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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Insulin and growth hormone : regulation of adipocyte metabolism during infancy and childhood /

Kamel, Ashraf Fawzy, January 1900 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst. / Härtill 6 uppsatser.

Rôle des récepteurs nucléaires PPAR gamma et PPAR alpha dans la conversion d'adipocytes blancs humains en adipocytes bruns/brites / Role of nuclear receptors PPAR gamma and PPAR alpha in white-to-brown conversion of human white adipocytes

Beuzelin, Diane 18 December 2015 (has links)
Chez les mammifères, deux types de tissu adipeux (TA) sont présents: le TA blanc, qui est l'organe de stockage et de libération des lipides, et le TA brun, qui est un organe spécialisé dans la production de chaleur grâce à l'expression de la protéine découplante mitochondriale UCP1.Chez l'homme, la présence d'un TA brun métaboliquement actif est inversement corrélée à l'obésité et au diabète de type 2. Ce TA brun est composé de deux types distincts de cellules thermogéniques, les adipocytes bruns classiques présents dans des dépôts spécifiques et les adipocytes "brite " (brown-in-white). Chez la souris, les adipocytes " brite " apparaissent dans le TA blanc lors d'une exposition au froid et sont protecteurs contre l'insulinorésistance induite par l'obésité. Ainsi le "brunissement " du TA blanc ouvre la voie à de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques pour lutter contre les pathologies associées à l'obésité. Toutefois, la capacité des adipocytes blancs humains à acquérir un métabolisme brun/brite reste méconnue. Notre étude cherche donc à identifier les changements moléculaires et métaboliques associés à la conversion d'adipocytes blancs humains différenciés en adipocytes " brite ", après un traitement par des agonistes des récepteurs nucléaires PPARgamma ou PPARalpha. Dans un premier temps, nous avons montré in vitro que les cellules hMADS(adipocytes humains dérivés des cellules souches mésenchymateuses), différenciées en adipocytes blancs sont convertis en adipocytes " brites " par les agonistes PPARgamma et PPARalpha. Ces adipocytes brites ont une activité mitochondriale élevée et expriment la protéine découplante UCP1. Dans un deuxième temps, nous avons mis en évidence que le brunissement s'accompagne d'un profond changement métabolique. La mise en place d'un cycle futile lipolyse/ré-estérification couplé à une augmentation de l'oxydation des acides gras permet de fournir les substrats nécessaires à la thermogenèse mitochondriale. A l'inverse, le transport et l'oxydation du glucose sont diminués notamment suite à l'inhibition de la pyruvate déshydrogénase par la protéine PDK4. A la place le glucose va être dirigé vers la voie de la glycéronéogenèse pour fournir le glycérol-3-phosphate nécessaire à la synthèse des triglycérides. Ainsi, l'ensemble du métabolisme des adipocytes " brite " est réorganisé vers l'utilisation des acides gras comme source principale d'énergie. Enfin, nous avons validé l'implication de PPARalpha dans les mécanismes de brunissement in vivo grâce à l'utilisation de souris dont le gène codant pour PPARalpha a été invalidé. L'induction du brunissement par un agoniste betea3-adrénergique nous a permis de confirmer que PPARalpha est nécessaire à l'expression optimale des gènes thermogéniques et au brunissement du tissu adipeux blanc. L'ensemble de ces données permet d'affirmer que chez l'homme, les adipocytes blancs sont capables de se convertir en adipocytes " brite ". Cette conversion s'accompagne de changements métaboliques qui favorisent l'utilisation intracellulaire des acides gras, ce qui pourrait diminuer leur niveau plasmatique limitant ainsi leur stockage ectopique dans les tissus insulinosensibles. / Two types of adipose tissue are present in mammals, white and brown adipose tissue. White adipose tissue (WAT) is specialized in storage and release of lipids, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy dissipation as heat through the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).In humans,thermogenically-competent brown adipose tissue is negatively associated with body mass index and diabetes. BAT is composed of two distinct types of thermogenic cells, classical brown adipocytes located in specific depots and brite adipocytes (brown-in white). In mice, these cells appear in WAT upon cold exposure and are protective against obesity-induced insulin resistance. Therefore, fighting obesity through "browning" of white adipose tissue emerges as a promising strategy. However, the ability of human white adipocytes to acquire a brown/brite phenotype is not yet understood. Here, we aimed at identifying the molecular and metabolic changes associated with the white-to-brown conversion of human mesenchymal adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells following treatment by agonists of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma or PPARalpha. First, we demonstrated in vitro that PPARgamma or PPARalpha agonists similarly induce white-to-brown conversion of hMADS cells into brite adipocytes that possess high mitochondrial content and express UCP1. Second, we showed that browning is associated with profound metabolic changes. The lipolytic machinery and fatty acid re-esterification was stimulated by the two treatments, resulting in a futile cycle. These adaptations combined with an increase of fatty acid betaoxidation provide substrates to sustain the high level of mitochondrial thermogenesis. In contrast, glucose uptake and oxidation are decreased through inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase by PDK4. Consequently, glucose-carbons are redirected towards glyceroneogenesis to provide the glycerol-3-phosphate backbone necessary for triglyceride esterification. Thus, brite adipocyte metabolism is modified to promote fatty acid utilization as the main energy source. In order to confirm the involvement of PPARalpha in inducing browning in vivo, we treated mice with inactivation of the PPARalpha gene with a beta3-adrenergic agonist. In subcutaneous WAT, expression of BAT- and brite-specific markers was lower in PPARalpha knock out than in wild type mice, confirming that PPARa is required for WAT browning. Altogether, this study shows that PPARgamma and PPARalpha activation in human white adipocytes promotes browning associated with an increase in fatty acid utilization without enhancement of glucose metabolism. These metabolic changes favor intra-adipose fatty acid utilization and thus could diminish plasma fatty flux for ectopic storage into insulin-sensitive tissues.

The translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin during lipolysis

Clifford, Gary January 1999 (has links)
No description available.

Increased fat oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through forced expression of UCP 1

Palani, Santhosh 30 October 2006 (has links)
Obesity is a chronic condition that primarily develops from an increase in body fat in the form of white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. The resulting adiposity is a risk factor for many diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, and some forms of cancer. Reducing WAT mass by targeted modulation of metabolic enzymes in fat cell metabolism is an attractive molecular therapeutic alternative to dietary approaches. In the present study, we exogenously up-regulate a novel respiratory uncoupling protein to increase substrate oxidation, and thereby control adipocyte fatty acid content. Increasing molecular evidence points to a family of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) playing an important role in adipocyte fat metabolism. Of specific interest is UCP1, which in brown adipocytes mediates energy dissipation as heat by de-coupling respiration and ATP synthesis. UCP1 is minimally expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT). We hypothesize that controlled expression of UCP1 in WAT will result in enhanced fatty acid oxidation to compensate for reduced ATP synthesis. We used a Tet-Off retroviral transfection system to express UCP1, with doxycycline being used to control the extent of expression. UCP1 cDNA was cloned into pRevTRE and was stably transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes prior to differentiating them into adipocytes. A reporter gene (EGFP) was also transfected in parallel to optimize the transfection and preadipocyte differentiation conditions as well as to demonstrate regulated expression. Metabolite measurements showed that the UCP1-expressing adipocytes accumulated 83% less triglyceride and 85 % free fatty acids while maintaining constant ATP levels. These results suggest UCP1 and other metabolic enzymes as potential targets for development of pharmacological agents for the treatment of obesity and related disorders.

Effets du stress oxydant sur le fonctionnement des adipocytes adiponectine et prostaglandines /

Soares, Anísio Francisco Géloën, Alain. January 2006 (has links)
Reproduction de : Thèse de doctorat : Biochimie : Villeurbanne, INSA : 2005. / Contient 2 articles en anglais co-rédigés par l'auteur. Titre provenant de l'écran-titre. Bibliogr. p. 114-129. Index.

Adrenergic stimulation of glucose uptake in brown adipocytes /

Chernogubova, Ekaterina, January 2005 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Univ., 2005. / Härtill 4 uppsatser.

Metabolic and endocrine function of human adipose tissue with focus on regional differences /

van Harmelen, Vanessa, January 1900 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst., 2001. / Härtill 6 uppsatser.

Studies on the regulation and in vitro metabolic effects of leptin in children and adults /

Elimam, Amira M. I., January 1900 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst., 2001. / Härtill 7 uppsatser.

Expanding role of caveolae in control of adipocyte metabolism : proteomics of caveolae /

Aboulaich, Nabila, January 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Linköping : Univ., 2006. / Härtill 4 uppsatser.

The regulation of PHAS-1 in isolated rat adipocytes by insulin /

Fadden, Robert Patrick. January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Virginia, 1997. / Spine title: The regulation of PHAS-1 by insulin. Includes bibliographical references (159-167). Also available online through Digital Dissertations.

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