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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Spatio-temporal modeling and forecasting of air quality data

Yan, Tsz-leung, 甄子良 January 2014 (has links)
Respirable Suspended Particulate (RSP) time series data sampled in an air quality monitoring network are found strongly correlated and they are varying in highly similar patterns. This study provides a methodology for spatio-temporal modeling and forecasting of multiple RSP time series, in which the dynamic spatial correlations amongst the series can be effectively utilized.   The efficacy of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Harmonic Regression (STDHR) model is demonstrated. Based on the decomposition of the observed time series into the trend and periodic components, the model is capable of making forecast of RSP data series that exhibit variation patterns during air pollution episodes and typhoons with dynamic weather conditions. It is also capable to produce spatial predictions of RSP time series up to three unobserved sites.   The Noise-variance-ratio (NVR) form of the multivariate recursive algorithm ((M2) algorithm) that derived by the author can greatly facilitate its practical application in both multivariate and univariate time series analysis. The (M2) algorithm allows the spatial correlations to be specified at parametric levels. The state-space (SS) model formulation can flexibly accommodate the existing inter or intra (auto) correlations amongst the parameters of the data series.   Applications of the variance intervention (VI) are exploited and illustrated with a real life case study which involves forecasting of RSP data series during an air pollution episode. This illustrates that time series with abrupt changes can be predicted by automatic implementation of the VI approach.   The present study also extended the anisotropic Matern model to estimate the dynamic spatial correlation structure of the air quality data by using mean wind speed and prevailing wind direction in defining the spatial anisotropy. The Anisotropic Matern model by Mean Wind Speed and Prevailing Wind Direction (AMMP) model that devised by the author can avoid huge computational burden in estimating variogram at every variation of the underlying spatial structure.   Finally, the findings of this dissertation have laid the foundation for further research on multiple time series analysis and estimation of dynamic spatial structure. / published_or_final_version / Geography / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
2

Computational study of wind flow and pollution dispersion in an urban street canyon of various geometries

黃潤棠, Wong, Yun-tong, Anton. January 2002 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Master / Master of Philosophy
3

Statistical analysis of air pollutants and numerical modeling of reactive pollutant dispersion within street canyon

Tong, Yun-on., 唐潤安. January 2011 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
4

Numerical study on wind field and air pollutant dispersion in urban street canopies

夏激揚, Xia, Jiyang. January 2000 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
5

On the study of ventilation and pollutant removal over idealized two-dimensional urban street canyons

Leung, Ka-kit, Pieta., 梁家杰. January 2012 (has links)
In the last century, there has been a rapid growth and development in economy and modern technology around the world. This phenomenon helped improving wealth and living standard but also brought pollutions to the society and the environment. Among various kinds of pollution, air pollution takes a larger proportion. Therefore, there is increasing concern about the ventilation and pollution removal behavior in the urban environment. Among different academic studies performed, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) had become more popular. Since wind tunnel experiments serve as validations for CFD results, this thesis developed the technique required for wind tunnels experiments and to investigate the pollutant removal related to urban geometry, as well as the technique for gas sampling to examine the distribution of pollutants in urban boundary layer over idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons. Three specific tasks are archived to accomplish the above objectives. The first task was to extend the wind tunnel in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong. An extension duct was designed to increase the length of the test section in which the reduced-scale model could be installed. The dimensions of the test section were specified according to the required length for fully developed flow inside the test section, the environment in the laboratory and the original wind tunnel conditions. The extension duct was then constructed and mounted, with the wind profile inside the test section obtained afterwards. After construction of the extended test section for experimental purposes, the second task was to examine the pollutant transport behaviors from the ground level of idealized 2D urban street canyons to the urban atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using both laboratory wind tunnel measurements and CFD. Movable rectangular aluminum blocks were placed in the wind tunnel in cross-flow to construct street canyons of different building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios. Wetted filter papers were applied on the surface of the blocks inside the street region, modeling the source of pollutant emission inside the street canyons. The wind tunnel and CFD results complemented each other to elucidate the pollutant removal mechanism that is in line with other results available in literature. From the experimental results obtained, scaling effect was observed in the mass transfer behaviors even the flows had fulfilled kinematic similarity. A new indicator, the scaled overall pollutant removal coefficient, was formulated for the comparison of pollutant removal performance. The improved agreement in the comparison with the CFD results showed that the scaled overall pollutant removal coefficient could be used to account for the scaling effects occurred in laboratory experiments at finite Reynolds number (〖10〗^(3 ) to 〖10〗^(5 ) in this study) for comparison of pollutant removal performance. The behavior of pollutants inside the street canyons was studied; however, the pollutant concentration inside a street could be affected by the pollutant source in another street, even there were several streets away from it. The pollutant escaped from the source street could act as air entrainment into other streets, affecting the air quality. The concentration profile correlated to the street geometry was thus studied. The last task of this dissertation was to study the effect of urban geometry on the concentration profile of the urban ABL by means of gas dispersion experiments. Experiments were carried out in the wind tunnels of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Civil Engineering with different sets of experimental models used. A special gas emission source was constructed in order to simulate the linear source due to busy traffic in the street regions. The required gas sampling techniques were also studied throughout the measurement. Trial experiments were carried out and preliminary results had been obtained. Furthermore, the pollutant concentration profiles downstream from a linear pollutant source in an idealized 2D street canyon were also measured. Throughout the experiments, different designs of line source were tested and factors affecting the experimental results were considered. One of the line source designs was adopted and the pollutant concentrations in street canyons of different aspect ratios were observed. The concentration decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the roof but then increases to steady value. The average pollutant concentration over the concentration profile was different at different aspect ratios. It is believed that its performance depends on the pollutant removal behavior from street regions. / published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Master / Master of Philosophy
6

Flow and pollutant dispersion over idealized urban street canyons using large-eddy simulation

Wong, Ching-chi, 黃精治 January 2013 (has links)
Flows and pollutant dispersion over flat rural terrain have been investigated for decades. However, our understanding of their behaviours over urban areas is rather limited. Most cases have either focused on street level or in the roughness sub-layer (RSL) of urban boundary layer (UBL). Whereas, only a handful of studies have looked into the coupling between street-level and UBL-core dynamics, and their effects on pollutant dispersion. In this thesis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to examine the flows and pollutant transport in and over urban roughness. Idealised two-dimensional (2D) street canyons are used as the basic units fabricating hypothetical urban surfaces. A ground-level passive and chemically inert pollutant source is applied to simulate the flows and pollutant dispersion over rough surfaces in isothermal condition. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with the one-equation subgrid-scale model is used to solve explicitly the broad range of scales in turbulent flows. Arrays of idealized street canyons of both uniform and non-uniform building height are used to formulate a unified theory for the flows and pollutant dispersion over urban areas of different morphology. The geometry of roughness elements is controlled by the building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (0.083 ≤ AR ≤ 2) and/or the building height variability (BHV = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6), in which the characteristic regimes of skimming flow, wake-interference and isolated roughness are covered. A detailed analysis on the roof-level turbulence structure reveals parcels of low-speed air masses in the streamwise flows and narrow high-speed down-drafts in the urban canopy layer, signifying the momentum entrainment into the street canyons. The decelerating streamwise flows in turn initiate up-drafts carrying pollutants away from the street canyons, illustrating the basic pollutant removal mechanism in 2D street canyons. Turbulent transport processes, in the form of ejection and sweep, are the key events governing the exchanges of air and pollutant of street canyon. Air exchange rate (ACH) along the roof level is dominated by turbulent transport, in particular over narrow street canyons. The LES results show that both the turbulence level and ACH increase with increasing aerodynamic resistance defined in term of the Fanning friction factor. At the same AR, BHV greatly increases the friction factor and the ACH in dense built areas (AR ≤ 0.25). The turbulence intensity is peaked on the windward side of street canyons that does not overlap with the maximum velocity gradient near the leeward building corners, suggesting the importance of background turbulence in street-level ventilation. Over the building roughness, pollutant plume dispersion after the ground-level area source in cross flows resumes the self-similar Gaussian shape in the vertical direction in which the vertical plume coverage is proportional to the square root of downwind distance in the streamwise direction. Moreover, the vertical dispersion coefficient is proportional to the one-fourth power of friction factor over idealised street canyons. Conclusively, friction factor can be used to parametrise ventilation and pollutant dispersion over urban areas. / published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
7

Analytical study of wind flow and pollutant dispersion past hills

李永智, Lee, Wing-chi, Steven. January 2000 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Master / Master of Philosophy
8

Scientific background on probabilistic air pollution dosage modeling

Gruhl, Jim January 1976 (has links)
No description available.
9

Neighborhood ventilation of a building cluster by combined forces

Tsui, Ka-cheung., 徐家祥. January 2008 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Master / Master of Philosophy
10

Large-eddy simulation of wind flow and air pollutant transport inside urban street canyons of different aspect ratios

Li, Xianxiang., 李顯祥. January 2008 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Mechanical Engineering / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy

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