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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Integrated modelling of structure-foundation systems

Wotherspoon, Liam M. January 2009 (has links)
A problem endemic in the development of the built environment is poor communication between structural and geotechnical specialists. Through better communication and considering the structure and foundation as an integrated system, new opportunities may arise for achieving superior performance. This thesis investigates the seismic performance of the integrated system through the development of integrated structure-foundation models using the Ruaumoko structural analysis program. A detailed representation of the structural and foundation systems was created using Ruaumoko, providing insight into the response of a range of integrated structure-foundation systems during seismic loading. In developing both shallow and deep foundation models, some modifications were made to Ruaumoko elements in order to improve the foundation model, but generally existing element configurations were used to represent foundations. Multiple structural and foundation designs were developed using a range of approaches. Use of a range of shallow foundation design methods identified the significant impact that moment loading had on foundation performance. Partial uplift of footings was identified as detrimental to footing performance as it shifted the rotational axes, increasing moment loads and reducing effective footing area. Pinned connections between the structure and shallow footings eliminated these effects at the expense of significant redistribution of actions in the structure and increased displacements. Variation of soil conditions showed that softer soil was most likely to reduce demands on the structure at the expense of foundation non-linearity. Reduced stiffness and increased radiation damping characteristics of raft foundations compared to footing foundation systems reduced the demands on three storey structures for all soil conditions. Increased structural demands were identified for the ten storey structure as a result of the reduced impact of foundation characteristics on the response of the integrated system. The level of rotational restraint at the head of pile foundations had a considerable effect on the structure and the foundation, with free-head piles developing the largest pile displacements and actions. Reduced rotational stiffness caused a substantial change in the distribution of structural actions, while increasing rotational restraint moved the characteristics closer to the response of fixed base models. Softer soil conditions greatly increased non-linearity in the foundation soil without any definitive improvement in structural performance.
2

Integrated modelling of structure-foundation systems

Wotherspoon, Liam M. January 2009 (has links)
A problem endemic in the development of the built environment is poor communication between structural and geotechnical specialists. Through better communication and considering the structure and foundation as an integrated system, new opportunities may arise for achieving superior performance. This thesis investigates the seismic performance of the integrated system through the development of integrated structure-foundation models using the Ruaumoko structural analysis program. A detailed representation of the structural and foundation systems was created using Ruaumoko, providing insight into the response of a range of integrated structure-foundation systems during seismic loading. In developing both shallow and deep foundation models, some modifications were made to Ruaumoko elements in order to improve the foundation model, but generally existing element configurations were used to represent foundations. Multiple structural and foundation designs were developed using a range of approaches. Use of a range of shallow foundation design methods identified the significant impact that moment loading had on foundation performance. Partial uplift of footings was identified as detrimental to footing performance as it shifted the rotational axes, increasing moment loads and reducing effective footing area. Pinned connections between the structure and shallow footings eliminated these effects at the expense of significant redistribution of actions in the structure and increased displacements. Variation of soil conditions showed that softer soil was most likely to reduce demands on the structure at the expense of foundation non-linearity. Reduced stiffness and increased radiation damping characteristics of raft foundations compared to footing foundation systems reduced the demands on three storey structures for all soil conditions. Increased structural demands were identified for the ten storey structure as a result of the reduced impact of foundation characteristics on the response of the integrated system. The level of rotational restraint at the head of pile foundations had a considerable effect on the structure and the foundation, with free-head piles developing the largest pile displacements and actions. Reduced rotational stiffness caused a substantial change in the distribution of structural actions, while increasing rotational restraint moved the characteristics closer to the response of fixed base models. Softer soil conditions greatly increased non-linearity in the foundation soil without any definitive improvement in structural performance.
3

Integrated modelling of structure-foundation systems

Wotherspoon, Liam M. January 2009 (has links)
A problem endemic in the development of the built environment is poor communication between structural and geotechnical specialists. Through better communication and considering the structure and foundation as an integrated system, new opportunities may arise for achieving superior performance. This thesis investigates the seismic performance of the integrated system through the development of integrated structure-foundation models using the Ruaumoko structural analysis program. A detailed representation of the structural and foundation systems was created using Ruaumoko, providing insight into the response of a range of integrated structure-foundation systems during seismic loading. In developing both shallow and deep foundation models, some modifications were made to Ruaumoko elements in order to improve the foundation model, but generally existing element configurations were used to represent foundations. Multiple structural and foundation designs were developed using a range of approaches. Use of a range of shallow foundation design methods identified the significant impact that moment loading had on foundation performance. Partial uplift of footings was identified as detrimental to footing performance as it shifted the rotational axes, increasing moment loads and reducing effective footing area. Pinned connections between the structure and shallow footings eliminated these effects at the expense of significant redistribution of actions in the structure and increased displacements. Variation of soil conditions showed that softer soil was most likely to reduce demands on the structure at the expense of foundation non-linearity. Reduced stiffness and increased radiation damping characteristics of raft foundations compared to footing foundation systems reduced the demands on three storey structures for all soil conditions. Increased structural demands were identified for the ten storey structure as a result of the reduced impact of foundation characteristics on the response of the integrated system. The level of rotational restraint at the head of pile foundations had a considerable effect on the structure and the foundation, with free-head piles developing the largest pile displacements and actions. Reduced rotational stiffness caused a substantial change in the distribution of structural actions, while increasing rotational restraint moved the characteristics closer to the response of fixed base models. Softer soil conditions greatly increased non-linearity in the foundation soil without any definitive improvement in structural performance.
4

Integrated modelling of structure-foundation systems

Wotherspoon, Liam M. January 2009 (has links)
A problem endemic in the development of the built environment is poor communication between structural and geotechnical specialists. Through better communication and considering the structure and foundation as an integrated system, new opportunities may arise for achieving superior performance. This thesis investigates the seismic performance of the integrated system through the development of integrated structure-foundation models using the Ruaumoko structural analysis program. A detailed representation of the structural and foundation systems was created using Ruaumoko, providing insight into the response of a range of integrated structure-foundation systems during seismic loading. In developing both shallow and deep foundation models, some modifications were made to Ruaumoko elements in order to improve the foundation model, but generally existing element configurations were used to represent foundations. Multiple structural and foundation designs were developed using a range of approaches. Use of a range of shallow foundation design methods identified the significant impact that moment loading had on foundation performance. Partial uplift of footings was identified as detrimental to footing performance as it shifted the rotational axes, increasing moment loads and reducing effective footing area. Pinned connections between the structure and shallow footings eliminated these effects at the expense of significant redistribution of actions in the structure and increased displacements. Variation of soil conditions showed that softer soil was most likely to reduce demands on the structure at the expense of foundation non-linearity. Reduced stiffness and increased radiation damping characteristics of raft foundations compared to footing foundation systems reduced the demands on three storey structures for all soil conditions. Increased structural demands were identified for the ten storey structure as a result of the reduced impact of foundation characteristics on the response of the integrated system. The level of rotational restraint at the head of pile foundations had a considerable effect on the structure and the foundation, with free-head piles developing the largest pile displacements and actions. Reduced rotational stiffness caused a substantial change in the distribution of structural actions, while increasing rotational restraint moved the characteristics closer to the response of fixed base models. Softer soil conditions greatly increased non-linearity in the foundation soil without any definitive improvement in structural performance.
5

A computational tool for seismic collapse assessment of masonry structures

Mehrotra, Anjali Abhay January 2019 (has links)
Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the safety of masonry structures, with failure of these constructions under the influence of seismic action generally occurring via specific, well-documented collapse mechanisms. Analysis and assessment of these collapse mechanisms remains a challenge - while most analysis tools are time-consuming and computationally expensive, typical assessment methods are too simplified and often tend to underestimate the dynamic resistance of the structures. This dissertation aims to bridge the gap between the two through the development of a computational tool for the seismic collapse assessment of masonry structures, which uses rocking dynamics to accurately capture large displacement response, without compromising on computational efficiency. The tool could be used for rapid evaluation of critical mechanisms in a structure in order to prioritise retrofit solutions, as well as for code-based seismic assessment. The framework of the tool is first presented, wherein the rocking equations of motion are derived for a range of different collapse mechanisms, for any user-defined structural geometry, using as a starting point a geometric model of the structure in Rhino (a 3D CAD software). These equations of motion are then exported for solution to MATLAB. As a number of collapse mechanisms take place above ground level, a methodology to account for ground motion amplification effects is also proposed, while in the case of comparison of multiple different mechanisms, an algorithm to automatically detect critical mechanisms is presented. These developments make it possible to rapidly conduct a seismic analysis of structures with complicated three-dimensional geometries. However, the rocking equations of motion utilised thus far assume that the interfaces between the masonry macro-elements are rigid, which is not the case in reality. Thus, a flexible interface model is introduced, where the interfaces are characterised by a finite stiffness and compressive strength. This modelling strategy results in an inward shift of the rocking rotation points, and expressions are derived for these shifting rotation points for different interface geometries. The rocking equations of motion are also re-derived to account for the influence of the continuously moving hinges. However, the new equations tend to be highly non-linear - especially in the case of more complex collapse mechanisms. Thus to reduce computational burden, the semi-flexible interface model is proposed, which accounts for the shifting hinges in a more simplified manner than its fully-flexible counterpart. These new analytical models enable more accurate prediction of the seismic response of real-world structures, where interface flexibility tends to have a significant influence on dynamic response, while material damage in the form of crushing of the masonry also reduces dynamic resistance. The ability of the tool to be used for both seismic analysis and assessment is finally demonstrated by using it to perform a rocking dynamics-based analysis as well as a code-based seismic assessment of the walls of a historic earthen structure.
6

Single-lap shear bond tests on Steel Reinforced Geopolymeric Matrix-concrete joints

Bencardino, F., Condello, A., Ashour, Ashraf 08 November 2016 (has links)
Yes / Nowadays Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) represent a well-established technique for rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete (RC) and masonry structures. However, the severe degradation of mechanical properties of FRP under high temperature and fire as well as poor sustainability represents major weak points of organic-based systems. The use of eco-friendly inorganic geopolymeric matrices, alternative to the polymeric resins, would be highly desirable to overcome these issues. The present work aims to investigate the bond characteristic of a novel Steel Reinforced Geopolymeric Matrix (SRGM) strengthening system externally bonded to a concrete substrate having low mechanical properties. SRGM composite material consists of stainless steel cords embedded into a fireproof geopolymeric matrix. Single-lap shear tests by varying the bonded length were carried out. The main failure mode observed of SRGM-concrete joints was debonding at the fiber-matrix interface. Test results also suggest the effective bond length. On the basis of the experimental results, a cohesive bond-slip law was proposed. / Part of the analyses were developed within the activities of Rete dei Laboratori Universitari di Ingegneria Sismica (ReLUIS) for the research program funded by the Dipartimento di Protezione Civile (DPC), Progetto DPC/ReLUIS 2016–AQ DPC/ReLUIS 2014–2016.
7

Modelling of liquid breakup mechanisms in engineering systems

Diemuodeke, Ogheneruona Endurance January 2014 (has links)
Effective design of liquid fuel injection systems is a function of good understanding of liquid breakup mechanisms. A transient liquid breakup model is developed on the classical interfacial breakup theory by modifying the classical linear perturbation process to include time-dependent base and perturbed flow parameters. The non-isothermal condition on liquid jet instability and breakup is theoretically modelled; with the particular consideration of a spatially variation of surface tension along the liquid-gas interface. The model combines the classical interface hydrodynamic instability and breakup theory and heat-transfer through semi-infinite medium. Analytical liquid breakup model, which combines transient and non-isothermal effects on liquid jet breakup, is suggested. The suggested model could be simplified to the transient breakup model and the non-isothermal breakup model equivalents. A novel mechanistic model, which is based on a simple momentum balance between the injected jet and the aerodynamic drag force, is suggested for breakup length. A new model, which combines energy criterion and dual-timescale for turbulent shear in droplet dispersion, is suggested for droplet breakup criteria on the basis of critical Webber number. All developed models showed good predictions of available experimental data, and established empirical correlation, within the operational conditions of contemporary ICEs, specifically diesel engines. Continued research in these areas could benefit the development of the next generation of liquid fuel injectors and combustors – by accounting for transient effects and non-isothermal conditions in liquid jet breakup, and turbulent shear in droplet breakup.
8

Characterisation of uncured carbon fibre composites

Erland, Samuel January 2017 (has links)
The weight saving benefits of carbon fibre composites have been keenly adopted by civil aviation, with over 50% of the weight of modern designs coming from the carbon fibre components. The rapid rise in demand for this new material has led to the development of fully automated manufacturing techniques, improving rate of production and repeatability of manufacture. However, this rapid development, combined with a constant drive for increased rate of manufacture from industry can result in the formation of critical defects in the more complicated structural components. Manufacturing complex aeronautical structures from carbon fibre leads to a number of interesting mechanical problems. Forcing a multi-layered laminate to conform to a curved geometry requires individual layers to move relative to one another in order to relieve various forming-induced stresses. If the layers are constrained the dissipation of these stresses in the form of interply shear is prevented and a wide range of defects can occur, compromising the integrity of the final component. One of the most important of these is fibre wrinkling, which is effectively the buckling of one or more layers within an uncured laminate. This buckle results in a localised change in fibre orientation, which can result in a significant knockdown in part strength. A large amount of research has been conducted on carbon fibre in its cured state, when it exists as elastic fibres in an elastic matrix. Manufacturing occurs when the material is uncured however, with modern processes typically using fibres which are pre-impregnated with resin in order to reduce void content and aid fibre placement. A ply of uncured material therefore consists of stiff elastic fibres suspended in a very weak liquid viscoelastic material, whose properties are hugely influenced by temperature and rate of deformation. This thesis builds a better understanding of the mechanics involved in forming, using a series of characterisation techniques developed drawing from techniques in the literature. Part of the process involves the fitting of a one-dimensional viscoelasto-plastic model to experimental test data in order to represent the material response when shearing two plies about their interface. This model shows the material response to be dominated by the viscoelastic resin at low temperatures, before becoming frictional and fibre dominated at higher temperatures. In terms of optimum formability, a region exists in the transition from the viscous to frictional behaviour at which resistance to forming is minimised. With this data alone, optimum forming parameters such as rate of deformation, pressure and temperature can be suggested based on the material being used, along with design parameters such as stacking sequence. Another important characteristic which must be understood when considering ply wrinkling is the bending stiffness of uncured prepreg, both as a single ply and when combined to form a small laminate. A wrinkle is in effect the buckling of a single or small number of plies within a laminate, therefore by understanding the bending stiffness and process-induced loading we can begin to predict whether or not wrinkles are likely to occur for a particular manufacturing regime. In order to assess bending stiffness, a modified Dynamic Mechanical Analysis process is employed, replacing the standard Engineers Bending Theory calculations with a Timoshenko element to capture the large degree of intraply shear experienced in the bending of uncured prepreg. Finally, a small laminate scale demonstrator is considered in which a 24-ply laminate is consolidated into a female tool in such a way as to induced maximum shear strain between the plies, in order that the optimum forming parameters predicted by the characterisation tests might be validated. A simple energy minimisation model is used to predict the variation in consolidation strain around the part due to resistance to shear, using material parameters from the model describing the inter-ply shear test data. These parameters are also used to inform a novel modelling technique which has been developed parallel to this thesis, which is validated against the experimental results, and shows how the characterisation techniques can be used to advance simulation methods aimed at reducing the development time for new carbon fibre components. This work provides a set of tests and methodologies for the accurate characterisation of the behaviour of uncured carbon fibre during forming. The models developed alongside these tests allow for a detailed interrogation of the results, providing valuable insight into the mechanics behind the observed material behaviour and enabling informed decisions to be made regarding the forming process in order that the occurrence of defects might be minimised. The primary aim has been to provide a set of vital input parameters for novel, complex process modelling techniques under development, which has been achieved and validated experimentally.
9

Qualitative failure analysis on laminate structures of windsurfing boards using analytical linear elastic modelling

Schwarzer, Norbert, Heuer-Schwarzer, Peggy 07 February 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Recently developed mathematical tools for the modelling of contact problems on thin film structures are adapted to allow the investigation of arbitrarily mixed purely isotropic and transversally isotropic laminate structures. The new tool is applied to model a variety of load problems resulting in the failure of windsurfing boards consisting of a relatively thin laminate shell and a soft polymer foam core. It is shown that local impact and distributed bending loads due to “bad landing” after high jumps or contact with parts of the sailing gear (the so called rig) especially the front part of the boom are leading to the most critical stress distributions resulting in failure. So most of the investigated boards were damaged because the rider (windsurfer) landed flat and thus produced a sudden impact force under his feet (impact defect). Other overloading occurred due to overturning of so called loop movements or the landing of the board exactly on respectively between two waves and this way producing high bending moments. Some of those typical loads are analysed in detail and the stresses occurring in the complex structure of the windsurfing boards are evaluated.
10

Modelling of Liquid Breakup Mechanisms in Engineering Systems

Diemuodeke, Ogheneruona Endurance 09 1900 (has links)
Effective design of liquid fuel injection systems is a function of good understanding of liquid breakup mechanisms. A transient liquid breakup model is developed on the classical interfacial breakup theory by modifying the classical linear perturbation process to include time-dependent base and perturbed flow parameters. The non-isothermal condition on liquid jet instability and breakup is theoretically modelled; with the particular consideration of a spatially variation of surface tension along the liquid-gas interface. The model combines the classical interface hydrodynamic instability and breakup theory and heat-transfer through semi-infinite medium. Analytical liquid breakup model, which combines transient and non-isothermal effects on liquid jet breakup, is suggested. The suggested model could be simplified to the transient breakup model and the non-isothermal breakup model equivalents. A novel mechanistic model, which is based on a simple momentum balance between the injected jet and the aerodynamic drag force, is suggested for breakup length. A new model, which combines energy criterion and dual-timescale for turbulent shear in droplet dispersion, is suggested for droplet breakup criteria on the basis of critical Webber number. All developed models showed good predictions of available experimental data, and established empirical correlation, within the operational conditions of contemporary ICEs, specifically diesel engines. Continued research in these areas could benefit the development of the next generation of liquid fuel injectors and combustors – by accounting for transient effects and non-isothermal conditions in liquid jet breakup, and turbulent shear in droplet breakup.

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