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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Depot-specific mechanisms determining human fat distribution

Denton, Nathan January 2017 (has links)
Body fat distribution is a strong determinant of human metabolic health but the mechanisms underpinning regional deposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) remain poorly understood. WAT also exhibits striking depot-specific functional properties. The aim of this project was to investigate the potential role of specific candidate genes implicated in regulating WAT development and/or function in a depot-specific manner. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is an extracellular matrix protein that is highly differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal WAT but has primarily been studied in the context of bone biology. WAT COMP expression was found to be significantly up-regulated in obesity; COMP expression in preadipocytes was increased by glucocorticoids; and COMP promoted adipogenesis in (immortalised) subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal preadipocytes. Building on a finding during the COMP study, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 was identified as another candidate. BMP2 exerts positive adipogenic effects in murine models and a recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis identified a significant association between BMP2 and body fat distribution. BMP2 was found to exert a pro-adipogenic effect specifically in subcutaneous abdominal preadipocytes, with this effect requiring activation of SMAD1/5/8 signalling via type 1 BMP receptors. These data identify BMP2 as a novel depot-specific regulator of human adipogenesis. Particularly lipid-laden cells were formed when conventional adipogenic medium was supplemented with fatty acids; these cells were captured, de-differentiated (DFAT) and expanded to generate immortalised abdominal and gluteal DFAT cells. These DFAT cells exhibit a greatly enhanced adipogenic potential compared to the mixed stromovascular (SVF) population from which they derive and retained an intrinsic memory of their anatomical origin. The use of DFAT cells is likely to represent a valid and enhanced model system to study various depot-specific aspects of WAT biology such as adipogenesis. Overall, the data from this thesis emphasise the striking depot-specific biology exhibited by WAT and provide novel insights into the mechanisms governing the regional distribution of WAT in humans.

Influence of dietary fat and meal frequency on lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in rat adipose tissue

Paik, Hyun Suh 22 July 1977 (has links)
Activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipose tissue, accumulation of carcass fat, and serum triglyceride have been determined in meal-fed (MF) and ad libitum-fed (AD) rats. At each feeding frequency, the animals received diets providing total fat as 15% or 30% of calories and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as 2.5% or 11% of calories. The food intake of the MF rats was 75% of that consumed by the AD rats but MF rats utilized their food more efficiently, as evidenced by weight gain per 100 Kcal consumed. Meal feeding, as contrasted to ad libitum feeding, resulted in greater activities of both LPL and HSL. This suggested a higher turnover of fat in the adipose tissue of MF rats. In AD rats, body fat was significantly correlated with LPL and the ratio of LPL:HSL. Meal feeding significantly increased the ratio of LPL:HSL, indicating a greater capacity for energy storage and fat deposition in the MF rat. However, at the limited caloric intake, MF rats failed to realize this potential; there was no significant difference in percentage of body fat at the two feeding frequencies. Body fat deposition was greater in rats fed the 30% fat diet, as compared with the 15% diet, regardless of the rate of food ingestion. This was coupled with a higher ratio of LPL:HSL. The significant correlation of serum triglycerides with body fat and with the ratio of LPL:HSL in AD rats suggests that LPL activity and fat deposition may be controlled by the concentration of circulating triglycerides. Both serum triglycerides and adipose LPL activity were significantly reduced when the diet contained high levels of PUFA. The percentage of body fat was also lower in animals whose intake of PUFA was high. / Graduation date: 1978

Analysis of body composition with use of body impedance analysis and skinfold calipers : a correlation study /

Biver, Deborah J. January 1988 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.S.)--Eastern Illinois University, 1988. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 32-45).

The relationship of [alpha]-glycerophosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in rat adipose tissue metabolism

Shahidsaless, Fathieh Molaparast. January 1978 (has links)
Thesis--Wisconsin. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references.

Effects of medium composition and conditioning on adipose development in vitro

Onan, Gary William. January 1985 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1985. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 163-172).

In vitro adipose development

Pommier, Serge Andre. January 1984 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1984. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 178-191).

The development of a surgical procedure which allows radioactive labeling of fetal tissue in utero without amnionic fluid loss

Knutson, Thomas James. January 1977 (has links)
Thesis--Wisconsin. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 39-40).

Characterization of fatty acid binding protein in mammalian adipose tissue

Haq, Riaz-ul. January 1981 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1981. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 120-148).

Influence of Anatomic Depot on the Apoptotic Susceptibility of Adipose Progenitor Cells

Biernacka-Larocque, Amanda January 2015 (has links)
Adipose tissue (AT) expands through hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Hyperplasic AT expansion requires an adequate number of adipose progenitor cells. This study investigates the influence of depot origin on the susceptibility of adipose progenitors to cell death, and measures the effect of macrophage-secreted factors on adipose progenitor survival. Using serum deprivation alone or in the presence of TNFα, omental (OM) versus subcutaneous (SC) adipose progenitors, obtained from human AT, displayed a 3- and 1.7-fold-increase in apoptosis, respectively, as assessed by Hoechst staining, (p<0.05). Similar results were observed with cell enumeration. The ratio of OM/SC cell death from serum deprivation positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). The depot-specific difference in cell death was lost when TNFα and cycloheximide (CHX) were used. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MD-macrophages), isolated from human blood, did not have an effect on apoptosis. Depot-related differences in adipose progenitor apoptosis may influence AT remodeling and alter metabolic functionality in obesity.

Hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism by brown adipose tissue

Gibbins, J. M. January 1986 (has links)
No description available.

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