The objective of this research was to develop a system to effectively monitor temperature in the selective laser melting of Inconel 625. This study established a monitoring system that collects temperature data and describes its relationship with process parameters, develops a control simulation based on the obtained results and determines how to change input parameters in situ. Such research was driven by the unreliability of additively manufactured components, which often contain internal voids and cracks as well as display poor surface finish. With the need for improved part quality, a temperature monitoring system, a promising method of solving several quality issues, proves necessary. This monitoring system was developed using a pyrometer and a thermal imager mounted on a powder bed metal printer to record the peak temperature of the melt pool. Experiments found that both laser power and scan speed affect the peak melt pool temperature of Inconel 625: as the peak melt pool increases as power increases and as scan speed decreases. A subset of experiments run with a thermal camera further revealed that there is no discernible temperature trend across the laser track, meaning that there was no significant difference in temperature at the start, middle or end of the track. The thermal camera also revealed that temperature across the melt pool resembled a second order response to laser input. Furthermore, according to preliminary offline measurements taken of the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) of Inconel 625 coupons, PDAS increases with peak temperature. In addition to implementing and testing the monitoring system, this research created and simulated a first order model of the system using a discreet proportional integral derivative controller. Lastly, two separate methods were found to interface a controller with the Omnisint 160 in order to change the laser power based on the temperature feedback / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc)
03 December 2018
For additive manufacturing, research has shown that the chemistry and microstructural properties of the feedstock powder can significantly affect the properties of the consolidated material. Thermal treatment and recycling parameters for powders used in both solid and liquid state processes can further affect the microstructure and properties of the consolidated parts. Understanding the powder microstructure and effects of powder pre-treatment can aid in optimizing the properties of the final consolidated part. This research proposes a method for the characterization and optimization of powder pre-processing thermal parameters using aluminum alloy powder as examples. Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and hardness were used to evaluate each condition.
Asiatico, Patricia Magistrado
07 June 2021
The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential application of additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) to repair corroded steel bridge members. AFSD is an emerging solid-state additive manufacturing (AM) technology with many advantageous qualities such as low porosity, low residual stresses, flexibility in material, and a high build rate allowing for large-scale deposits. Two parameters were studied to understand the quality of AFSD on corroded steel: surface roughness and surface cleanliness. Three rounds of depositions were done: AerMet100, a high-strength corrosion-resistant steel, deposited onto AISI 1018 plates, with varying degrees of section loss, sectioned from a bridge taken out-of-service; AISI 1018 steel deposited onto an A572 Gr. 50 plate with 12 holes of varying diameters and depths drilled into the plate to simulate surface roughness; and AISI 1018 steel deposited onto an A572 Gr. 50 plate with mill scale, corrosion, and an industrial three-coat bridge paint system. The repair quality of each deposition was studied using scanning electron microscopy, microhardness testing, and three-point bending. Results from these tests indicated the following: AFSD can sufficiently mix dissimilar steels and result in a fine-grained microstructure; depositing onto a rough surface appeared to aid bonding between the two materials with little to no adverse effects on the repair quality; and finally, depending on the chosen deposition parameters, AFSD can mix foreign surface material into the matrix or mechanically remove the bulk of the foreign surface material appearing to clean the surface during the deposition. / Master of Science / This research investigated the applicability of additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) to repair corroded steel bridge members. AFSD is an emerging technology that can deposit metals without melting and build a part layer by layer similar to 3D printing. Since this process uses relatively low temperatures, the deposited material is not melted thus reducing issues associated with rapid solidification of melted metal. Three studies were conducted to better understand the print quality of AFSD on corroded steel. First, steel was deposited onto a surface with varying sized holes drilled to different depths meant to simulate a corroded surface. Second, a high-strength corrosion-resistant steel was deposited onto a corroded steel plate cut from an old bridge. Last, steel was deposited onto a steel plate with varying prepared surfaces including paint and corrosion. The quality of the depositions was studied through microscopy and mechanical testing. Results from these tests indicated the following: AFSD can sufficiently bond two different types of steels; depositing onto a non-level surface appeared to aid bonding between the two steels; and finally, AFSD can deposit steel onto certain unclean surfaces.
Miranda McConnell (6273422)
12 October 2021
<div>This work investigates several uses of additive manufacturing to meet modern security-related needs. All energetic materials when integrated in a practical system require an ignition device, e.g. a bridgewire or spark gap igniter, which is traditionally fabricated from metal components. A conductive polymer, polyaniline,</div><div>was chosen to create metal-free spark gap igniters in a process that lends itself well to large-scale manufacturing. The igniters proved consistent in terms of breakdown</div><div>voltage, as well as their effectiveness in igniting nanothermite, a representative energetic material. This work also establishes a simple and effective approach suitable for the precise material deposition of CL-20. This is relevant for the development of trace detection calibration standards. This work shows that CL-20 is compatible with inkjet</div><div>printing for this purpose. Furthermore, the need to secure sensitive information that is stored locally on electronic devices led to the study of the use of confined nanothermite to damage substrates used in electronics. The maximum thickness of PCB that permitted destruction with repeatable results was investigated o suggest a baseline for future system integration and production. In addition, the stress of the board was modeled using measured thrust data. In brief, this work has proven that the use of additive manufacturing with energetic materials is both a possible and effective means to secure devices, should a device containing sensitive material be unintentionally misplaced.</div>
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / One of the primary challenges faced in Additive Manufacturing (AM) is reducing the overall cost and printing time. A critical factor in cost and time reduction is post-processing of 3D printed (3DP) parts, which includes removing support structures. Support is needed to prevent the collapse of the part or certain areas under its own weight during the 3D printing process. Currently, the design of self-supported 3DP parts follows experimental trials. A trial and error process is needed to produce high quality parts by Fused Depositing Modeling (FDM). An example for a chamfer angle, is the common use of 45 degree angle in the AM process. Surfaces that are more flat show defects than inclined surfaces, and therefore a numerical model is needed. The model can predict the problematic areas at a print, reducing the experimental prints and providing a higher number of usable parts. Physical-based models have not been established due to the generally unknown properties of the material during the AM process. With simulations it is possible to simulate the part at different temperatures with a variety of other parameters that have influence on the behavior of the model. In this research, analytic calculations and physical tests are carried out to determine the material properties of the thermoplastic polymer Acrylonitrile - Butadiene - Styrene (ABS) for FDM at the time of extrusion. This means that the ABS is going to be extruded at 200C to 245C and is a viscus material during part construction. Using the results from the physical and analytical models, i.e., Timoshenko’s modified beam theory for micro structures, a numerical material model is established to simulate the filament deformation once it is deposited onto the part. Experiments were also used to find the threshold for different geometric specifications, which could then be applied to the numerical model to improve the accuracy of the simulation. The result of the nonlinear finite element analysis is compared to experiments to show the correlation between the prediction of deflection in simulation and the actual deflection measured in physical experiments. A case study was conducted using an application that optimizes topology of complex geometries. After modeling and simulating the optimized part, areas of defect and errors were determined in the simulation, then verified and and measured with actual 3D prints.
The design, construction and evaluation of sprint footwear to investigate increased sprint shoe bending stiffness on sprint performance and dynamicsVinet, Andrea M. January 2014 (has links)
No description available.
The study presents a normative framework for the Additive Manufacturing (AM) implementation process in the UK manufacturing sector. The motivations for the study include the lack of socio-technical studies on the AM implementation process and the need for existing and potential future project managers to have an implementation model to guide their efforts in implementing these relatively new and potentially disruptive technologies. The study has been conducted through case research with the primary data collected through the in-depth semi-structured interviews with AM project managers. Seven case studies were conducted representing AM implementation practice at different stages of the implementation cycle. The first stage involved a pilot study at a post-implementer to identify the main areas of interest for AM implementation research. The second involved a wider study of AM implementers at the post-implementation stage with cross case analysis of implementation practice. The final stage involved an investigation into pre-implementation of AM, applying the proposed framework in three companies yet to fully implement AM as a production method. Contribution towards the existing body of literature was in the form of a normative framework for AM implementation in a variety of industrial sectors. The framework describes the main activities in the implementation process and supports a taxonomy of implementers.
Developing and Evaluating Computer-Assisted Surgical Techniques for Percutaneous Scaphoid Fixation using Additive Manufacturing TechnologySmith, Erin Janine 14 January 2013 (has links)
This dissertation presents a thesis on the use of additive manufacturing in the development and evaluation of a computer-assisted system for wrist-fracture repair. The work developed tools for performing navigated wrist surgery, developed methods for evaluating surgical performance, and provided novel experience with model-based surgical evaluation. Patient-derived bone models, fabricated using additive manufacturing, were proposed as an alternative to cadaver specimens for testing and validating the new surgical system. The accuracy of fabricating these models from computed-tomography imaging was investigated using laser scanning and was found to be reproducible to within half a millimeter. Three generations of a surgical system for navigated wrist-fracture repair were developed and evaluated using a wrist model that was produced by additive manufacturing. Compared to cadaver specimens, the model was less expensive and performed equally well under simulated surgical conditions. The model-based evaluation permitted larger study sizes that increased the statistical power of the experimental results. Criteria for surgical performance included surgical and technical measurement of screw placement. The navigation system was superior in optimizing screw placement compared to conventional surgical methods. Navigation also reduced the risk of radiation exposure and clinical complications of wrist-fracture repair. Surgical tools, including a drill guide and wrist-stabilization device were developed with the use of additive manufacturing. Prototype devices could be quickly and economically fabricated for testing under realistic conditions. A system for performing navigated wrist fracture repair was successfully developed through the use of additive-manufacturing prototyping and evaluation. Additive manufacturing was integral to the successful evaluation of the system's improvement in performance. / Thesis (Ph.D, Mechanical and Materials Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2012-12-19 11:40:46.269
Jones, Rhys Owen
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a class of echnologies whereby components are made in an additive, layer-by-layer fashion enabling production of complex parts in which complexity has little or no effect on cost. However typical components roduced using these techniques are basic structural items with no major strength requirement and low geometric tolerances made from a single material. his thesis develops a low-cost Fused Filament abrication (FFF) based AM technique to produce functional parts. This is achieved by through esearching and implementing new materials in ombination and using precise control of infill tool paths for existing materials. Robocasting has previously been shown to be extremely versatile, however is known to offer poorer build quality relative to its ess-versatile counterparts. Research was ndertaken to enable Robocasting to be combined with FFF to enable the print quality and practical benefits of FFF with the material flexibility of Robocasting. This resulted in the manufacture of several multiple-material omponents using the technique to demonstrate its potential. In order to minimise the number of materials required to obtain desired properties, the effect of process parameters such as layer height, infill angle, and infill porosity were investigated. In total over an order of agnitude variation in Young’s modulus and tensile strength were achieved, enabling these properties to be actively controlled within the manufactured components. Finally a novel non-eutectic low melting point alloy was developed to be compatible with the FFF process. Its greater viscosity compared to traditional eutectics resulted in improved print quality and the reliable deposition of electrically conductive track 0.57x0.25mm in cross-section. In addition the material is approximately three orders of magnitude more conductive that typical printable organic inks. A micro-controller was produced using the technique in conjunction with traditional electronics components. This represents the first time a functional electrical circuitry, with sufficient conductivity for the majority of applications and interfacing directly with standard electrical components, has been produced using a very low-cost AM technique such as FFF. The research undertaken builds components with substantially improved functionality relative to traditional AM products, enabling electromechanical components with varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is anticipated that this could substantially reduce the part-count for many engineering assemblies and open up Additive Manufacturing to many new applications.
Eidt, Wesley Earl
27 May 2020
No description available.
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