This autobiographically-derived, and narratively-voiced, thesis is one teacher's story. From the story a spiritualizing model of education is argued, toward making a paradigm shift. The suggested shift involves placing 'technical' learning within the context of being and becoming fully, and positively, human. Teaching then becomes a matter of enabling development of the individual's Caring, Creative and Critical abilities, developed within the Community (the 4Cs), inspired by the light of higher-order values - the remainder being processes and content. The thesis makes an original contribution to educational knowledge through the educational life-story, and through making explicit a model out of that life-experience. The suggested model of spiritualizing pedagogy, called SunWALK, therefore is grounded in accounts of the writer's major educational life-events. In particular it presents epiphanous encounters undergone in meeting three 'discourse-communities': the Baha'i Faith, the teaching of English, and Philosophy for Children. These are seen as providing the three intrapersonal 'voices' of human engagement, Caring, Creativity and Criticality, which correspondingly have three ways of knowing: the 'social-others-centred', the 'subjective-creative-mystical' and the 'objective-reasoning-scientific'. A fourth discourse-community, that of holistic education, is the educational subdomain to situate the thesis. A conceptual framework for the model is outlined, using concepts gleaned from the four discourse-communities. A view of 'the Whole', and of heart-knowing, is presented, to counter-balance the conceptual. Heartknowing, the 'subjective-creative-mystical', is seen as an innate, intuitive way of knowing, c.t. the methods of the 'objective-reasoning-scientific'. The third form, i.e. social knowing, is seen as deriving from the cultural interpersonal matrix of family and community relationships - internalized as Caring. . The conceptual and heart-knowing are brought together, via a 'conceptual-contemplative-conceptual' cyclical approach, using a 'Mandala Diagram'. The idea of 'Dialectical Spiritualization' is developed, as that which the four 'Cs' have in common. A summary and diagram, and evaluation, conclude the thesis.
The nature of children's oral language interactions during collaborative writing experience at the computerKumpulainen, K. January 1994 (has links)
No description available.
The purpose of this research study was to explore organisational innovation in education with reference to one particular type of organisation - the tertiary college. The research sought to examine the extent to which the intended objectives for new educational organisations are realised in practice, and how far the goals and ethos which organisational leaders seek to promote are shared by organisational members. The study focused on eleven tertiary colleges, comparing the 'official' view of the colleges, as put forward by senior managers, with the perspectives of staff and students. Tertiary colleges are responsible for all or most full and part time non-advanced education for the post-16 age group in the areas which they serve (some also have some advanced work). The colleges thus combine all provision which elsewhere is separately administered in school sixth forms, sixth form colleges and further education colleges. The literature review draws on concepts from organisation theory, and discusses various models for analysing organisations and their goals: rational system and formal models, and three alternative approaches - political, ambiguity and subjective models. Rational system and formal models are dominant in the organisational literature. They focus on the official aspects of organisations rather than the perspectives of members. The review then explores the role of structure and culture in the pursuit of organisational goals, the extent to which organisations have a shared culture or ethos, and the factors contributing to successful change in educational institutions. The study examined four main issues : (1) To what extent are the goals set out by institutional leaders shared by other members of the organisation? (2) How far do new structures influence perspectives and attitudes? (3) To what extent are new types of organisation able to develop a distinctive culture and ethos? (4) Are there major differences between individual organisations of the same type? Evidence to explore these issues was gathered by means of interviews with principals and vice-principals; analysis of college documents: and questionnaire surveys of staff and full and part-time students. It was found that organisational members - staff and students - shared the official view of the colleges' goals and ethos to some extent. However, there were a number of mismatches and disparities between the official perspective and the views of members, and an 'implementation gap' (Becher, 1989), between goals as ideals and goals as enacted. There was also evidence of cultural differentiation, rather than the integrationist culture portrayed by the principals. There were considerable subgroup differences in members' perspectives and in the extent to which they shared the goals and ethos of their colleges. There were also wide inter-college disparities in staff and student views. The study indicates that organisational goals impact differentially on various member subgroups, and that organisations sharing similar purposes may achieve these purposes to widely differing degrees. The analysis suggests that formal and rational system models of organisations are inadequate for understanding organisational change. It is necessary to draw on alternative perspectives to interpret the 'competing realities' (Greenfield, 1973) and 'less-than-rational' (Hoyle, 1986) aspects of organisational life. The study focused on internal aspects of the tertiary colleges, but there was evidence that external factors may have influenced their goals and development. The conclusion therefore considers the broader policy context for the development of the tertiary colleges, as compared with other new types of organisation - City Technology Colleges and grant-maintained schools. It is suggested that 'new institutionalist' ideas, which portray the environment as having a central influence on organisational development, may provide a useful framework for reinterpreting the findings of the study. New institutionalist concepts provide an important corrective to the assumptions of rational system and formal models that organisations have a relatively high degree of autonomy in establishing and pursuing internally-generated goals
Maybe it's because I'm a Londoner? : a policy journey through the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority and the introduction of local management of schools in inner LondonReynolds, Kate January 1999 (has links)
The measures contained in the 1988 Education Reform Act have transformed the educational landscape of state schooling. This thesis examines two policies contained in the Reform Act, that of the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority and the introduction of local management of schools in inner London from a perspective founded in anti-racist, feminist and social justice approaches. Using case study as a research tool, the thesis builds on an analysis of data collected from a variety of sources. In particular, the thesis uses data collected from interviews with a sample of local government officers, governors, and headteachers in the inner London boroughs, statistical evidence and content analysis of policy documents. The analysis places these two policies within the wider context of the restructuring of the welfare state and the changes in the relationships between national and local government. In particular, it argues that the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority represented the clearest example of the Conservative Government's philosophy to local government, education and schools. Drawing on the analysis from the interviews and documentary evidence, it examines the rationale behind the abolition of ILEA and the introduction of local management in inner London schools. It argues that both the abolition and the introduction of local management of schools were critical to the introduction and implementation of a market in education. Furthermore, it examines the impact of local management on the management of schools with a particular emphasis on issues of gender and 'race' and discusses some of the implications local management has had for developing strategies to address inequalities in education. As a postscript, the thesis identities some of the key elements of local management that are likely to continue under the new Labour Government.
The responses of local education authorities to changes in their functions : a study of in-service education and trainingSimpson, Donald January 1998 (has links)
This research is about the politics and policy processes of education. The focus is on central Government policy relating to INSET and the political activity and responses of LEAs to new policy developments. LEAs have a statutory duty to provide efficient and sufficient schooling. This entails a concern for the professional quality of teaching. To meet this responsibility LEAs traditionally employed advisers, maintained teachers' centres and secured provision by sending teachers on INSET workshops/courses. During recent years, however, changes in the funding of LEAs and the introduction of specific grants significantly impacted on the organisation and delivery of INSET. This research ascertains the INSET provision in a sample of five LEAs; identifies the similarities and differences between these authorities in their responses to the changing funding mechanisms; and examines the underlying rationale for the variation in INSET provision. The research methodology is underpinned by an eclectic ethos. Concepts are derived from theories of organisations and policy implementation.A range of data collection techniques are employed. The research concludes that the responses to change adopted by the five LEAs in the sample are different in several important respects. Each LEAs INSET policy greatly depends on the authority's size, resources, history, culture, commitment and avenues of communication. Even where similar structures have developed, disparities in the mode of operation are evident. By way of representing the full range of responses to change which characterises each LEA, the researcher uses a spectrum. All of the LEAs in the sample sought to establish a 'partnership' with schools in regard to INSET. However, in each case, associations are framed according to a distinct set of values. At one end of the spectrum is an hierarchical association; at the centre a association which is complementary; and at the other end an enterprise association with schools.
Lunn, Stephen Andrew
With the introduction of the National Curriculum in English primary schools in the late 1980s, the status of science changed from discretionary option, taught to the teacher’s strengths, to mandated core subject with tightly defined curriculum. During the first few years, teachers’ initial uncertainty gave way to growing feelings of competence and confidence, which local, national and international evidence from the mid- 1990s onwards shows were not entirely misplaced. Meanwhile, however, a series of studies consistently showed apparently severe gaps in primary teachers’ science knowledge – so what was it that was changing? Teachers themselves hold the key to understanding how science has been accommodated into primary practice: this research looks at some teachers’ views of the nature of science and the purposes of teaching it, the manifestation of such views in planning and teaching; changes in views over time: and the accommodation of science teaching into their professional identities. Drawing on a 1996 pilot study, the research involves case studies of five teachers - biographical and semi-structured interviews, protocol analysis, and lesson observations, over eighteen months from early 1998, a questionnaire survey of a broader sample; and triangulation between case studies and survey. Various factors that may underlie a teacher’s view of the nature of science are proposed - scientism, naive empiricism, new-age-ism, constructivism, pragmatism, and scepticism. It is suggested that teachers’ accommodation of science into their practice can involve its structural and organisational interweaving into the fabric of their professional identities. A tentative hypothetical model is outlined, of the emergence of professional identity from an autopoietic network involving auto-biography; values; dispositions; beliefs; personal theories; self-image; knowledge of and relationships and discourse with children and colleagues; curriculum, subject and pedagogic knowledge: images of teaching and learning; the exercise of agency in practice; and reflexive connections between, and reflection upon, these.
How might UK farmers benefit from using interactive computer-based media? These farmers need to learn how to change their practices in a rapidly changing economic and social environment. They have difficulty in obtaining suitable training through conventional audio-visual media and face-to-face sessions. How would they benefit from learning at a distance, using computer-based media in their own homes and offices? This thesis presents a naturalistic study of how a number of UK farmers benefited from using the Countryside Disc, one of the few examples available of an interactive training program aimed at farmers. The Disc, which is a computer-controlled laser vision videodisc, required the farmers to act in a complex simulated world (of a farm and its social and ecological environment) in which they received frequent and immediate feedback concerning the consequences of their actions. After a pilot study to develop the methodology, the main study involved observation and recording of 10 farmers' interactions with the Disc. The farmers engaged in hundreds of instructional interactions with the Disc. Each farmer's approach to learning changed as he or she worked through the program, and was clearly related to the learning outcomes for that person. The Disc demanded a deep approach: two farmers who attempted to use a surface approach were unable to continue. The farmers drew heavily on their experience in the real farming world and the frequent feedback prompted them to be reflective on both that experience and the training offered by the Disc. They also encountered a range of navigational problems, most of which could be reduced or eliminated through redesign of the Disc. The most important finding was that farmers, through using the Countryside Disc, received training, in their homes and offices, in (a) gaining deep understanding of the interplay of factors involved in present-day farming, and (b) making profitable farm management decisions - while observing relevant regulations and being responsive to the opinions of interest groups. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the findings in the light of theories advanced by Marton and SÃ¤ljÃ¶ on deep and surface learning, by Laurillard on conversational framework and by SchÃ¶n on reflective practitioners. It includes suggestions for further research.
The design and evaluation of Link : a CAL system designed to address psychology students' misconceptions about correlationMorris, Erica January 1999 (has links)
This thesis describes the design, development and evaluation of <i>Link</i>, a computerassisted learning program for correlation, which is targeted at psychology students in higher education. Computer technology is being increasingly used on statistics courses, suggesting that computer-assisted learning programs on statistical concepts will be increasingly used by students in higher education. To inform the design of <i>Link</i>, an empirical study was conducted to investigate students’ difficulties with correlation. It was found that psychology students held misconceptions relating to negative correlations, the strength of correlations and that they infer causality. The design of <i>Link</i> was also informed by research-based principles of learning, research and developments in computer-assisted learning and a review of computer-assisted learning programs that cover correlation. A formative evaluation study involving eighteen psychology students found that having used the program, students’ general understanding of correlation was significantly improved. Unlike previously existing computer-assisted learning programs that were reviewed, Link makes use of data from two authentic studies in psychology. In addition. <i>Link</i> provides learner activities specifically designed to address students’ misconceptions about correlation. A summative evaluation study of <i>Link</i> involving fifty psychology students was undertaken to assess the effect on students’ understanding of correlation. The findings of this evaluation provided further qualitative data on students’ misconceptions. Moreover, it was found that the use of <i>Link</i> significantly contributed to students’ general understanding of correlation.
Swanwick, Ruth Anne
The focus of this study is deafchildren's developing bilingualism in British Sign Language and English (sign bilingualism). Sign bilingualism differs from bilingualism in two spoken languages in that the two languages are differently perceived and produced. This thesis explores individual sign bilingualism focusing on ways in which deaf children use their two languages, their perception of the differences between them and the influences that that two languages have on each other. It is argued that deaf children's literacy development might be supported through the development of their tacit metalinguistic skills acquired as a result of constantly moving between their two languages and so reflecting on and comparing the different ways in which BSL and English convey meaning. This study identifies what constitutes metalinguistic ability in bilingual deaf children and explores the extent to which such abilities might support the development of their literacy skills.Because this is a developing area in terms of research and educational practice this study involves an exploratory and creative approach to data collection. Six individual case studies have been carried out with sign bilingual deaf children between 7 and 8 years of age. Information about each child's strategies for moving between BSL and written English has been collected through specifically developed translation and comparative analysis activities From the data collected some of the individual characteristics of sign bilingualism including dimensions of metalinguistic proficiency are described focusing on the individual's skills within, between and across each language domain. The findings reveal dimensions of children's sign bilingualism which support the development of language profiles and assessment procedures in the educational setting and point to new areas of linguistic research. They also illustrate the potential of a focus on metalinguistic abilities for developing approaches to literacy instruction and for providing a framework for further research into deaf children's sign bilingual language development.
Categorising different ways secondary school mathematics teachers use written materials for classroom workBelfort da Siva Moren, Elizabeth January 2001 (has links)
No description available.
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