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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Dynamic data reconciliation in the context of an equation-oriented flowsheet simulator

Cameron, David Bruce January 1991 (has links)
No description available.

Investigations in the copper-lead system

Sarson, Stuart C. January 1991 (has links)
No description available.

Reaction of potassium with carbons

Chan, Brenda Kit Ching January 1991 (has links)
No description available.

Force Balance in the Interior of the Blast Furnace

Pomeroy, David January 2014 (has links)
The goal of this thesis is to advance knowledge about the balance of forces acting on granular materials in the interior of the blast furnace and on the walls. Using the principles of fluid and granular flows, a mathematical model is developed and used to generate new knowledge about the influence of process parameters, under control of the blast furnace operator, on the granular stress at the level of the gas inlet and the walls. The mathematical model developed is validated under ambient conditions by comparing predictions with experimental data obtained from physical scale models of the blast furnace. Comparison of the wall gas pressure profile from a commercial blast furnace with results from the mathematical model developed, indicate that gas temperature is an important factor in estimating the magnitude of the external force exerted by gas flow on granular materials. Results also show that the vertical stress acting on the upper boundary of the coke bed in the hearth can be altered by changing variables which are under the operator’s control. These variables include the gas properties (mass flow rate and pressure) and the properties of the granular column (bulk density of granular materials and cohesive zone location). Information generated in this thesis can be used by blast furnace operators for guidance in controlling the vertical stress at the upper boundary of the coke bed in the hearth and for defining the force at this boundary for subsequent studies of hearth region. / Thesis / Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Moshyttan: Sweden’s oldest known blast furnace? : A multiproxy study based on geochemical and pollen analyses

Lidberg, William January 2012 (has links)
Radiocarbon datings in a previous study suggested that Moshyttan in Nora bergslag is the oldest blast furnace in Sweden and Europe. The aim of this study was specifically to study the origin of the Moshyttan blast furnace to answer the question: when was the blast furnace at Moshyttan established? To this end, a 2.5 m sediment record was collected from Fickeln, a lake 600 m downstream of Moshyttan, in March 2012. The geochemical properties of the sediment record were analyzed for major and trace elements using XRF. The organic content was calculated from the ash residue following the mercury analyses as a proxy for organic matter. Pollen and charcoal were analyzed using a standardized method. A age- depth model was created based on four radiocarbon datings of the sediment profile. The pollen data suggest that early land use consisted of forest grazing from about AD 220, and agriculture from about AD 880. An increase in Pb and charcoal particles about AD 880 indicates early metallurgy in the area. The first significant evidence of the establishment of a blastfurnace was between AD 1020 and AD 1090 marked by a decrease in organic content combined with a strong increase of ore related metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and a strong increase of charcoal particles. Within the uncertainty of the age-depth modeling, the results from this study offers support to Wetterholms radiocarbon datings, thus making Moshyttan the oldest known blast furnace in Sweden and Europe.

Pyrolysis of biomass in fluidized-beds: in-situ formation of products and their applications for ironmaking

Mellin, Pelle January 2015 (has links)
The iron and steel industry emitted 8 % of all CO2 emissions in Sweden, 2011. Investigating alternative energy carriers is the purpose of this thesis. By pyrolyzing biomass, an energetic solid, gaseous and liquid (bio oil) fraction is obtained. If pyrolyzing biomass in a fluidized-bed reactor, the highest value may be added to the combined products. Additional understanding of pyrolysis in fluidized beds is pursued, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and comprehensive kinetic schemes. The obtained solid product is investigated as a bio-injectant in blast furnaces for ironmaking. A new approach of separately modeling, the primary and secondary pyrolysis, is developed in this thesis. A biomass particle devolatilizes during pyrolysis. Primary pyrolysis is the solid decomposition which results in the volatiles that can leave the particle. Secondary pyrolysis is the decompositions of these volatiles, primarily in the gas phase. The primary pyrolysis (35 species, 15 reactions) mainly occurs in the bed-zone and as such, the model needs to take into account the complex physical interaction of biomass-particles with the fluidizing media (sand) and the fluidizing agent (gas). This is accomplished by representing the components by Eulerian phases and implementing interaction terms, as well as using a Stiff Chemistry Solver for the implemented reactions.  The secondary pyrolysis (not considering heterogeneous reactions), mainly occurs outside the bed zone in one phase. The fluid flow is simpler but the chemistry is more complex, with a larger variety of molecules emerging. Carrying out the simulations time-effectively, for the secondary pyrolysis (134 species, 4169 reactions) is accomplished by using Dimension Reduction, Chemistry Agglomeration and In-situ Tabulation (ISAT); in a Probability Density Functional (PDF) framework. An analysis of the numerical results suggest that they can be matched adequately with experimental measurements, considering pressure profiles, temperature profiles and the overall yield of gas, solid and liquid products. Also, with some exceptions, the yield of major and minor gaseous species can be matched to some extent. Hence, the complex physics and chemistry of the integrated process can be considered fairly well-considered but improvements are possible. A parametric study of reaction atmospheres (or fluidizing agents), is pursued as means of understanding the process better. The models revealed significant effects of the atmosphere, both physically (during the primary and secondary pyrolysis) and chemically (during secondary pyrolysis). During primary pyrolysis, the physical influence of reaction atmospheres (N2, H2O) is investigated. When comparing steam to nitrogen, heat flux to the biomass particles, using steam, is better distributed on a bed level and on a particle level. During secondary pyrolysis, results suggest that turbulence interaction plays an important role in accelerating unwanted decomposition of the liquid-forming volatiles. Steam, which is one of the investigated atmospheres (N2, H2O, H2, CO, CO2), resulted in a lower extent of unwanted secondary pyrolysis. Altough, steam neither resulted in the shortest vapor residence time, nor the lowest peak temperature, nor the lowest peak radical concentration; all factors known to disfavor secondary pyrolysis. A repeated case, using a high degree of turbulence at the inlet, resulted in extensive decompositions. The attractiveness of the approach is apparent but more testing and development is required; also with regards to the kinetic schemes, which have been called for by several other researchers. The solid fraction after pyrolysis is known as charcoal. Regarding its use in blast furnaces; modelling results indicate that full substitution of fossil coal is possible. Substantial reductions in CO2 emissions are hence possible. Energy savings are furthermore possible due to the higher oxygen content of charcoal (and bio-injectants in general), which leads to larger volumes of blast furnace gas containing more latent energy (and less non-recoverable sensible energy). Energy savings are possible, even considering additional electricity consumption for oxygen enrichment and a higher injection-rate on energy basis. A survey of biomass availability and existing technology suppliers in Sweden, suggest that all injection into Blast furnace M3 in Luleå, can be covered by biomass. Based on statistics from 2008, replacement of coal-by-charcoal from pyrolysis could reduce the on-site carbon dioxide emissions by 28.1 % (or 17.3 % of the emissions from the whole industry). For reference, torrefied material and raw biomass can reduce the on-site emissions by 6.4 % and 5.7 % respectively. / Järn och stålindustrin stod för 8 % av alla koldioxidutsläpp i Sverige, 2011. Alternativa energibärare undersöks i denna avhandling. Genom pyrolys av biomassa, fås en energirik fast produkt, och samtidigt en gasformig och en vätskeformig produkt (bio-olja). Om en fluidbäddsreaktor används kan största möjliga mervärde tillföras de kombinerade produkterna. Djupare förståelse för pyrolys i fluidbäddar har eftersträvats med hjälp fluiddynamikberäkningar (CFD) och detaljerade kinetikscheman. Den fasta produkten har undersökts som bio-injektion i masugnar. En ny approach för modellering av primär och sekundär pyrolys separat, har utvecklats i denna avhandling. En biomassapartikel avflyktigas under pyrolys. Primär pyrolys är nedrytningen av den fasta biomassan till intermediärer (flyktiga ämnen) som kan lämna partikeln. Sekundärpyrolys är nedbrytning av dessa flyktiga ämnen, som primärt sker i gasfas. Primärpyrolysen (i detta arbete, 35 ämnen och 15 reaktioner) sker mestadels i bäddzonen och därmed behöver modellen ta hänsyn till den komplexa fysiska interaktionen av biomassapartiklarna med fluidbäddsmediet (sand) och fluidiseringsgasen. Detta åstadkoms med hjälp av Euleriska faser och interaktionstermer, samt en lösare för hantering av styva reaktionssystem. Sekundärpyrolysen sker huvudsakligen utanför bäddzonen. Fluiddynamiken är enklare men kemin är mer komplex, med fler ämnen närvarande. Att tidseffektivt köra beräkningarna, för sekundärpyrolysen (134 ämnen, 4169 reaktioner) åstadkoms med hjälp Dimensionsreducering, Kemiagglomerering och In-situtabulering (ISAT); som implementerats i en sannolikhetstäthetsfunktion (PDF). En analys av de numeriska beräkningarna antyder att de kan matchas med experimentella resultat, med avseende på tryckprofil, temperaturprofil, utbyte av gasformiga, fasta och vätskeformiga produkter. Dessutom, med några undantag, kan beräkningarna matchas ganska väl med de viktigaste gasformiga produkterna. Därmed kan de huvudsakliga fysiska och kemikaliska mekanismerna representeras av modellen men förbättringar är givetvis möjliga. En parameterstudie av reaktionsatmosfärer (dvs fluidiseringsgaser) genomfördes, för att förstå processen bättre. Modellen visade på betydande effekter av atmosfären, fysisk (både under primär och sekundärpyrolys), och kemiskt (under sekundärpyrolysen).   Under primärpyrolysen undersöktes den fysiska inverkan av reaktionsatmosfärer (N2, H2O). När ånga jämfördes med kvävgas, visade det sig att värmeflödet sker mer homogent på både bäddnivå och på partikelnivå, med ångatmosfär. Under sekundärpyrolysen, så antyder resultaten på att turbulensinteraktion spelar en viktig roll för accelererad oönskad sekundärpyrolys av de vätskebildande ämnena. Ånga som är en av de undersökta atmosfärerna (N2, H2O, H2, CO, CO2), resulterade i den lägsta omfattningen av sekundärpyrolys. Dock så ledde en ångatmosfär varken till den lägsta residenstiden, den lägsta peaktemperaturen eller den lägsta radikalkoncentrationen; som alla normalt motverkar sekundärpyrolysen. Ett repeterat case, med hög turbulens i inloppet, gav betydande sekundärpyrolys av de vätskebildande ämnena. Attraktiviteten av approachen är given men mer testning och utveckling behövs, som också påkallats av andra forskare. Den fasta produkten efter pyrolys kallas träkol. Angående dess applicering i masugnar, så visar modelleringsresultaten att full substitution av fossilt kol går att göra. Betydande minskningar i koldioxidutsläpp är därmed möjliga. Energibesparingar är dessutom möjligt, tack vare det höga syreinnehållet i träkol (och biobränslen generellt), vilket ger större volymer av masugnsgas med högre värmevärde (och mindre sensibel värme som inte är utvinnbar). Energibesparingar är möjliga även om hänsyn tas till högre eleffekt för syrgasanrikning i blästerluften och en högre injektionsåtgång på energibasis. En översikt över biomassatillgången och existerande teknikleverantörer i Sverige, indikerar att all injektion i Masugn 3 (i Luleå) kan ersättas med biomassa. Baserat på statistik från 2008, så kan ersatt kol med träkol, minska de platsspecifika koldioxidutsläppen med 28.1 % (eller 17.3 % av alla utsläpp från stålindustrin). Som jämförelse kan torrifierad biomassa and obehandlad biomassa reducera utsläppen med 6.4 % respektive 5.7 %. / <p>QC 20150827</p>

The design of moving packed bed high temperature heat exchangers

Brooks, Paul David Edwards January 1996 (has links)
No description available.

The structure and reactivity of some metallurgical carbons

Adams, Kenneth Edwin January 1988 (has links)
The reactivity and micro-structure of three coals and two cokes used in iron and steel manufacture have been studied by a variety of techniques, including gas sorption analysis, thermal analysis and microscopy. Changes in surface areas and porosities of the coals and cokes during combustion have been determined by a gravimetric nitrogen sorption technique at 77K. The cokes and coals have been studied by thermal analysis under isothermal and dynamic conditions in different gas atmospheres. Rates of reaction have been correlated with surface area changes. Attempts have been made to calculate activation energies from Kissinger plots of DTA data. Microstructural changes in the cokes and coals during carbon burn-off have been investigated by electron microscopy. Relative porosities have been estimated by image analysis. Mechanical strengths of the cokes have been measured and correlated with porosity data. Selected metals in the carbons have been determined by flame photometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The composition of residual mineral matter (ash) has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. The chemical compositions of the coal distillates have been characterised by ir/uv spectrosopy, NMR spectroscopy and by GC-MS techniques. Calorific values of the carbons have been determined. Results are discussed in relation to previous work and to applications 1n blast furnace practice. In coal combustion the surface areas increase during the initial stages of carbon burn-off, reaching maximum at about 50% burn-off before decreasing. The increases are considerably higher at 400° and 500° C than at 300° C for all three coals. Hysteresis data from the sorption isotherms show that the coals develop full ranges of mesa-porosity and some micro-porosity during burn-off at the higher temperatures. However, the coal oxidation is only slightly accelerated, since most of the new surface is located in the micro- and meso- pores where access to atmospheric oxygen is restricted by slow diffusion, so that the earlier stages of oxidation are approximately linear with time. This improves our knowledge of current empirical industrial carbon solution tests. There is comparatively little change in surface during the coking of the Coals at 1000° C and only restricted sintering of the coal ashes at 300- 500° C. In the combustion of the cokes in carbon dioxide at 1000° C the maxima in surface areas occur within 25% burn-off. However, one of the cokes shows a second maximum at later stages of burn-off, ascribed to the European component in the parent coal blend. This gives a more uniform rate of burn-off which is advantageous industrially.

Pore pressure and moisture migration in concrete at high and non uniform temperatures

Khan, Saadat Ali January 1990 (has links)
No description available.

The structure and strength of metallurgical coke

Moreland, Angela January 1990 (has links)
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the tensile strength of metallurgical coke and both the textural composition of the carbon matrix and the porous structure of the coke, and further to assess the use of these structural features as bases of methods of coke strength prediction. The forty-four cokes examined were produced in a small pilot-oven from blended-coal charges based on six coals differing widely in rank. Their textural composition was assessed by incident polarized-light microscopy while pore structural parameters were measured by computerized image analysis allied to reflected light microscopy. The tensile strength of coke could be related to textural data with accuracy using several relationships, some of which were based on a model for the tensile failure of coke. Relationships between tensile strength and pore sturctural parameters were less successful, possibly because of difficulties associated with the measuring system used. Neverthless relationships involving combinations of pore structural and textural data were developed and investigated. It was shown that relationships between tensile strength and calculated textural data had promise as the basis of a method of coke strength prediction. Also, tensile strengths could be calculated from the blend composition and the tensile strength of the coke produced from component cokes. Both methods have value in different situations.

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