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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Increased energy efficiency in manufacturing systems using discrete event simulation

Solding, Petter January 2008 (has links)
Market demands are forcing industrial manufacturers to develop their production systems by increasing flexibility, improving quality and lowering production costs. With the help of simulation techniques the understanding of manufacturing systems can be enhanced and alternate solutions can be tested. Simulation has therefore played an important role in industrial development in recent years. New or improved simulation technologies, and new ways to use the available technologies, are still being developed. Energy related costs are often neglected by Swedish industry due to the low energy costs historically in Sweden, compared to other European countries. The developments of the energy market with uncertainty concerning future prices have increased the need for energy efficiency. Resources in manufacturing facilities need to be used in the most efficient way. The increasing use of computer-based tools for supporting production planning and control, as well as management and control of energy systems, has not been as beneficial as might first appear. These two types of tools are seldom integrated, which complicates the control of either system. A methodology for analysing the production system, the energy system and these systems interaction with each other, will enhance the possibility of improved control of the facility. This research has focused on formulating a methodology for more efficient use of energy in manufacturing plants, with main focus on electricity use. The methodology uses Discrete Event Simulation (DES) as a tool for applied analysis of manufacturing systems. Focus area of the study has been on the energy intensive foundry industry. The methodology aids the process of efficient working by identifying what processes are important, what activities have to be carried out and what types of analyses can be undertaken. A way to categorise equipment by energy usage is presented to simplify the procedures of collecting, presenting and using data in the simulation model. An approach to how the model can be built is described so that the simulation model can be used for analysis of energy use. To evaluate the methodology four case studies were carried out at different foundries in Sweden. It was found that the level of maturity between the different companies at the outset of the research project varied, regarding manufacturing and simulation as well as energy use. These differences enhanced the analysis in the way that specialised solutions had to be made to complete the analysis. The output from the simulation case studies showed that there is potential to reduce both electricity and power use in all foundries studied. The methodology, and the integration of Discrete Event Simulation, complements the use of energy models for industrial applications, since analysis can be made on the discrete production which is mimicked by the model. The range of applications that utilise Discrete Event Simulation in industry is also enhanced. The research study has successfully shown that energy data can be added to a simulation model and that the model can be built in a way that makes it useful for analysis of both production efficiency and energy use. The methodology presented can help companies reduce their overall energy use and peak power loads. This will not only reduce the total energy related costs for the companies but also the CO2 emissions, reducing the companies' overall environmental impact. To extend the methodology future research will be conducted to add optimisation techniques to the simulation models and to integrate the models with surrounding systems, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and Load Management Systems (LMS). Future investigation is also needed to determine whether the methodology can be used for dynamic Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) where the production will contribute to the impact a product will have on the environment during its whole life cycle.

A prototype method and tool to facilitate knowledge sharing in the new product development process

Bradfield, D. J. January 2007 (has links)
New Product Development (NPD) plays a critical role in the success of manufacturing firms. Activities in the product development process are dependent on the exchange of knowledge among NPD project team members. Increasingly, many organisations consider effective knowledge sharing to be a source of competitive advantage. However, the sharing of knowledge is often inhibited in various ways. This doctoral research presents an exploratory case study conducted at a multinational physical goods manufacturer. This investigation uncovered three, empirically derived and theoretically informed, barriers to knowledge sharing. They have been articulated as the lack of an explicit definition of information about the knowledge used and generated in the product development process, and the absence of mechanisms to make this information accessible in a multilingual environment and to disseminate it to NPD project team members. Collectively, these barriers inhibit a shared understanding of product development process knowledge. Existing knowledge management methodologies have focused on the capture of knowledge, rather than providing information about the knowledge and have not explicitly addressed issues regarding knowledge sharing in a multilingual environment. This thesis reports a prototype method and tool to facilitate knowledge sharing that addresses all three knowledge sharing barriers. Initially the research set out to identify and classify new product development process knowledge and then sought to determine what information about specific knowledge items is required by project teams. Based on the exploratory case findings, an ontology has been developed that formally defines information about this knowledge and allows it to be captured in a knowledge acquisition tool, thereby creating a knowledge base. A mechanism is provided to permit language labels to be attached to concepts and relations in the ontology, making it accessible to speakers of different languages. A dissemination tool allows the ontology and knowledge base to be viewed via a Web browser client. Essentially, the ontology and mechanisms facilitate a knowledge sharing capability. Some initial validation was conducted to better understand implementation issues and future deployment of the prototype method and tool in practice.

Performing product trajectories and overlapping markets : an analysis of coffee global value chains

Onyas, Winfred Ikiring January 2012 (has links)
This research presents an original contribution to knowledge illuminating how overlapping product trajectories and markets co-evolve, mutually influencing each other. By so doing, this study sheds light on how markets define, interrupt and divert product trajectories, with product trajectories holding together markets, connecting goods, agencies and practices enacted at different points in the trajectory. Putting forward an Exchange Networks model, this research extends the notion of market framing (Callon, 1999) to analyse overlapping markets, examining how market agencies compete to define exchange objects and enrol suppliers into their market actor-networks. This analysis importantly draws attention the shifting exchange networks connecting buyers, suppliers and exchange objects, revealing how agential practices shape and sustain overlapping markets. Analysing 'global value chains' as an example of a product trajectory, this research reports on the findings of an ethnographic study of the global coffee trajectory originating from the Good African Company market in Uganda - a Southern-led differentiated coffee market existing alongside the mainstream coffee market. The empirical data gathered captures the everyday practices of agencies shaping these two competing markets at the farmer - buyer segment of their coffee trajectories. This study therefore addresses an empirical gap in the Global Value Chain and commodity studies literature, providing a detailed analysis of how a Southern-led differentiated coffee market existing alongside the mainstream market is performed. In so doing, this research uncovers the particularities largely obscured in the structures, . systems and flows portrayed in Global Value Chain studies, addressing the reductionism assumed in the approach. An actor-network frame of reference developed in this thesis draws attention to the entrepreneurial capacity of semi-illiterate farmers and the unevenly distributed value along the coffee global value chain. These represent pertinent issues of interest to international development agencies, policy makers and NGOs in designing markets for, and channelling support to, developing countries.

Front End and New Product Concept Development: An insider action research study of FMCG products in a multi-national organization

Sakellariou, Evy January 2008 (has links)
The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding on the application of the first stage of the innovation funnel and on the gaps in knowledge through an analysis and synthesis of the NPD and the Front End literature. Within this literature it has been found that different authors propose different steps for the innovation funnel. These steps are discussed and then synthesized and classified under three major stages namely: Ideas/Concepts (Stage 0), Feasibility/Capability (Stage 1), Launch (Stage 2). It is the Ideas/Concepts (Stage 0) stage that is the area of concern of this action research study. There is a general awareness of certain problems and success factors during the front end. However, this stage remains 'fuzzy'; these activities of the early stage for fast consumer goods are the least explicit and a deeper understanding is needed through further research (Khurana & Rosenthal, 1998).The research explores 'Front End and New Product Development: An insider action research of FMCG products in a multi-national organization'. Such a research employs a constructivist approach to reveal the stages and the success factors at the international Front End, as perceived by Subject Matter Experts in international innovation, to develop a new International Product Concept Model and to apply it in a multi-national organization.

A two-tier adaptive approach to securing successful ERP implementation

Hui, Sai Chung January 2007 (has links)
In recent years, a significant volume of industrial and academic research has been directed towards understanding the evolution and development of ERP systems and their associated applications. However, the associated technological and social changes are significant, and although many corporations have successfully implemented ERP, there have also been many reported cases of failed implementation. This has led several researchers to examine in detail the causes of these failures, in an effort to identify critical success factors associated with successful implementation. This dissertation reports on an action research study that arose from an initiative designed to improve the likelihood of success when implementing a particular UKdeveloped ERP system in China, namely `System 21' from JBA International. The project in which this research is embedded was a joint venture between JBA and a leading US beverage company, Pepsi Cola. The dissertation initially focuses on the analysis of underlying reasons for pilot project failures in this joint venture. This draws upon qualitative data from managers, consultants and other stakeholders involved in the ERP implementation at three geographically dispersed sites. The research then turns to an examination of ERP implementation methodology in the context of joint venture collaboration and associated issues such as change management and business process (re)engineering. This is grounded in a literature review of several approaches adopted by the major ERP solution providers. The literature review phase is followed by the design and distribution of a detailed questionnaire aimed at identifying, and subsequently addressing, the concerns of various customer stakeholders in a number of Hong Kong based businesses spanning a range of industrial sectors. Its aim was to secure the necessary improvements in methodology required to underpin the successful implementation in future Pepsi Joint Venture projects in China. Ultimately, this led to a set of recommendations in the form of a strategic framework for implementing ERP systems in China. In summary, a key deliverable arising from the research was the production of a business model for the achievement of success when implementing joint venture ERP systems in China. A second related deliverable is the improvement of the generic implementation methodology currently available to customers of `System 21'. This has been achieved by developing a framework evolved from an adaptive approach to the implementation of ERP systems. To a great extent, the findings and recommendations are also applicable to other multinational companies who are operating in China and keen on implementing ERP systems within this particular setting, with its associated cultural and other restrictions.

The development and empirical testing of a pressure/ response model of green supply chain management amongst a cross-sectoral sample of members of the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply

Holt, Diane Lesley January 2005 (has links)
This study develops and empirically tests a model of factors determining green supply chain management practices in organisations. Previous research on aspects of green supply chain management is dominated by anecdotal, sector specific studies that examine specific aspects of the supply chain, such as purchasing or logistics. Many argue this field is embryonic and lacking a structured integrative framework of research. This study addresses this gap by focussing on a whole supply chain approach that provides a synthesis of previous research to develop a model of green supply chain management. The data from a cross-sectoral survey of 149 members the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply is used to test this model, using a variety of multivariate techniques. The model identifies environmental attitude as the primary determinant of green supply chain management practices, influenced to a lesser extent by external legislative factors. The influence of organisational contingencies on this model is also explored, and size identified as the only contingency that influences the relationships in this model. The dominant influence of environmental attitude suggests that within organisations there are internal factors, or individuals, that may push forward the green agenda, and those initiatives that focus on changing the environmental attitude/ culture of an organisation might be the most effective at improving environmental performance. This study suggests that factors previously identified as important within green supply chain management, such as supply chain or competitive pressures, are less influential than expected. However, future research should seek to compare the findings from this study with a larger, cross-sectoral sample that includes diverse organisations from different nations, sectors and levels of channel power.

Logistics service quality and relationship quality in third party relationships

Jaafar, Harlina S. January 2006 (has links)
The market for third party logistics (TPL) service has expanded hugely over the past few years as its total revenue has reached $333 billion globally. It is expected that the industry will grow substantially, and became increasingly complex. As the industry matures, a number of authors have recognised that logistics service quality is becoming a vital tool for delivering superior logistics service performance and thus creating customer satisfaction. Concurrently, considerable evidence has been accumulated that shows relationship quality is useful in the marketing channel context in driving customer loyalty. However, empirical research investigating the effects of the relationships among logistics service quality, customer satisfaction, relationship quality and customer loyalty has received relatively little attention in the literature. This study attempts to fill this void by investigating customers' satisfaction with TPL providers' services across industrial sectors in the UK and the relationship quality they have with them. It empirically tests the validity of Mentzer et al's (2001) Logistics Service Quality PQ) scale for measuring logistics service quality and the LSQ process model that underpins it. A disaggregated model of relationship quality is also used to assess its impact on customer loyalty. Structural equation modelling analysis of the data collected by mail survey of 183 logistics-related managers confirms that LSQ measures are generalisable across industrial sectors in the UK. The results show that technical quality dimensions of logistics service do not drive customers' satisfaction, but serve as the order qualifiers while the functional quality dimensions act as order winning criteria that differentiates TPL providers' service excellence for customer satisfaction. It also supports existing theoretical studies that suggest that relationship quality produces loyal customers. The research contributes to both marketing and logistics discipline in that it empirically demonstrates the positive link between logistics service quality and customer satisfaction as well as customer satisfaction, relationship quality and customer loyalty.

Supply chain uncertainty : linking sources of uncertainty and management practices

Simangunsong, Eliot Sation January 2010 (has links)
Supply chain uncertainty is a key issue that affects firm competitiveness (1993; Yang et al., 2004); and, therefore, identifying the major sources of uncertainty within supply chains and developing strategies to manage them is an important challenge (Sabri & Beamon, 2000). There is an emerging literature on supply chain uncertainty but additional empirical research is required to further develop understanding of this phenomenon. This leads to an important research question to explore what sources of uncertainty can be identified in practice, what are the dimensions of these sources, and how can they be managed. To address this research question, this thesis has developed a theoretical model of supply chain uncertainty. Using this theoretical model to structure the investigation, an empirical study has been conducted in the food industry in Indonesia with twelve inter-related companies (4 suppliers, 4 iv manufacturers, and 4 retailers). Twenty three semi-structured interviews with thirty two senior representatives from the twelve companies have been conducted; interviews were audio and video recorded, and analysed using Atlas.ti. A comprehensive approach, which goes beyond previous studies, has been undertaken. Fourteen sources of uncertainty, including those internal to the firm (e.g., manufacturing process), internal to the supply chain (e.g., supplier) and external (e.g., environment) have been explored and twenty two management strategies for reducing or coping with the relevant dimensions have been identified Other research contributions are also identified such as the dynamic and multi dimensional process of managing sources of uncertainty. The findings of the thesis have implications for managers. For example, reducing uncertainty strategies such as collaboration are generally preferred over coping with uncertainty strategies but are difficult to implement when sources of uncertainty span beyond the boundaries of the firm. Future research should explore issues emerging from this study, such as ethical issues affecting supply chain uncertainty. Keywords: Supply chain uncertainty; uncertainty management; case study research.

An exploration of the effects of functional integration on performance in new product development

Gomes, Jorge Filipe da Silva January 2001 (has links)
New product development (NPD) is a process that requires the capability to obtain, process and interpret large amounts of market, technical, financial and other information, in order to develop product ideas and evaluate their technical soundness, manufacturability and economic (market) feasibility. This requires organisations and individuals to be able to overcome internal differences and barriers built during the process of differentiation (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967), and implement an NPD process based on collaboration of structurally separated, yet interdependent, functional units (especially marketing and R&D). Studies have shown that functional integration is a critical aspect of today's NPD's activities (e.g. Song, Montoya-Weiss and Schmidt, 1997), while the introduction of structured models of product development -e.g. stagegate systems- have contributed to increase linking and collaboration in the process (Cooper, 1990; Clark and Wheelwright, 1993). Recent research, however, suggests that high integration is not always desirable or achievable, and that its relationship with other variables might depend on factors such as the stage of the project and product innovativeness (Griffin and Hauser, 1996; Weerd-Nederhof, 1998). Furthermore, there is a need to understand how companies and managers involved in NPD activities can actively promote and encourage integration of functional units during a particular project. The objective of the present thesis is twofold. First it describes and explores the means through which functional integration can be achieved in an NPD context. Second, it explores the relationship between performance in NPD and functional integration under different conditions of project uncertainty and project stage. This work used a mixed-method design to guide the collection of qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data is based on 84 semi-structured interviews with people involved in NPD activities in 30 companies in the UK and the Netherlands. Other sources of qualitative data included internal company documentation, observation, computer databases, and companies' web sites. Quantitative data is based on 107 questionnaires completed by project managers working in 47 companies/BUs in the UK and the Netherlands.

An investigation into product design and production techniques within a just-in-time manufacturing environment

Richmond, Robin Julian January 1993 (has links)
This thesis describes the implementation of a Just-in-Time (JIT) cell on a greenfield site. It concentrates on a before and after implementation situation. Various production parameters are analysed to compare flowline performance before and after the implementation of JIT. The study is primarily concerned with the philosophies behind the Japanese management style of JIT and the practical use of JIT in a relatively small production line. Each area of JIT and its associated components are studied and, where practical, executed into practice within the production line. The study includes an investigation of the present manufacturing system and recommends improvements to aid manufacturing output. Total Quality Control, Set-up Reduction, Group Technology, Kanban, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis and Value Analysis are tools used to assist the formation of the JIT cell. Results taken after implementation revealed that stock levels reduced by 25%. Shop floor area was reduced by 205 square metres and lead time reduced by 33%. Large arrears in orders were virtually eliminated six weeks after implementation. Warranty claims were greatly reduced. Quality Management greatly enhanced the product and cross-training of operatives was achieved.

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