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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The relative pronoun in early Scots : a lexicographical and syntactical study

Caldwell, S. J. G. 1967 (has links)
No description available.

Interaction in dialogue : the effects of partner feedback on speakers, addressees and over-hearers

Catchpole, C. M. 2007 (has links)
The primary aim of this thesis is to analyse how interaction with a conversational partner affects the performance of speakers, their addressees and those who overhear the discourse.  Speakers frequently appear to adjust their speech to accommodate their addressees’ needs, and this often seems to occur as a direct response to the feedback they received from their partners. The bulk of the research in this area has focussed upon the manner in which speakers use feedback to facilitate the overall success of the interaction but fewer studies have investigated how feedback specifically affects detailed characteristics of the speakers’ speech. This thesis attempts to investigate such a topic, whilst also examining the benefit to addressees of being able to give feedback, and the benefit to overhearers of hearing addressees’ feedback. The thesis begins by examining the effect of feedback on speakers’ and addressees’ performances. It first reports a referential communication task which investigated some of the notable differences in speakers’ speech in monologue and dialogue contexts (Experiment 1). I focussed in particular on how detailed aspects of language production, such as the length of object descriptions and the repetitiveness of the language used, varied between these two feedback conditions. Experiment 2 then analysed how the amount of feedback received by the speaker related to, firstly, the shortening of their item descriptions over repetitions, and secondly, the increasing consistency of descriptions (in terms of lexical overlap) during the experiment. The second section first reports on two experiments that replicated and expanded on a study by Fox Tree (1999) which showed that overhearers identified tangrams more accurately when they overhead a dialogue rather than a monologue. Experiments 3 and 4 tested two explanations proposed by Fox Tree for this result; firstly, the potential presence of additional perspectives in dialogue, and secondly, the more numerous discourse markers in dialogue in comparison with monologue. Experiments 5 and 6 assessed how the benefit of, firstly, giving feedback (for addressees) and secondly, hearing feedback (for overhearers) was affected by the difficulty of the task at hand.

Exploiting semantic parallels between the noun phrase and the verb phrase : a study in pedagogical grammar

Benmakrouha, F. 1991 (has links)
This study in pedagogical description is motivated by a dissatisfaction with the traditional 'structural' method of teaching English grammar to prospective English teachers at Universities in Algeria. Within the broader context of advocating a more communicative (i.e. meaning and discourse-oriented) approach to grammar teaching, I explore the hypothesis that an internalization of grammar which relates to the learners' communicative needs could be facilitated if the teacher adopts a semantic analysis of certain difficult features common to the grammar of the noun phrase and the verb phrase which would interrelate form, meaning and context of use. The adoption of such an analysis would provide the learner with an integrative approach where grammar would act as a bridge between concepts and actual use. Part I of this study examines the notions of deixis, definite reference, specificity/genericity, boundedness and enumeration which are grammaticalized in both the noun phrase and the verb phrase. Part II examines first the actual teaching situation in Algeria which concentrates on the formal system of the language in isolation from actual contexts of use and as such, goes counter tothe learner's communicative need to express meanings. The approach proposed as a possible remedy will integrate the aspectual and the communicative aspects of language through the use of learning tasks devised to increase the learner's awareness of the communicative relevance of the semantic concepts dealt with in Part I.

The interpersonal function in student discourse : a comparative study of English and Italian undergraduate writing

Bortoluzzi, M. 1997 (has links)
This study is a comparative analysis of university student writing in English and Italian (the native languages of the students). The main research issue investigated here relates to the differences and similarities in student writing across languages when the same text-type is produced within comparable situations. Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural variation in encoding and transmitting knowledge and in the way critical enquiry is conducted can be an area of potential difficulty when languages and cultures come into contact. Comparative analysis is a tool for investigating, explaining and, possibly, avoiding some of the potential errors and misunderstandings that may arise in cross-cultural communication. In particular the study focuses on writing conventions used by English and Italian native speaker students when writing about literature for their university courses. The data are texts of argumentative prose about literature (in the students' mother tongue) written for university examinations during an undergraduate degree course. The linguistic analysis focuses on discoursal devices related to the interpersonal metafunction. The fundamental hypothesis underlying the study is that the devices more centrally related to this metafunction can offer insights into the writing conventions adopted by the students. Whereas the interpersonal metafunction as the focus of analysis is a concept derived from Halliday, the actual linguistic analysis of discoursal features draws on different approaches to discourse study because the framework of analysis had to be flexible enough to encompass the investigation of two different languages and there was no standardised method of analysis for the present type of research. The linguistic areas focused upon are: person markers, 'impersonal' and passive structures, modality, evaluative strategies (Politeness Theory), metadiscoursal features, devices establishing an overt link between writer and reader, rhetorical prominence and its effects on discourse.

Paraphrasing and translation

Callison-Burch, C. 2008 (has links)
Paraphrasing and translation have previously been treated as unconnected natural language processing tasks. We show the two are intimately related. The major contributions of this thesis are as follows: We define a novel technique for automatically generating paraphrases using bilingual parallel corpora, which are more commonly used as training data statistical models of translation. We show that paraphrases can be used to improve the quality of statistical machine translation by addressing the problem of coverage and introducing a degree of generalisation into the models. We explore the topic of automatic evaluation of translation quality, and show that the current standard evaluation methodology cannot be guaranteed to correlate with human judgements of translation quality. Whereas previous data-driven approaches to paraphrasing were dependent upon either data sources which were uncommon such as multiple translation of the same source text, or language specific resources such as parsers, our approach is able to harness more widely parallel corpora and can be applied to any language which has a parallel corpus. Being a language independent and probabilistic approach allows our method to be easily integrated into statistical machine translation. Paraphrasing can be used to increase coverage by adding translations of previously unseen source words and phrases. Results show that augmenting a state-of-the-art SMT system with paraphrases leads to significantly improved coverage and translation quality. For a training corpus with 10,000 sentence pairs we increase the coverage of unique test set unigrams from 48% to 90%, with more than half of the newly covered items accurately translated, as opposed to none in current approaches.

The sociolinguistic constraints on the quotative system : British English and US English compared

Buchstaller, I. K. 2004 (has links)
The recent advent and rapid spread of two new vernacular options, go and like, within the (say) variable has attracted a growing body of research in variationist sociolinguists. This thesis examines the synchronic functions of these new quotatives and considers pragmatic, discourse, and social factors. The investigation is based on an analysis of very large corpora of spontaneous spoken British and American English. This cross-variety comparison gives me the opportunity (i) to investigate a case of rapid language change that is happening concurrently with the time of research and (ii) to consider to what extent social and linguistic constraints hold globally. A variationist study of the constraints which govern the quotative system is valuable for the following reasons: By investigating the patterning of the (say) variable as a whole, we gain insights into the rule-governed variability of innovative features and their rival variants (say, tell, think, cry,... ). A look at the entire quotative system reveals the intimate interplay of competing choices within the (say) variable. My project aims at understanding how the system as a whole reacts to the intrusion of newcomer variants. A sharply delimited and hitherto stable set of variants - such as the (say) variable - presents the unique opportunity to investigate the restructuring of all variants as new ones come in. This is especially interesting when we look at competing choices which have the same [-canonical] underlying semantic feature, such as unframed quotes. The data show that far from ousting the unframed or say-variant, like and go add options within the vernacular category. A comparative study on the patterning of non-canonical variants within the quotative pool produces important insights into phenomena such as reallocation, competition within one socio-pragmatic field, as well as interaction of variants within the same variable.

Classification-based phrase structure grammar : an extended revised version of HPSG

Cooper, R. P. 1991 (has links)
This thesis is concerned with a presentation of Classification-based Phrase STructure Grammar (or CPSG), a grammatical theory that has grown out of extensive revisions of, and extension to, HPSG. The fundamental difference between this theory and HPSG concerns the central role that classification plays in the grammar: the grammar classifies strings, according to their feature structure descriptions, as being of various types. Apart from the role of classificaion, the theory bears a close resemblance to HPSG, though it is by no means a direct translation, including numerous revisions and extensions. A central goal in the development of the theory has been its computational implementation, which is included in the thesis. The second part concerns syntactic issues. In the third part, chapters 6, 7 and 8, we turn to semantic issues. The final part, Chapter 9, concerns the actual computational implementation of theory. A concluding chapter summarises the arguments of the thesis and outlines some avenues for future research.

A path from broader to narrower grammars

Babarczy, A. 2002 (has links)
In recent years a growing number of theoretical and empirical studies of first language acquisition have cast doubt on the hypothesis that acquiring language is a deterministic process in which the role of experience is restricted to triggering innate principles of grammatical content. The aim of this thesis is to explore areas of language where input-based learning demonstrably plays a role and to find learning mechanisms that account for the construction of observed overgeneral grammars and the process of their restriction. The thesis is a comparative study of the acquisition of argument structure in English and in Hungarian. The detailed analysis of spontaneous speech samples of two-year-old children reveals that the omission of subjects, objects and prepositions at the so-called telegraphic stage of English child language cannot be explained either by limitations in processing capacity or by postulating an incomplete Universal Grammar. It is suggested that children’s implicit arguments and oblique noun phrases lacking case or propositional marking need not be analysed as syntactically ill-formed, since they conform to permissible abstract structural configurations. The errors may instead be attributed to overgeneral or indeterminate rules of pragmatics, which are fuzzy and variable in the mature grammar. It is shown that the nature of the children’s intake of the primary linguistic data is a good predictor of the nature and extent of overgeneralisation or indeterminacy and of the speed with which the rules are fine-tuned to match the target.

A local grammar of cause and effect : A corpus-driven study

Allen, Christopher Michael 2005 (has links)
No description available.

Sequential Relations and Strategies in Expository Discourse : A topic structure model for English and Greek

Goutsos, Dionysios 1994 (has links)
No description available.

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