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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The history, ecology and potential control of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Scotland

Hicks, Barry J. January 2001 (has links)
The pine beauty moth, <i>Panolis flammea, </i>has been a serious pest of lodgepole pine in Scotland since 1976. It historically fed on native Scots pine but population levels of <i>P. flammea</i> on this host have not been high enough to cause tree mortality. This thesis reviews recent advances in the biology of the pest and documents control programmes targeted against the pest from 1976 to 2000. Practically uninterrupted population monitoring of the <i>P. flammea</i> occurred from 1977 to the present day in Scottish lodgepole pine plantations. While intervention with chemical spraying has occurred, there is an indication that the reductions observed in the unsprayed populations are the result of natural enemies. The compiled data suggested that populations of <i>P. flammea</i> have had a cyclic pattern over the monitoring period with outbreaks occurring at regular intervals of between 6 and 7 years. The amplitude of population cycles were large during the 1970s and 1980s, but have dampened in recent years. Natural enemies are believed to contribute to the cause of this trend. The population of <i>P. flammea </i>in Northern Scotland was severely affected by fungal disease during the summer of 1998. The fungi, <i>Entomophaga aulicae, Batkoa major, Zoophthora </i>sp., <i>Nomuraea rileyi </i>and <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> were recorded from <i>P. flammea </i>and infection of larvae by these fungi occurred in a density dependent fashion. The incidence of parasitism was different between the sites studied, however there was no difference in the parasitism between high and low density host populations. This is the first study to demonstrate that the diversity and impact of fungal pathogens affecting <i>P. flammea</i> is much greater now than in the past. Laboratory bioassays of the entomopathogenic fungus <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> against several life stages of the pine beauty moth <i>P. flammea, </i> showed that this fungus has the potential to be used as a biological control agent.

Assessment of ant biodiversity in Malaysian (Sabah) oil palm plantations in relation to oil palm age and across spatial scales

Wang, Wendy Yanling January 2014 (has links)
No description available.

Investigation of neural coding in mice using tactile virtual reality

Sofroniew, Nicholas James January 2014 (has links)
No description available.

Development of molecular virology techniques and functional analysis of the mechanisms leading to virulence acquisition in Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV)

Fourrier, Mickael C. S. January 2015 (has links)
No description available.

New colonists and old colonials : mink predation of Arctic and Common terns

Clode, Danielle January 1993 (has links)
No description available.

Anticoagulant rodenticides and non-target wildlife : an ecological evaluation of permanent baiting in rural rat control

Harradine, John P. January 1976 (has links)
No description available.

Exploitation of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Scotland

Beddington, J. R. January 1973 (has links)
No description available.

Investigation into the management and development of the oyster fisheries in Galway Bay, Ireland

Whilde, Anthony January 1973 (has links)
No description available.

Novel biopesticides based on recombinant avidin for protection of crops against insect pests

Hinchliffe, Gareth January 2012 (has links)
Farmers are required to increase their food productivity to meet the demand from a continually enlarging population. A major constraint on meeting this requirement is the damage created by insect pests. Agricultural pests and associated diseases destroy 30%-40% of the world’s crop produce. The withdrawal of broad-spectrum chemical insecticides, the threat of the development of resistance in insect pests to remaining compounds and the possibility of new pest species spreading into the UK as a result of environmental change have prompted research into alternative pesticides. Protein-based insecticides offer the possibility of producing compounds that are specific to pest species and environmentally benign. The production of orally active insecticidal fusion proteins, containing toxins from Segestria florentina (tube-web spider) or Mesobuthus tamulus (Indian red scorpion) fused to a ‘carrier’ protein (snowdrop lectin; Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) which transports them across the insect gut epithelium, has shown that recombinant protein expression systems and protein engineering techniques can be used to produce novel insecticidal proteins. The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to extend this technology. Avidin, a biotin-binding protein known to be insecticidal, was evaluated as a possible ‘carrier’ protein. Recombinant avidin was produced in high yields using Pichia pastoris and was compared to the native egg white protein. Recombinant avidin has insecticidal activity towards hemipteran plant pests. It was highly toxic to Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid) when fed in liquid artificial diet, causing 100% mortality after four days when present at concentrations ≥0.25mg/ml (250ppm). The toxicity towards A. pisum was prevented by biotin supplementation of the diet. In contrast, recombinant avidin had no significant effects on the survival of Sitobion avenae (cereal aphid) at concentrations up to 2mg/ml (2000ppm) in liquid diet. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that symbionts from both aphid species lack the ability to synthesise biotin de novo. Cereal aphids appear to be less sensitive to sub-optimal levels of biotin and possess a more effective system for scavenging biotin from recombinant avidin in the diet. Avidin is readily transported to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae after feeding, which suggested that it might replace GNA in synthetic insecticidal fusion proteins. Numerous attempts were made to produce a fully functional insecticidal avidin-based fusion protein containing scorpion or spider toxins by expression as recombinant proteins in P. pastoris but, following tests against Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth) larvae, the fusion proteins were found to be non-toxic. The lack of toxicity was most likely due to incorrect folding of the toxin component of the fusion, since the avidin component was functional. Avidin fed to A. pisum was found to bind to the stomach region of the gut after ingestion and was retained for at least 72 hours. Feeding conjugates of avidin with fluorescently labelled biotin, or a fluorescently labelled, biotinylated peptide, showed that the conjugated compound was also retained in the aphid gut after feeding. A conjugate between avidin and biotinylated leucomyosuppressin (LMS), a myoinhibitory peptide hormone that affects gut contractions in insects, was prepared and fed to aphids. The avidin : biotin-LMS conjugate had insecticidal activity towards A. pisum when fed in diet at levels which neither of the components (avidin or biotin-LMS) caused significant mortality. It was hypothesised that binding to the gut, through the avidin moiety, was responsible for the observed oral toxicity of the avidin : biotin-LMS conjugate. The same principle was applied to lepidopteran larvae. A conjugate between avidin and biotinylated allatostatin was prepared and fed to M. brassicae larvae. The avidin : biotin-allatostatin was non-toxic, most likely due to cleavage between the biotin molecule and allatostatin as a result of the high levels of gut proteolysis in lepidoptera. Avidin conjugates of peptides that have little or no oral toxicity to insects, as a result of restricted access to sites of action, could have the potential to form a novel class of insecticidal compounds.

Social organisation and demography of the field vole (Microtus agrestis L.) in relation to food resources

Loughran, Michael Francis Ennis January 1999 (has links)
No description available.

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