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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Automatic near real-time characterisation of large earthquakes

Rößler, Dirk, Krüger, Frank, Ohrnberger, Matthias January 2008 (has links)
We use seismic array methods (semblance analysis) to image areas of seismic energy release in the Sunda Arc region and world-wide. Broadband seismograms at teleseismic distances (30° ≤ Δ ≤ 100°) are compared at several subarrays. Semblance maps of different subarrays are multiplied. High semblance tracked over long time (10s of second to minutes) and long distances indicate locations of earthquakes. The method allows resolution of rupture characteristics important for tsunami early warning: start and duration, velocity and direction, length and area. The method has been successfully applied to recent and historic events (M>6.5) and is now operational in real time. Results are obtained shortly after source time, see http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/Forschung/Geophysik/GITEWS/tsunami.htm). Comparison of manual and automatic processing are in good agreement. Computational effort is small. Automatic results may be obtained within 15 - 20 minutes after event occurrence.
2

Using Array Seismology to Study Planetary Interiors

January 2011 (has links)
abstract: Stratification is a dominant feature of all planetary interiors. Fine-scale structure associated with layering, as well as heterogeneities hold important clues on a planet's compositional, thermal, and dynamical state, as well as its evolution. This research centers on using data from seismic arrays, networks of seismic sensors, and array processing methodologies to map the fine scale structure in the Earth's upper mantle and deep layering in the Moon - Earth and Moon are the only two planetary bodies with seismic available data for such analyses. Small-scale structure in the Earth's upper mantle can give rise to seismic wave scattering. I studied high frequency data from the Warramunga Array in Australia using array seismology. I developed and employed back-projection schemes to map the possible upper mantle scattering or reflection locations. Mapped scatterers show good correlation to strong lateral P-wave velocity gradients in tomography models and may be associated with the complex tectonic history beneath north of Australia. The minimum scale of scatterers relates to the seismic wavelength, which is roughly between 5 and 10 km in the upper mantle for the frequencies we study. The Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment (APSE) consisted of four 3-component seismometers deployed between 1969 and 1972 that continuously recorded lunar ground motion until late 1977. I studied the deep lunar interior with array methods applied to the legacy APSE dataset. The stack results suggest the presence of a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partially molten boundary layer, but their reflector impedance contrasts and reflector depths are not well constrained. With a rapidly increasing number of available modern broadband data, I developed a package, Discovery Using Ducttape Excessively (DUDE), to quickly generate plots for a comprehensive view of earthquake data. These plots facilitate discovery of unexpected phenomena. This dissertation identifies evidence for small-scale heterogeneities in Earth's upper mantle, and deeper lunar layering structure. Planetary interiors are complex with the heterogeneities on many scales, and discontinuities of variable character. This research demonstrates that seismic array methods are well-suited for interrogating heterogeneous phenomena, especially considering the recent rapid expansion of easily available dense network data. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Geological Sciences 2011
3

Rupture imaging of large earthquakes with a poststack isochrone migration method

Krüger, Frank, Ohrnberger, Matthias, Rößler, Dirk January 2008 (has links)
Rapid and robust characterization of large earthquakes in terms of their spatial extent and temporal duration is of high importance for disaster mitigation and early warning applications. Backtracking of seismic P-waves was successfully used by several authors to image the rupture process of the great Sumatra earthquake (26.12.2004) using short period and broadband arrays. We follow here an approach of Walker et al. to backtrack and stack broadband waveforms from global network stations using traveltimes for a global Earth model to obtain the overall spatio-temporal development of the energy radiation of large earthquakes in a quick and robust way. We present results for selected events with well studied source processes (Kokoxili 14.11.2001, Tokachi-Oki 25.09.2003, Nias 28.03.2005). Further, we apply the technique in a semi-real time fashion to broadband data of earthquakes with a broadband magnitude >= 7 (roughly corresponding to Mw 6.5). Processing is based on first automatic detection messages from the GEOFON extended virtual network (GEVN).
4

Automatic near real-time characterisation of large earthquakes

Rößler, Dirk, Krüger, Frank, Ohrnberger, Matthias, Ehlert, Lutz January 2008 (has links)
An der Universität Potsdam wird seit 2008 ein automatisiertes Verfahren angewandt, um Bruchparamter großer Erdbeben in quasi-Echtzeit, d.h. wenige Minuten nachdem sich das Beben ereignet hat, zu bestimmen und der Öffentlichkeit via Internet zur Verfügung zu stellen. Es ist vorgesehen, das System in das Deutsch-Indonesische Tsunamifrühwarnsystem (GITEWS) zu integrieren, für das es speziell konfiguriert ist. Wir bestimmen insbesondere die Dauer und die Ausdehnung des Erdbebens, sowie dessen Bruchgeschwindigkeit und -richtung. Dabei benutzen wir die Seismogramme der zuerst eintreffenden P Wellen vom Breitbandstationen in teleseimischer Entfernung vom Beben sowie herkömmliche Arrayverfahren in teilweise modifizierter Form. Die Semblance wir als Ähnlichkeitsmaß verwendet, um Seismogramme eines Stationsnetzes zu vergleichen. Im Falle eines Erdbebens ist die Semblance unter Berücksichtigung des Hypozentrums zur Herdzeit und während des Bruchvorgangs deutlich zeitlich und räumlich erhöht und konzentriert. Indem wir die Ergebnisse verschiedener Stationsnetzwerke kombinieren, erreichen wir Unabhängigkeit von der Herdcharakteristik und eine raum-zeitliche Auflösung, die es erlaubt die o.g. Parameter abzuleiten. In unserem Beitrag skizzieren wir die Methode. Anhand der beiden M8.0 Benkulu Erdbeben (Sumatra, Indonesien) vom 12.09.2007 und dem M8.0 Sichuan Ereignis (China) vom 12.05.2008 demonstrieren wir Auflösungsmöglichkeiten und vergleichen die Ergebnisse der automatisierten Echtzeitanwendung mit nachträglichen Berechnungen. Weiterhin stellen wir eine Internetseite zur Verfügung, die die Ergebnisse präsentiert und animiert. Diese kann z.B. in geowissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen an Computerterminals gezeigt werden. Die Internetauftritte haben die folgenden Adressen: http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/arbeitsgruppen/Geophysik_Seismologie/forschung/ruptrack/openday http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/arbeitsgruppen/Geophysik_Seismologie/forschung/ruptrack
5

Small-aperture seismic array monitors Vogtland earthquake swarm in 2008/09

Rößler, Dirk, Hiemer, Stephan, Bach, Christoph, Delavaud, Elise, Krüger,Frank, Ohrnberger, Matthias, Sauer, David, Scherbaum, Frank, Vollmer, Daniel January 2009 (has links)
The most recent intense earthquake swarm in the Vogtland lasted from 6 October 2008 until January 2009. Greatest magnitudes exceeded M3.5 several times in October making it the greatest swarm since 1985/86. In contrast to the swarms in 1985 and 2000, seismic moment release was concentrated near swarm onset. Focal area and temporal evolution are similar to the swarm in 2000. Work hypothysis: uprising upper-mantle fluids trigger swarm earthquakes at low stress level. To monitor the seismicity, the University of Potsdam operated a small aperture seismic array at 10 km epicentral distance between 18 October 2008 and 18 March 2009. Consisting of 12 seismic stations and 3 additional microphones, the array is capable of detecting earthquakes from larger to very low magnitudes (M<-1) as well as associated air waves. We use array techniques to determine properties of the incoming wavefield: noise, direct P and S waves, and converted phases.
6

Rupture Propagation of the 2008/05/12 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

Rößler, Dirk, Krüger, Frank, Ohrnberger, Matthias January 2008 (has links)
We study the rupture propagation of the 2008/05/12 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake. We apply array techniques such as semblance vespagram analysis to P waves recorded at seismic broadband station within 30-100° epicentral distance. By combination of multiple large aperture station groups spatial and temporal resolution is enhanced and problems due source directivity and source mechanism are avoided. We find that seismic energy was released for at least 110 s. Propagating unilaterally at sub-shear rupture velocity of about 2.5 km/s in NE direction, the earthquake reaches a lateral extent of more than 300 km. Whereas high semblance during within 70 s from rupture start indicates simple propagation more complex source processes are indicated thereafter by decreases coherency in seismograms. At this stage of the event coherency is low but significantly above noise level. We emphasize that first result of our computations where obtain within 30 minutes after source time by using an atomized algorithm. This procedure has been routinely and globally applied to major earthquakes. Results are made public through internet.
7

Catalog of Swarm Earthquakes in Vogtland /West Bohemia in 2008/09

Hiemer, Stefan, Rößler, Dirk, Scherbaum, Frank January 2010 (has links)
The document contains the catalog of earthquakes in Vogtland /West Bohemia within the period of 2008/10/19 -to- 2009/03/16. The events were recorded by a seismic mini-array operated by the Institute of Earthsciences, University of Postdam. / Das Dokument enthält einen Katalog von Erdbeben im Vogtland/Westböhmen im Zeitraum 2008/10/19 -bis- 2009/03/16. Die Erdbeben wurden mit Hilfe eines seismologischen Miniarrays, welches vom Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Potsdam, aufgestellt wurde, registriert.
8

Catalog of Swarm Earthquakes in Vogtland /West Bohemia in 2008/09

Hiemer, Stefan, Rößler, Dirk, Scherbaum, Frank January 2010 (has links)
The document contains the catalog of earthquakes in Vogtland /West Bohemia within the period of 2008/10/19 -to- 2009/03/16. The events were recorded by a seismic mini-array operated by the Institute of Earthsciences, University of Postdam. / Das Dokument enthält einen Katalog von Erdbeben im Vogtland/Westböhmen im Zeitraum 2008/10/19 -bis- 2009/03/16. Die Erdbeben wurden mit Hilfe eines seismologischen Miniarrays, welches vom Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Potsdam, aufgestellt wurde, registriert.

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