In Sweden there is a growing interest among teachers to locate teaching outdoors. This is linked to beliefs about the potential for outdoor environments to reinforce learning, since the encounter with nature becomes more holistic. Outdoors, all the senses are involved in knowledge-building and activity experiences. According to previous research, outdoor learning can lead to reinforcement between learning domains and provide a bridge to higher order learning. This thesis, comprising two papers, will focus on teachers’ intentions and educational objectives with outdoor learning, and how these educational objectives are implemented in outdoor activities. The alignment between teachers’ predefined objectives and the types of knowledge and cognitive processes reflected in the outdoor activities are also investigated. Semi-structured interviews, including descriptions of successful activities and reflections on metaphors and observations, were used to collect data. The interview transcripts were analysed using Halldén’s theory of intentional analysis to identify teachers’ intentions when locating learning outdoors. Teachers’ objectives in the cognitive domain were further analysed by Bloom’s revised taxonomy. The teachers have a range of reasons for outdoor learning, including pursuing theoretical knowledge through experience-based learning, exploring real objects using multiple senses, stimulating positive feelings towards nature, and promoting collaboration. The main intention of arranging outdoor learning is to create an alternative learning arena as an important complement to classroom learning, contributing values to students’ learning process. The teachers use a diverse set of outdoor activities. The findings included a typology of four teacher types: one values affective and social objectives and promotes activities to understand factual knowledge, another type stresses activities intended to gain procedural knowledge and emphasizes application of practical tasks. The other two teacher types primarily focus on cognitive objectives, partly to reinforce conceptual knowledge, and partly to deepen understanding or improve strategies to enhance meta-cognitive knowledge. The degree of alignment between intended objectives and performed activity is higher among teachers promoting affective and social goals alongside meta-cognitive and analytical understanding, than teachers who use outdoor activities mainly to reinforce conceptual knowledge. The thesis shows that there is a range of possible learning goals in outdoor education and that teachers are guided by what they value and how they perceive learning. / I Sverige finns ett växande intresse bland lärare att förlägga undervisning utomhus. Detta är kopplat till föreställningar om utomhusmiljöns potential för att stärka lärandet, eftersom mötet med naturen blir mer holistisk. Utomhus är alla sinnen involverade i kunskapsuppbyggnad och erfarenheter genom aktivitet. Enligt tidigare forskning kan lärande utomhus leda till förstärkning mellan lärandedomäner och ge en överbryggning till mer komplext lärande. Denna avhandling, bestående av två delstudier, fokuserar lärarnas avsikter och pedagogiska mål med lärande utomhus och hur dessa pedagogiska mål genomförs i utomhusaktiviteter. Vidare undersökts överensstämmelse mellan lärarnas fördefinierade mål och de typer av kunskap och kognitiva processer som avspeglas i utomhusaktiviteterna. Semi strukturerade intervjuer, vilka inkluderade beskrivningar av framgångsrika aktiviteter och reflektioner kring metaforer samt observationer har användes för att samla in data. Intervju transkripter har analyserats med hjälp av Halldéns teori om intentionell analys för att identifiera lärarnas intentioner med att förlägga lärande utomhus. Lärarnas mål i den kognitiva domänen har analyserats vidare med Blooms reviderade taxonomi. Lärarna har en rad anledningar till lärande utomhus, vilka inkluderar att utöva teoretiska kunskaper genom upplevelsebaserat lärande, att utforska verkliga objekt med hjälp av flera sinnen, att stimulera positiva känslor för naturen, och främja samarbete. Det huvudsakliga syftet med att arrangera utomhuslärande är att skapa en alternativ lärandearena som ett viktigt komplement till klassrumsundervisningen, vilket bidrar till värden i elevernas inlärningsprocess. Lärarna använder en mängd olika utomhusaktiviteter. Resultaten innehåller också en typologi av fyra lärartyper: en som värden affektiva och sociala mål och främjar aktiviteter för att förstå faktakunskap, en annan typ betonar aktiviteter som syftar till att få formella kunskaper och understryker tillämpning av praktiska uppgifter. De andra två lärartyperna fokuserar främst kognitiva mål, dels för att stärka konceptuella kunskaper, dels för att fördjupa förståelsen eller förbättra strategier för att förbättra meta-kognitiv kunskap. Graden av överensstämmelse mellan avsiktliga mål och utförda mål genom aktivitet är högre bland de lärare som främjar affektiva och sociala mål liksom meta-kognitiv och analytisk förståelse, än de lärare som använder utomhusaktiviteter främst för att förstärka konceptuella kunskaper. Avhandlingen visar att det finns en rad möjliga lärandemål i utomhusundervisning samt att lärarna styrs av vad de värderar och hur de uppfattar lärande.
Gould, Brian E.
07 December 2012
Providing high-quality assessment feedback for learners is one of the most important activities faculty can do to positively affect learning. Recent advancements in information, communication, and multimedia technologies present opportunities for us to examine how, when, and where we provide assessment feedback. Yet, a scan of the academic research literature shows that technologies are used widely for teaching in higher education, but not necessarily for assessment. This exploratory study utilized an inductive, naturalistic inquiry approach to investigate student perceptions of receiving assessment feedback in digital multimedia format. Findings revealed that students reported positive effects on their cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning through what they perceived as regularly occurring student-faculty interaction. Although this study had a relatively small and homogeneous sample, these findings indicate that providing digital multimedia assessment feedback asynchronously, online, has the potential to enhance faculty-student interactions, while contributing to student learning, satisfaction, and motivation.
Lee, Yoon Suk
18 January 2008
Low back disorders (LBDs) are one of the most commonly occurring injuries in industry. To attempt to reduce these work-related injuries, billions of dollars are being budgeted for formal training in the U.S. However, the outcomes of this training are below a satisfactory level. The majority of organizations utilize the Four-level Evaluation Model to evaluate their training program. However, previous studies have pointed out some limitations regarding this evaluation model. Moreover, most organizations collect only trainee reaction, the first level of the Four-level Evaluation Model, to determine the effectiveness of their training program. Many studies reveal that trainee reaction is an invalid indicator to determine the effectiveness of a training program, and further suggest multi-dimensional categorization within each level of the Four-level Evaluation. Therefore, in this study, the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy was employed to enable multidimensional categorization of learning outcomes in a lifting and lowering training program. The learning outcomes of interest in such a training program relate to procedural knowledge and the cognitive process involved are categorized as remembering, understanding, applying, and evaluating the contents of the training program. Two research questions were asked. What types of learning outcomes are most predictive of training performance? How do the learning outcomes predict training performance compared to affective and utility type reactions? The ability of different types of learning outcomes to predict training performance was tested by multiple regression analyses. The results revealed that apply-procedural learning outcomes and the interaction variable of understand-procedural and apply-procedural learning outcomes were the most predictive of training performance. Further, these learning outcomes were more predictive of training performance than the trainee reactions (affective and utility type reactions) to explain training performance. The results of this study yielded a set of recommendations that may be useful in designing and evaluating lifting and lowering training programs. Moreover, this study examined the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy as a novel method of considering the multidimensional nature of learning and provided a potential application of the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy in the training discipline. / Master of Science
01 July 1997
Objective: The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether or not undergraduate athletic training educators are writing learning objectives that foster critical thinking (CT) skills, and (b) to determine if their written assignments and written examinations are measuring the extent to which students have developed CT skills. Design and Setting: Thirty institutions seeking accreditation for their athletic training programs from the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Educational Programs in the 1994-95 academic year were asked to provide their curriculum materials (course syllabus, two to three examinations, or both from each athletic training-specific course). Subjects: Thirteen curriculum directors (43%) provided materials. Measurements: Each learning objective, examination question, and written assignment was classified as either CT or non-critical thinking (NCT) using Bloom's taxonomy. Results: From 64 usable syllabi, a total of 678 learning objectives were classified as either CT (52%) or NCT (48%). From 81 written examinations, 3215 questions were classified as either CT (14%) or NCT (86%). In addition, a total of 143 written assignments were all classified as CT. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that educators fostered more CT in their learning objectives and written assignments than in their written exams. Valid educational instruments (eg, Bloom's taxonomy) may help educators design learning objectives, assignments, and examinations.
2016 January 1900
In modern educational technology we have the ability to capture click-stream interaction data from a student as they work on educational problems within an online environment. This provides us with an opportunity to identify student behaviours within the data (captured by the online environment) that are predictive of student success or failure. The constraints that exist within an educational setting provide the ability to associate these student behaviours to specific educational outcomes. This information could be then used to inform environments that support student learning while improving a student’s metacognitive skills. In this dissertation, we describe how reading behaviour clusters were extracted in an experiment in which students were embedded in a learning environment where they read documents and answered questions. We tracked their keystroke level behaviour and then applied clustering techniques to find pedagogically meaningful clusters. The key to finding these clusters were categorizing the questions as to their level in Bloom’s educational taxonomy: different behaviour patterns predicted success and failure in answering questions at various levels of Bloom. The clusters found in the first experiment were confirmed through two further experiments that explored variations in the number, type, and length of documents and the kinds of questions asked. In the final experiment, we also went beyond the actual keystrokes and explored how the pauses between keystrokes as a student answers a question can be utilized in the process of determining student success. This research suggests that it should be possible to diagnose learner behaviour even in “ill-defined” domains like reading. It also suggests that Bloom’s taxonomy can be an important (even necessary) input to such diagnosis.
Databases are a critical part of Information Technology. Following a rigorous methodology in the database lifecycle ensures the development of an effective and efficient database. Conceptual data modeling is a critical stage in the database lifecycle. However, modeling is hard and error prone. An error could be caused by multiple reasons. Finding the reasons behind errors helps explain why the error was made and thus facilitates corrective action to prevent recurrence of that type of error in the future. We examine what errors are made during conceptual data modeling and why. In particular, this research looks at expertise-related reasons behind errors. We use a theoretical approach, grounded in work from educational psychology, followed up by a survey study to validate the model. Our research approach includes the following steps: (1) measure expertise level, (2) classify kinds of errors made, (3) evaluate significance of errors, (4) predict types of errors that will be made based on expertise level, and (5) evaluate significance of each expertise level. Hypotheses testing revealed what aspects of expertise influence different types of errors. Once we better understand why expertise related errors are made, future research can design tailored training to eliminate the errors.
The aim of this project is to evaluate whether the e-learning material, that has been converted from face-to-face course material to e-learning materialon the basis of the revised version of Bloom's taxonomy and learning strategies, is pedagogical in the sense that the students realize the categories of the three domains of learning in Bloom's taxonomy. To achieve the aim of this project a face-to-face course will be converted to an e-learning course; that will then be evaluated. The results show thatthe e-learning material is pedagogical in the sense that the students realize the categories of the three domains of learning in Bloom's taxonomy, and the discussion indicates that the material is pedagogical to a certain extent. That is, some categories and aspect of the three domains of learning appear to have been realized, for example remembering, understanding, practicing, and adapting. The report includes a discussion on positive and negative aspects concerning attention, motivation, imitating, etc.
Assessing the Inter-Rater Reliability and Accuracy of Pharmacy Faculty's Bloom's Taxonomy ClassificationsKarpen, Samuel C., Welch, Adam C. 01 November 2016 (has links)
Objective To identify inter-rater reliability and accuracy of pharmacy faculty members' classification of exam questions based on Bloom's Taxonomy. Methods Faculty at a college of pharmacy was given six example exam questions to assign to the appropriate Bloom's level. Results Inter-rater reliability and accuracy were both low at 0.25 and 46.0%, respectively. Accuracy increased to 81.8% when the six Bloom's levels collapsed to three. Conclusions Both inter-rater reliability and accuracy were low. Faculty members' misclassifications suggested a three-tier combination of the Bloom's levels that would optimally improve accuracy: Knowledge, Comprehension/Application, and Analysis/Synthesis/Evaluation. Faculty development should also be considered in improving accuracy and reliability.
Anderson, Tonya L.
No description available.
Daniel, Bethany Rae
01 December 2013
(has links) (PDF)
Critical thinking has long been recognized as a valuable skill, both in education in general and within the world language teaching field specifically. In recent years, critical thinking has been identified as one of the 21st century skills that students need to succeed in modern society (Partnership, 2009). However, there is no clear, unifying definition of the term itself (Paul, 2004), and the definition of critical thinking is debated in many different fields without support from empirical data (Kuhn, 1999). Similarly, critical thinking has been often discussed in the literature as having great potential to facilitate language learning, and particularly to develop language proficiency (Gaskaree, Mashhady & Dousti, 2010; Heining-Boynton & Heining-Boynton, 1992; Hoch & Hart, 1991; Rojas, 2001; Williams, Lively & Harper, 1994). However, this discussion has not been centered around a single, clear definition or been supported by empirical research. This study attempts to fill these gaps by exploring how currently practicing world language teachers define the term critical thinking. Definitions were gathered through a survey of K-16 world language teachers from across the United States and through interviews with individual beginning level German instructors at a large, private university in the western United States. Findings revealed three primary ways in which teachers define critical thinking: first, by identifying characteristics of critical thinking; second, by discussing the thought processes and skills used in the action of critical thinking; and third, by describing the topics about which critical thinking takes place, either on the micro-level, dealing with language itself, or on the macro-level, dealing with real-world issues and themes. Based on these three areas of definition, several pedagogical implications were identified. As critical thinking is integrated as a 21st century skill into the world language classroom, the traditional roles of the teacher may need to transform, the content used in the classroom may need to change, and the activities in which students are asked to engage may likewise need to shift. The integration of these pedagogical implications into the world language classroom as a means to facilitate the development of advanced levels of language proficiency is also discussed.
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