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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

PEAK Relational Training System for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Correlational Study in Comparison to ABLLS-R and TOLD-I:4 Linguistics Assessments

Stueber, Kathryn Joan 01 May 2016 (has links)
Behavioral and linguistic theoretical approaches to language development may have the most influence in terms of treating language deficits experienced with individuals with autism, and contemporary theories of language development provided by stimulus equivalence and Relational Frame Theory may bridge the gap between these two theoretical approaches. The present study evaluated the relationship between an assessment based off of these contemporary behavioral theories with the results gathered from widely used behavioral and linguistic assessments of language functioning with individuals with autism. These correlated assessments included: the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Equivalence Pre-Assessment (PEAK-E-PA), the Test of Language Development (TOLD-I:4), and The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (ABLLS-R). The results suggested that there was a strong correlation between the PEAK-E-PA and the TOLD-I:4 (r = 0.93, p < .01) and between the PEAK-E-PA and the ABLLS-R (r = 0.65, p < .01); however, there was only a moderate correlation between the ABLLS-R and the TOLD-I:4 (r = 0.43, p < .01). The results have implications for the assessment, and subsequent treatment of language deficits experienced by individuals with autism.
2

Effects of inconsistencies in eyewitness testimony on mock-juror decisionmaking

Berman, Garrett L. 23 June 1995 (has links)
In attempting to impeach eyewitnesses, attorney's often highlight inconsistencies in the eyewitness's recall. This study examined the differential impact of types of inconsistent testimony on mock-juror decisions. Each of 100 community members and 200 undergraduates viewed one of four versions of a videotaped trial in which the primary evidence against the defendant was the testimony of the eyewitness. I manipulated the types of inconsistent statements given by the eyewitness in the four versions: (1) consistent testimony, (2) information given on-the-stand but not given during the pre-trial investigation, (3) contradictions between on-the-stand and pre-trial statements, and (4) contradictions made on the witness stand. Subjects exposed to any form of inconsistent testimony were less likely to convict and found the defendant less culpable and the eyewitness less effective. These effects were larger for contradictions than for information given on the stand but not during pre-trial investigations.
3

Designing Calorie Counter Smartphone Applications for Effective Weight Loss

Milliard, Sharlin 01 January 2019 (has links)
Poor dietary choices and lack of physical activity are two main contributing factors for the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. Overweight and obese individuals are at risk for developing major life-threatening diseases. Weight loss is an effective means for reversing these adverse health effects, and smartphone applications (apps) may be an effective means for supporting weight loss outside of formal clinical settings. This study involved identifying factors that contribute to effective weight loss to compare with functionality commonly found in a sample of calorie counter apps. A content analysis was performed using a design framework that included a conceptual model describing the interaction of behaviors for effective weight loss and functional design requirements based upon behavior change and motivation to achieve weight loss. The requirements were used to analyze the presence of features in a sample of popular calorie counting apps, to infer their capability in supporting users' motivation to achieve weight loss. Results indicated that app features might not provide sufficient support to facilitate effective weight loss. Lack of supportive features affects perceived autonomy, relatedness, and competence, reducing motivation. This study provided guidelines to improve the design of calorie counter apps to include more features that support users as they engage in weight loss behaviors. The guidelines may become practical for use in mHealth apps used as part of formal and informal weight management strategies. Implications for future research involving wearable technologies and the use of gamified design strategies are discussed.
4

A Randomized Comparison of Two Instructional Sequences for Imitation Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Espanola, Elaine 08 December 2015 (has links)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine differences in effectiveness and rate of skill acquisition between a recently developed and empirically validated instructional sequence, Motor and Vocal Imitation Assessment (MVIA), and a commonly used instructional sequence in a curriculum guide, Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). Methods: Children with ASD were randomly assigned to two treatment groups to determine difference in imitation performance. The treatment group followed the instructional sequence proposed in the MVIA. The comparison group followed the instructional sequence proposed in the VB-MAPP. Initial levels of imitation were assessed via the MVIA. The intervention consisted of discrete trial training (DTT). A trained therapist presented a fixed number of stimuli in massed trial format. Prompted and unprompted imitative responses were reinforced using edibles. A most-to-least with a progressive time delay prompting strategy was used to help the learner engage in the target response. Results: Participants in the MVIA treatment group had significantly more skill acquisition than participants in the VB-MAPP comparison group. Participants in the MVIA treatment group also acquired these skills more efficiently, spent less time on skills that never reached mastery and demonstrated higher levels of responding. Additionally, pre-treatment imitation was found to predict autism severity and expressive language. Conclusions: These results indicate that the MVIA protocol provides an appropriate sequence ordered from simple to complex for selecting targets for intervention. These findings suggest that organizing and sequencing skills in increasing difficulty, as with the MVIA protocol, leads to more appropriate target selection. Targeting skills that are appropriate for the child’s current skill level, in turn leads to more effective and efficient intervention. Results also replicate previous findings that demonstrate that imitation performance plays a critical role in other areas of development.
5

The Effects of Locus of Control & Victim Responsibility Upon Helping Behavior

Fritzo, Jerri 01 July 1978 (has links)
Previous research has suggested that external locus of control and victim responsibility influence individuals' helping behavior (Lerner & Reavy, 1975; Phares & Lamiell, 1975; Phares & Wilson, 1972). The present study investigated the relationships between locus of control and helping behavior in a situation where the victim was or was not responsible for her predicament. A locus of control scale was administered to 67 male and 93 female undergraduates at Western Kentucky University. Subjects were assigned to one of the responsibility situations in which they could volunteer to help a graduate student with either none, one, two, three, or four one-half hour experimental sessions. The results of the ANOVAs and chi squares for each sex indicated that locus of control and responsibility attribution were not significantly related to number of helping sessions volunteered or to the proportion of subjects' helping.
6

Evaluation of a self-instructional package for teaching tutors to conduct discrete-trials teaching with children with autism

Thomson, Kendra M. 04 April 2011 (has links)
A widely used instructional method for teaching children with autism is Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA), and a main component of ABA programming is discrete-trials teaching (DTT). DTT is made up of a series of brief teaching trials, with each trial including an antecedent (e.g., an instruction from the teacher), a response from the child, and an immediate consequence (e.g., a reinforcer provided for a correct response). Using a modified multiple-baseline design across participants, Experiment 1 assessed the effectiveness of a DTT self-instructional package (Fazzio & Martin, 2007) for teaching 4 pairs of newly-hired ABA tutors how to apply 21 components of DTT to teach 3 tasks to a confederate role-playing a child with autism. In Experiment 2, a group of 8 additional tutors were each independently presented with the same procedure. In both experiments, in Phase 1(baseline), tutors attempted to teach the 3 tasks to the confederate. In Phase 2 (manual), tutors mastered a 37-page self-instructional manual and once again attempted to teach the same 3 tasks to the confederate. Phase 3 was a within-subject AB design component. That is, if tutors did not meet a DTT mastery criterion of 80% after studying the manual in Phase 2, then they watched a brief video demonstration of a DTT expert teaching a task to a child role-playing a child with autism (Fazzio, 2007), and then once again attempted to teach the 3 tasks to the confederate. Across both experiments: a) The 16 tutors averaged 4.6 hours to master the self-instructional manual, and showed an average improvement in DTT accuracy of 32.2% from baseline; b) For the 13 tutors who did not meet the mastery criterion after reading the manual, their average DTT performance improved an additional 12% after watching the video; c) 13 of the 16 participants met mastery (3 after the manual and 10 after the manual plus video), and the other 3 tutors were very close to mastery. The results suggest that the training package is a practical, economical and efficient method of instructing newly-hired tutors in ABA programs for children with autism.
7

Evaluation of a self-instructional package for teaching tutors to conduct discrete-trials teaching with children with autism

Thomson, Kendra M. 04 April 2011 (has links)
A widely used instructional method for teaching children with autism is Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA), and a main component of ABA programming is discrete-trials teaching (DTT). DTT is made up of a series of brief teaching trials, with each trial including an antecedent (e.g., an instruction from the teacher), a response from the child, and an immediate consequence (e.g., a reinforcer provided for a correct response). Using a modified multiple-baseline design across participants, Experiment 1 assessed the effectiveness of a DTT self-instructional package (Fazzio & Martin, 2007) for teaching 4 pairs of newly-hired ABA tutors how to apply 21 components of DTT to teach 3 tasks to a confederate role-playing a child with autism. In Experiment 2, a group of 8 additional tutors were each independently presented with the same procedure. In both experiments, in Phase 1(baseline), tutors attempted to teach the 3 tasks to the confederate. In Phase 2 (manual), tutors mastered a 37-page self-instructional manual and once again attempted to teach the same 3 tasks to the confederate. Phase 3 was a within-subject AB design component. That is, if tutors did not meet a DTT mastery criterion of 80% after studying the manual in Phase 2, then they watched a brief video demonstration of a DTT expert teaching a task to a child role-playing a child with autism (Fazzio, 2007), and then once again attempted to teach the 3 tasks to the confederate. Across both experiments: a) The 16 tutors averaged 4.6 hours to master the self-instructional manual, and showed an average improvement in DTT accuracy of 32.2% from baseline; b) For the 13 tutors who did not meet the mastery criterion after reading the manual, their average DTT performance improved an additional 12% after watching the video; c) 13 of the 16 participants met mastery (3 after the manual and 10 after the manual plus video), and the other 3 tutors were very close to mastery. The results suggest that the training package is a practical, economical and efficient method of instructing newly-hired tutors in ABA programs for children with autism.
8

TEACHING OLFACTORY RELATIONS TO ADOLESCENTS WITH AUTISM

Blondin, Sandra Nicole 01 May 2020 (has links)
The current study utilized a multiple baseline design to teach olfactory discrimination skills to adolescent participants with autism spectrum disorders. Relational abilities among smells and causal relations were initially probed and an intervention was implemented via training and reversal testing probes using frames of distinction between stimulus depicting clean clothing (A) and worn clothing (B), causal framing to relate those odors with specific actions stimulus depicting clean clothing (A) with wearing or hanging the clothing (C) and stimulus depicting worn clothing (B) and placing the clothing in the laundry or hamper (D). Finally, these skills were tested in an applied setting when comparing clothing items that may or may not need to be laundered through the demonstrate of transformation of stimulus function in a novel setting by testing relations between clean clothing (Y) and wearing or hanging the clothing (C) and previously worn clothing( Z) and putting them in the laundry or hamper (D). The intervention was effective at establishing these relational responses for all 4 participants throughout each phase leading to the application of these responses in an applied setting with 80%-100%. Limitations and future application are discussed involving the use of cross modal stimuli in when teaching relations and broader implications of the science.
9

Invasions of personal space : a field experiment

Demian, Lisa 01 January 1978 (has links)
The present study examined the relationship between invasions of personal space and measures of glancing, blocking, leaning, head-shoulder orientation, movement away from the invader, and flight latency. These behaviors have been described in previous studies as occurring in response to spatial invasions, and the equilibrium model proposed to account for their occurrence. Hypotheses consistent with this model were tested in a 2 x 2 x 3 design which varied sex of invader, sex of subject and distance of subject from invader (1 foot, 2 feet, or 5 feet). None of the predicted relationships obtained, although females blocked more frequently than males, and also exhibited a greater variety of the target behaviors than did males. A significant difference was found for variety of behaviors emitted and distance, with Ss in the 1 foot condition exhibiting more of the target behaviors than those in the 5 foot condition. No other significant results were found. An alternate model to account for these discrepancies as well as previous discrepancies was discussed and suggestions for future research were made.
10

The Relationship of Leadership Effectiveness to L.P.C for University Department Chairmen

Brown, Carter W 01 January 1972 (has links) (PDF)
For most of recorded history leadership ability has been considered a simple variable linearly related to the effectiveness of a team of workers. Everyone possessed it to some degree. When a king or corporate president had a task to be accomplished, all he needed to do to maximize the probability of the task being completed vas to locate the individual with the greatest leadership skill available. For centuries man has tried to quantify this variable so that identification of good leaders could be achieved more accurately. After years of futile attempts at quantification, leadership theorists began in the early 1900's to move away from the "one best Way to lead" posture to more complex schemas. In the last four decades, the focus of the research has centered more and more on the interaction between different types of leadership ability and particular job situations. However, it was not until Feed Fiedler provided the contingency model of leadership effectiveness that a strong theoretical structure was available (Fiedler, 1964).

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