Exploring HR policies and HR specialists' role in the context of innovation : the case of BPR in two large Lebanese banksAlsaghir, Loubna January 2011 (has links)
This research framed some aspects of two huge areas of research, namely the areas of human resources and of innovation management in one framework and built a model in which the role of the HR department could be considered as central and even critical in innovation management. In terms of research question, this thesis is exploring to what extent HR policies and HR specialists’ role is considered as critical for the success of BPR implementation. Surprisingly, the literature on BPR didn’t touch on the theme of a specific role that would be played by the HR function during introduction of BPR. In particular, although there were interesting researches making good case for the necessity to effectively manage HR, none of the studies mentioned the importance of the role of HR practitioners specifically as catalysts of change or as strategic partners during implementation of BPR. Also, none of the case studies of companies which have implemented BPR revealed any kind of relationships that could have had existed between the HR function and the BPR project team and that could have enhanced the effectiveness of BPR implementation. Therefore, the interest and the originality of this research is to try to fill this gap in the literature and analyze what might be the role of the HR function and what kind of interactions it might have with line managers for a better implementation of BPR. The literature review brought about some elements of answer and five propositions were formulated highlighting these potential roles and relationships. The main proposition stipulates that for a successful implementation of BPR, the role played by the HR department could be considered as critical. The four other propositions presented the main elements of this role. In particular, the HR department should be implementing innovative HRM practices. It should also act as a “change agent” and be considered as a “strategic partner”. The last proposition considered that the HR department should operate in close partnership with other functions and line managers for increased effectiveness in change adoption. These propositions were explored in two large Lebanese banks that had recently implemented BPR projects. From the findings, it was possible to provide the following answer to the research question: The HR department might play a critical role during implementation of BPR to the extent that it has the capability to play the role of “change agent” and also but to a minor extent, it is an innovative department and is strategically involved in the business with managers at all hierarchical levels.
The implementation and the effects of the audit committee within the framework of corporate governance in ThailandTengamnuay, Kwansagool January 2005 (has links)
Due to recent corporate trends towards internationalisation, globalisation and the urgent need for reform generated by the East Asian economic crisis, there is an increased resolve to implement global corporate governance standards in Thailand. A main reform was the requirement for every Thai listed company to establish an audit committee ("AC") by 1999 with the intention of improving the effectiveness of boards and there by the quality of auditing and financial reporting. There is an apparent lack of relevant academic research in this area. It is worthwhile researching a range of issues surrounding corporate governance, focusing in particular on the AC in order to understand its adoption and implementation in practice as well as the benefit it may bring to Thai organisations. This research has sought to obtain evidence about ACs within the framework of corporate governance in Thailand with particular reference to their roles, composition and operations in practice, the major problems resulting from their implementation as well as their effects. To accomplish the research objective, this research has been conducted by using a combination of questionnaire survey and interviews with company chairpersons, chairs of ACs, chief internal auditors, chief financial officers, external auditors, investors and financial analysts. Additionally, a review of documents has been conducted to support the main research approaches. Analysis shows that the major roles, composition and operations of ACs in Thailand are in line with international guidelines, however, there are still some discrepancies with the intended roles, especially in relation to external audit functions. The evidence reveals that the ACs placed greater emphasis on internal control systems including internal audit and review of audit fees than on other roles. There have been several problems in practice that may impair the effects of ACs, such as the difficulty of finding AC members with relevant qualifications, a lack of understanding of AC functions, inadequate experience in accounting or financial matters, insufficient time to perform the duties, lack of independence and inadequate support from management. Nonetheless, the majority of all responding groups perceived that there were positive effects from the establishment of ACs, especially, maintenance and strengthening of internal control systems and the improved quality of the financial reporting process. It can be argued that the AC in most responding companies seems to increase assurance among the agent or principal and other stakeholders, and seems to represent an appropriate symbol that is at the same time useful in fixing the problems within corporate governance mechanisms in Thailand. On the other hand, some ACs did not appear to change the corporate governance of their companies and in some cases were perceived to hinder the work of chief financial officers and external auditors. The degree of effect depends mainly on the attributes of the ACs, especially their independence or knowledge of business, accounting and finance, understanding of AC roles, sufficient time for their operations, adequate AC meetings and received support from company management. Consequently, some companies may not be able to relieve the agency problems and that AC may merely be a standard form of corporate governance introduced in line with institutional theory to comply with requirements. This thesis provides an insight into the implementation and effects of ACs within the framework of corporate governance in Thailand during the period 1999-2002. Due to the very limited number of previous studies, the results provide a better understanding of the overall existence of ACs in Thailand which could provide some suggestions for their development. Moreover, the methodological procedures followed in this study may be encouraged or discouraged in specific research in the future, in particular, in developing countries,
In order to become serial entrepreneurs and even portfolio entrepreneurs. individuals' must first establish themselves as entrepreneurs. Moreover. and prior to this. they must first be nascent entrepreneurs. Hence. the focus of this study is the factors that lead individuals at the early stage of their career to choose to establish a personal business venture rather than any other career path. That is. this study focuses on the factors that influence individuals intentions' to become entrepreneurs. Three models are empirically tested. These models comprise an extended version of the Shapero model of the entrepreneurial event. a modified version of the Ajzen model of planned behaviour. and Boyd and Vozikis' extended Bird model. A fourth model is developed and tested. This particular model is characterised as the 'entrepreneurial capital' model and extends the reasoning into the probability of sustained entrepreneurial behaviour. There are four main contributions from this study. • The first contribution is the development of the notion of entrepreneurial capital. where entrepreneurial capital is conceived of as a function of sustained entrepreneurial intentions (commitment) and entrepreneurial competence. It is argued that the most valuable source of emerging firms is the nascent entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial capital. In other words, the combined capacity to identify opportunities. to acquire and co-ordinate resources and to see the venture through to fruition may be regarded as entrepreneurial capital. • The second contribution of this thesis relates to the empirical testing of Boyd and Vozikis' theoretical propositions. These propositions are based on the extended Bird model and have not been empirically tested before. The presence of entrepreneurial goals was found to have a stronger effect on entrepreneurial intentions than entrepreneurial commitment and perceived entrepreneurial capability. • The third contribution relates to social entrepreneurial experience; experience gathered through interaction with entrepreneurially orientated others. it appears that social entrepreneurial experience is an important antecedent factor that influences 'entrepreneurial intentions'. Hence. culture. that is, the presence of other entrepreneurially orientated people. appears to be the most important influence on the development of individuals' intentions toward enterprise formation. • The fourth contribution also relates to social entrepreneurial experience. it appears that 'perceived entrepreneurial competence' is also influenced by social entrepreneurial experience. According to this study. mastery entrepreneurial experience (i.e. previous start-up experience) as well as vicarious entrepreneurial experience (i.e. parental role models) have less effect. Only when self-employment is judged more attractive than organisational employment. will high potential individuals' choose the former. Educational programmes that value self-employment initiatives should therefore stimulate individuals to develop personal entrepreneurial goals. and to develop individuals' perceptions of their entrepreneurial capabilities. which again should trigger their entrepreneurial intentions.
Pritchard, Matthew Charles
This four year Engineering Doctorate project was a collaboration between UMIST and Kitagawa Europe Ltd. Its main purpose was to develop tools and techniques which would assist managers in strategic planning, in order to drive business growth. Business modelling was selected as the' main environment for the application because it provides a means of representing an enterprise and exploring the widespread effects of strategic decisions. An action research method was employed, which involved building reduced models of several Kitagawa mini-projects, converting them into a general framework, then adding software tools to enhance strategic decision support. Sixteen static modelling techniques were reviewed and combined into a rational structure for process charting. Then nine dynamic software packages were tested, and a graphical, discrete event simulator named ProcessModel was selected for the project. This was used to construct four specific, reduced models, including one to investigate site consolidation and another to test factory production control. The next task was to develop these models into a general plug-and-play modelling architecture, which would be extensible in scope and detail, and allow rapid reconfiguration. This required nine high level design issues to be tackled, particularly division and integration of modules and standardising dynamic behaviour. Some important detailed techniques employed were an Entity Generator module, extensive. use of parameters and variables, new naming conventions and stock priming logic. A central feature of the general models is their technique for cost allocation, since this pennits detailed Cost Benefit Analysis to be carried out. The method which was developed extends Activity Based Costing to resources, and employs a flexible algorithm called Dynamic Resource Based Costing. Two significant tools based on Microsoft Access have been built to enhance decision support. ProjectScape provides help in pre-selecting projects and scenarios for further analysis; and a Results Analysis Tool processes simulation outputs to improve understanding and efficiency • Finally, the components created during this project have been assembled into a. methodology for other businesses, named Coherent Strategic Simulation. Its overall structure is a practical strategic management framework, named Continuous Creative Strategic Management, developed from previous work on strategy, product design and quality management.
Mohsen, Mohamed Adel Mohamed Samy
This qualitative research study explores how TQM is approached in 5-star hotels and develops an integrated model to support the introduction of a TQM culture to 5-star hotel operations. Chapter two critically reviews literature related to quality, quality management and the introduction of a TQM culture. Chapter three presents critically reviews literature related to hospitality and the introduction of a TQM culture to 5-star hotel operations and develops a conceptual framework. The framework is then tested in through empirical research. A multiple case study approach was adopted involving document analysis and semi-structured interviews with managers and staff members in 5-star hotels to explore how hotel managers, HR managers, and staff approach quality management in 5-star hotels. Interviewees included hotel operations managers and staff members and the interview schedule explored: how hotel managers and staff define quality; major quality barriers that hotel managers and staff face; sources of information that hotel managers and staff need to deliver quality; how hotel managers approach quality management processes in their hotel operations. Critical success factors (CSFs) relating to the introduction of a TQM culture in 5- star hotel operations were identified. CSFs were teams, leadership, staff empowerment, communication, training, and customer focus. Additionally staff suggestion and reward schemes were identified as CSFs for the introduction of a TQM culture in 5-star hotels. To compare the TQM approach adopted in 5-star hotels with theoretical perspectives cross- case and cross-participant analyses were conducted to identify the difference in approaches between cases and between hotel managers and staff. The thesis concludes with the presentation of an integrated model to underpin the introduction of a TQM culture in 5-star hotel operations based on the way hotel managers and staff approach TQM and the actual information sources and quality management processes used in 5-star hotel operations.
Temporal planning contains aspects of both planning and scheduling. Many temporal planners assume a loose coupling between these two sub-problems in the form of "blackbox" durative actions, where the state of the world is not known during the action's execution. This reduces the size of the search space and so simplifies the temporal planning problem, restricting what can be modelled. In particular, the simplification makes it impossible to model co-ordination, where actions must be executed concurrently to achieve a desired effect. Coordination results from logical and temporal constraints that must both be met, and for this reason, the planner and scheduler must communicate in order to find a valid temporal plan. This communication effectively increases the size of the search space, so must be done intelligently and as little as possible to limit this increase. This thesis contributes a comprehensive analysis of where temporal constraints appear in temporal planning problems. It introduces the notions of minimum and maximum temporal constraints, and with these isolates where the planning and scheduling are coupled together tightly, in the form of co-ordination, it characterises this with the new concepts of envelopes and contents. A new temporal planner written, called СRIKЕҮ, uses this theory to solve temporal problems involving co-ordination that other planners are unable to solve. However, it does this intelligently, using this theory to minimise the communication between the sub-solvers, and so does not expand the search space unnecessarily. The novel search space that CRIKEY uses docs not specify the timings of future events and this allows for the handling of duration inequalities, which again, few other temporal planners are able to solve. Results presented show СRIKЕҮ to be a competitive planner, whilst not making the same simplifying assumptions that other temporal planners make as to the nature of temporal planning problems.
In the twenty-first century, globalisation is changing and widening the basis of competition. The trend in international outsourcing continues to grow, both in the number and value of transactions, as well as the variety of services outsourced. International outsourcing has been emerged as an important solution to improve the supply chain and achieve comparative advantages. More SMEs are involved with the outsourcing strategy now. Key to the planning and deploying a successful international outsourcing project is the methodology throughout the project lifecycle. For SMEs in particular, they need a practical framework to sustain success. This research gives new insight into how outsourcing delivers supply chain integration in the global context and proposes a framework for SMEs to facilitate their outsourcing planning and deployment, in particular for the aerospace manufacturers. The literature investigated considers the areas of supply chain management, SMEs and outsourcing strategy. This identifies the research gap between the existing literature and the practical demand from SMEs, therefore the necessity of this research has been shown. Action research is an important part of the research methodology, as well as case study because the framework is formulated via literature and a case study, then further developed and improved by two case studies. The outputs from the research activities provide the foundation for the framework. The proposed framework contains a workbook which configures SMEs' requirements and describes the necessary stages and steps in the outsourcing process. Industrial case studies are applied to develop, deduce and demonstrate the proposed framework. The future work is planned to enhance the performance of the outsourcing applications.
Developing and implementing a knowledge management strategy in a muti-cultural engineering design environmentTemple, John January 2006 (has links)
This thesis is about the development and implementation of a Knowledge Management Strategy in a multi-cultural engineering design environment in the automotive industry. It aims to use knowledge management as a vehicle for organisational change by first, understanding the cultural interactions between partners on their models of learning and then to develop and trial a set of tools and frameworks to raise the capability and improve the efficiency of Nissan Technical Centre Europe. The main argument of this thesis is that national culture is so invasive and influential on organisational culture that it can become dysfunctional in a global organisation. The “way we do things around here” is a powerful mechanism by which people value themselves and build their identities. Through an action research approach to the design and implementation of a knowledge management strategy the thesis argues that, rather than try to homogenise cultures, global companies need to maximise the different cultural strengths and create agendas for dialogue. In the longer term this will help build relationships, understanding and empathy and ultimately enhance capability. Organisational cultures cannot be dictated but they can be shaped. Operationally, things may appear to be the same across borders but the cultural mechanisms to facilitate operations are inherently different; this difference needs to be understood and appreciated. Organisational efficiency depends on being able to draw on nationalistic and organisational cultural strengths whilst accepting that these strengths need balancing to ensure they do not become self defeating. The conclusion of the thesis is that knowledge management at Nissan is a process of cultural change, shaped by those in positions of power at any given point in time and dependent on the interaction of structural, organisational, technological and procedural elements which cannot be treated separately and that efficiency, sustainability and the beginnings of a knowledge based learning culture can be realised by organising around knowledge and that knowledge management and organisational learning depend on developing a global mindset which allows for a variety of cultural contexts.
Nor Aziah, Abu Kasim
This thesis presents an in-depth case study of a Malaysian public utility company expected by the government to transform itself into a self-financing, efficient and profitable organisation during corporatisation. As profitability became increasingly important, attempts to enhance profitability were made through imposing new accounting rules and recruiting new accounting graduates. In spite of these attempts, the finding reveals that accounting changes were enacted, but over time became separated from, or loosely coupled with, other intraorganisational concerns. An explanatory case study method, using mainly semistructured interviews and document reviews, was adopted. The framework for understanding the process of implementing accounting change, the context in which change unfolded and the emerging consequences of change is based on the combined insights of New Institutional Sociology (Meyer and Rowan, 1977) and Old Institutional Economics (Bums and Scapens, 2000). As sensitising devices, these institutional theories are useful, but alone are not able to fully incorporate the idiosyncrasies of the case findings. Subsequently, the research aims to develop a theoretical framework to understand the processes through which accounting systems can become loosely coupled by incorporating the insights drawn from the two institutional theories as well as the idiosyncrasies of the case. In this framework loose coupling is conceptualised as an evolutionary process shaped by existing internal institutions, the beliefs and norms in the environment, and the interests and power of organisational actors. Issues of the intertwined relationship between efficiency and institutional pressures, the balancing act between public service and profitability concerns, and the inter-play of resistance, trust and power are included. The theoretical framework enriches our understanding of why the role of accounting took its present form and why accounting change was enacted, but continued to (re )embed the existing public service values and norms within the case organisation. It is able to capture the complexity of the ongoing process of accounting change during which the ingrained public service values and practices remained stable in spite of corporatisation.
Corporate governance in Norway : the development of a board evaluation model with special emphasis on large listed companiesRasmussen, Janicke Lilletvedt January 2010 (has links)
Boards are increasingly viewed as an important asset for the organization, with the potential to contribute to a sustainable competitive advantage(Huse, 2007d; Minichilli, Gabrielsson, & Huse, 2007a). There has been increased demand and pressure on boards regarding accountability issues and member liability during the last decade(Minichilli, et al. , 2007a). These demands have been materialized in the developed Codes for Practice of Corporate Governance, internationally and nationally. One of the recommended actions in these Codes is that boards should perform an evaluation of their work. The fact that board evaluations are recommended by many Codes of Corporate Governance indicates that they are considered an important corporate governance mechanism useful for assessing and enhancing board effectiveness, perhaps especially because of their possibility to assess actual tasks against expected tasks. Although the Norwegian Code for Practice of Corporate Governance recommends that board evaluations are conducted, it is left to the companies themselves to decide the different elements of the process. No research has yet been done to increase our knowledge about how board evaluations have been implemented by Norwegian listed companies. Thus, it is not possible to establish to what extent board evaluations contribute to enhanced corporate governance in a Norwegian context. The thesis looks into board evaluation as a corporate governance mechanism. Multiple case studies (9 large listed Norwegian companies representing about 75 % of the market capitalisation as of 31 December 2007) of the implemented processes of board evaluation were performed. In each case, an average of three board members was interviewed. From this, valuable insight into the approaches adopted by Norwegian companies and factors influencing these approaches has been gained and an understanding of board evaluation as a means to increase board effectiveness developed. The research shows that the process of board evaluation in listed companies may be categorised as a process which lacks structure, communication and involvement. The implemented processes of board evaluation in boards of Norwegian listed companies appear to be based on conformance, not performance, and board evaluations appear to be institutionalized. The research adds to the concept of board evaluation. Empirical research into the process of board evaluation implemented in boards of Norwegian listed companies has given valuable insight into how board evaluations are performed and their role in a corporate governance context. Based on the field research, a model of board evaluation was developed which can, if implemented, enhance corporate governance in a Norwegian context.
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