by trafficked to resist samajik bahiskar in the cultural context that women have returned to.
Men with learning disabilities who sexually offend and staff attributions about sexually abusive behaviourYates, Caroline January 1995 (has links)
This study was to designed, in two parts, to investigate: 1. Whether the attributions about sexually abusive behaviour, made by staff in learning disabilities services, differed according to whether or not the perpetrator had a learning disability, and if these attributions served to hinder the identification, acknowledgement and reporting of sexually abusive behaviour performed by men with learning disabilities. 2. The number of clients referred to therapists in learning disabilities services, over a two year period, for sexually abusive behaviour, client and offence characteristics, and the referral process. Information was sought regarding therapists' perceived reasons for delayed referrals, and the impact this had on ease of treatment. A questionnaire employing vignettes was constructed to measure staff attributions, about offenders and their behaviour, on dimensions of impulsivity, level of understanding, sexual motivation, and the extent to which behaviour was influenced by the victim, and other personal and external factors. Results of the questionnaire were analysed using ANOVA. Significant differences in staff responses were found on all measures. Results suggest that peoples' perceptions of the perpetrator with a learning disability are less likely to invoke attributions of responsibility and blame and thus may serve to hinder the identification, acknowledgement and reporting of abusive behaviour. The results of the survey of therapists indicate that clients referred for sexually abusive behaviours share similar offence characteristics with offenders in the general population in terms of the range of behaviours exhibited, and multiple offending. These results also show that most referrals to therapists are delayed, and that the delay is . perceived to be due to staff not considering the behaviour to be 'primarily sexual' in nature, and 'excusing' the behaviour because of the individual's learning disability or 'other' personal characteristics. Links between the two parts of the study are drawn and these and other findings are discussed in relation to practice and implications for future research.
Working at the margins of abstraction : understanding child neglect in general practice : a mixed methods studyMullin, Anne January 2012 (has links)
Child neglect as a form of child maltreatment has no standard definition nor is it associated with any particular research methodology. This study explores the impact of understanding child neglect in general practice with an initial study aim to address a research gap, that is, knowledge of a subject that is not formally taught and given scant attention in contemporary general practice. In doing so I looked beyond the boundaries of the profession and the immediate reception of constituted knowledge towards child neglect's social context and its historical aspects. Reading around the texts of child neglect, the research direction began to embrace the principles of a mixed methodology. This enabled an exploration of child neglect meaning from a number of perspectives in order to build a bigger picture of this complex abstract entity. Mixed methods research has been increasingly used in health but is infrequently employed in the context of general practice. A dialectic stance within m ixed methods in this study was developed as the positivist findings of a structured questionnaire were integrated with strongly interpretive in depth interviews with GPs, focus group work and historical textual analysis inspired by a Habermasian framework. Habermas's treatise of communicative action and knowledge interests provide the philosophical background to justify the methodology employed within this thesis. As a real world evaluation of an abstract concept this study addresses three research questions regarding mechanisms of knowledge acquisition, consensus and disagreement of child neglect in general practice and its situated meaning within its socio-historical context and relevance to contemporary general practice. All are considered within a mixed methodology that is generative of unique findings over and above single methods in a "spiralling manner" (Greene, 2008) which would not have been possible with single methods alone. This creates new and synergis within the methodology through conceptualisation, data integration and research dialogue, but is dependent on simultaneous processes of "methodological" and "conceptual integration" (Day, Sammons & Gu, 2008). Findings suggest that looking beyond the limits of normative assumptions of child neglect meaning is vital if we are to move forward in a holistic approach to ameliorate the effects of neglect and the practical requirements of accomplishing such a task. This is a suitable theoretical concern where child neglect appears to be discursively constructed today as stable ideological notions that are paralleled in historical texts of child neglect. This represents a process where neglected children have been regarded as a separate class who are consistently viewed through the lens of poverty and parental addictions. These continue to shape society's understanding of it today, because there remain unresolved tensions in the explanation of child neglect to establishing its multifaceted dime nsions alongside a simultaneous reduction of meaning. Parton (2009) describes this dilemma as the "social" being "overshadowed" by the requirements of an increasingly technological "informational" child protection system. However, the research conclusions are drawn from a single study of one real-world evaluation of a complex phenomenon, but its findings of convergence and divergence within the discipline of mixed methods would suggest that more scholarship is required to explore the issues raised within this thesis.
McGurk, Barry J.
In an attempt to explain why some mild mannered individuals commit extremely assaultive offences, Megargee (1966) has suggested that two personality types exist among extremely assaultive offenders, the undercontrolled who lack inhibitions against the expression of aggression and the overcontrolled who possess excessive inhibitions against such behaviour. Moderately assaultive offenders, however, are more likely to be composed soley of undercontrolled personalities according to Megargee's Theory of Control. The current study began by carrying out a cluster analysis of MMPI profiles of individuals convicted of homicide. Profile types remarkably similar to those obtained by Blackburn (l97l) from 'abnormal' homicides at Broadmoor were obtained which appeared to represent two broad categories of overcontrolled and undercontrolled individuals. A second cluster analysis of MMPI profiles from a random group of predominantly non-violent prisoners revealed, however, similar types. The results of a cluster analysis of WI profiles of non-criminals also challenged Megargee's theory as a profile type was produced which was similar to that found amongst extremely assaultive offenders, and which had previously been described as overcontrolled. The suggestion was made that 'controlled' was a more appropriate term than 'overcontrolled' and the validity of a controlled-undercontrolled typology was examined by contrasting controlled and undercontrolled homicides on a variety of background, intellectual, behavioural and attitudinal variables. In general support was found for the typology, particularly on prison oriented behavioural measures. The implications of the findings for the control and treatment of controlled and undercontrolled prisoners were discussed and a short MMPI scale which discriminated between these groups was developed, and tentatively named the Undercontrolled Personality Scale.
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical analysis of current trafficking prevention measures by combining a theoretical emphasis on human rights with an empirical, lived-experience research approach. Empirical evidence is used to illuminate the relevance, appropriateness and potential power of the human rights based approach to trafficking prevention. I start with the fact that existing literature places trafficking within the migration, criminal justice, and women's rights discourse. There are also several attempts to place trafficking within a wider human rights debate but this approach has not been fully explored, especially within the prevention framework. My premise is that a human rights framework, based on principles or social justice and cosmopolitanism, which is agency driven rather then victim centred provides an ideal platform for preventing trafficking in human beings. The research provides <l comprehensive analysis of the different types of prevention measures currently in practice (based mainly on political ideology), followed by an analysis of how these ore perceived by Moldovan migrants who have travelled abroad in search or employment within the timeframe 200()-20 1 O. It looks into a number of policy areas around trafficking which are linked to migration, women's rights and prostitution, organised crime, human rights and social justice, examines responses from on the ground organisations doing preventative work, and juxtaposes them to the migrant life stories. The theoretical framework of the thesis is intertwined throughout with empirical evidence to outline the most important concepts used in the research. The main finding of the study is that current trafficking prevention measures do not go far enough in addressing root causes of world inequalities and discrimination such as unfair distribution of resources, the legacy of the slave trade and colonisation, and the North-South divide. This could however be achieved by incorporating a pro-active social justice approach which prioritises and pluralises rights and makes it the responsibility of multiple actors (not just the state or the civil society) to ensure the delivery of these rights.
No description available.
Genocide is the most devastating form of state violence. Yet, the prevalence of genocide is not reflected in our understanding of its causes: Key questions such as the relationship between governments and citizens, the effect of civil war on genocide occurrence, the incentives for the escalation of state violence, or the causes of selective violence remain largely unexplored. This dissertation aims to answer these questions and to advance our understanding of the determinants of state violence in general, and genocide in particular. Using comprehensive data on state violence, I analyse how political opportunity structures and actors char- acteristics pose incentives for governments to escalate violence. This dissertation consists of three core chapters. The first chapter of my dissertation examines the escalation of state-led violence. It focuses on the political opportunity structures and the types of dissident groups that oppose the government. Drawing on a sample of countries with records of physical repression, the study finds that state violence spirals into genocide and mass killings when the government confronts violent dissent in situations of civil war. The second chapter offers a cross-national study of the conditions under which civil war fosters genocide. It examines the characteristics of the rebel groups and their association with the civilian popula- tion. Analysing cases of civil war, it shows that governments resor~_ to genocide during periods of intense armed dispute when rebels have close ties to the civilian population. Finally, the third chapter offers the first systematic analysis of the variation in the timing and severity of genocide. Considering cases of genocide in civil war, this study finds that goveruments resort to genocide at different conflict stages in relation to the source of the dispute, the rebel groups' strength, and their civilian support base. The study also finds that genocide severity is affected by the government's perception of threat and the size of the excluded population. Overall, the three studies 011 which this thesis is based significantly improve our understanding of the determinants of state violence and its escalation. The disser- tation greatly contributes to scholarly research on political violence and suggests several promising directions for future research.
This thesis critically examines how the organ trade fits into the anti-trafficking framework, its link to organised crime and the wider political economy. The organ trade involves diverse actors and consists of various practices, including organ trafficking, transplant tourism, organ sales and organ harvesting. Nevertheless, the organ trade is predominantly defined in terms of organ trafficking and discursively framed as a law enforcement issue. Although organ trafficking is considered a major international concern, it is not representative of the phenomenon as a whole. Evidence based research, including empirical work carried out by the author, indicates that the organ trade is better characterised by organ sales and transplant tourism. The majority of individuals who are compelled to sell an organ, for various reasons, do not conform to the elements of trafficking outlined in anti-trafficking legislation, broadly defined under Art 3(a) of the United Nations (2000) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons. This means that as a consequence of a worldwide prohibition of organ sales, organ sellers are more likely to be prosecuted for committing a criminal offence than recognised and/or assisted as trafficked victims. The core aim of this thesis is to provide a critique of the anti-trafficking framework, explicating the theoretical and practical implications of the prevailing law enforcement model, in response to the organ trade. I argue that co-opting the organ trade into the meta-narrative of human trafficking suspends a wider critique of the phenomenon, linking the emergence of a global market in organs to broader socio-economic conditions and inequalities. Further, I argue that the organ trade is not a direct consequence of a global shortage of organ supplies; rather, it is causally related to the transfer of transplant capabilities to the global South. The rhetorical positioning of the organ trade as an object of law enforcement diverts critical attention away from the transplant industry and the
Women making meaning of their desistance from offending : an interpretative phenomenological analysisGomm, Rebecca Maria January 2016 (has links)
It is recognised that women who have offended comprise a vulnerable group having commonly experienced trauma and abuse. However, the dominant risk paradigm and assessment tools used within the Criminal Justice System have excluded women offenders in the research base. Similarly, current approaches to desistance, which is concerned with the cessation of offending, have neglected the perspective of women offenders. This study explores an alternative approach, based upon women offenders perspectives, to inform upon intervention and support which encourages desistance from offending. Resilience theory provides a broad framework for the study, in which in depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 15 ethnically diverse women drawn from probation services and third sector agencies. Documentary records which included offence history and Probation assessment records were utilised to provide a rich context to the research. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore the women’s experiences and understandings of their offending behaviour, as well as how they found meaning in the support and interventions received from these services. Findings revealed complex histories of childhood neglect and abuse, interpersonal violence in adult relationships, including rape and mental health needs. Of particular importance was the value placed by the women on interventions and approaches that focussed on enabling them to build resilience, through relational resources and self-efficacy beliefs. Barriers to building resilience were related to adaptive behaviours, including the understanding that trust in relationships was paradoxical. Another barrier was posed through lack of self-efficacy beliefs. The study concludes that desistance from offending is underpinned by the process of building resilience for recovery in women offenders. It is recommended that building resilience to support the recovery journey is translated into policy and practice and that the way in which women offenders are assessed based on risk to the public is reconceptualised to inform this.
Hong Kong is a highly developed, neoliberal and post-British-colonial region. It has a history of being a trafficking hub for both opium and humans, which includes the enslavement of girls and women for sexual exploitation. The aim of this thesis is to use a Feminist, Bourdieusian framework to explore the local environment, the experiences of women selling sex, and the relationship between the two, in order to explain the persistence of control of women by third parties in the sale of sex in Hong Kong. The research can be described as pragmatic, utilising a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach to answer the research questions, within the aforementioned framework. This approach includes the life ‘herstories’ of eight women who are legal residents of Hong Kong and involved in the sale of sex, in order to allow for deeper exploration of their feelings and experiences; expert interviews with five community workers from different NGOs to share their knowledge from the ground; participant observation from volunteering with a civil society group and living in Hong Kong to explore the local environment; qualitative content analysis of six Hong Kong newspapers; and a survey with 189 respondents on social attitudes. Findings suggest that control persists, and it does so because the political and business elite are maximising their interests, via inaction, in terms of structural challenges and symbolic violence against women. This suggests that symbolic struggle and collective action are needed to change social attitudes and press the government of the Hong Kong SAR for social and political change.
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