Use of a developmental theory of parental cognition to construct a model of parental decision-making strategiesFulmer, Kaye Alison 05 1900 (has links)
In recent years researchers interested in family decision making have argued for the need to apply a conceptual framework to the study of parental decision making about child-rearing issues. This study is an attempt to construct a theory-based model of parental decision-making strategies. Two theoretical approaches were employed; a structural-developmental approach to provide an understanding of parental cognition, and an information processing approach to the study of decision-making strategies. Previous research has demonstrated that pressure of time and task complexity were important in influencing the selection and use of information. These two factors were manipulated by the researcher. A model of parental decision-making strategies was proposed and tested in a pilot study. The decision was made to reduce the number of variables to those which demonstrated the potential to make a significant contribution to an understanding of parental decision making. These variables were tested in the main study. Sixty mothers participated in the study. They represented a wide range of socio-economic and educational backgrounds as well as number of years of parenting experience and age. Participants completed Newberger’s Level of Parental Awareness Interview and four decision tasks about two childrearing issues. The decision tasks were presented on information boards. The model of parental decision-making strategies was tested using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significant effects were obtained for level of parental awareness, pressure of time, task complexity and number of years of formal education. The reduced model explained much of the variance in parental decision-making strategies (71%). Specific hypotheses concerning level of parental awareness and information use were supported. The results inform theory and practice. Support was found for the theory-based model and for Liben’s view of a rapprochement between developmental theory and information-processing theory. Parents with more knowledge about parenting used less information and more variability in their decision making. Support was found for Newberger’s measure and construct. Practical implications for parent education were curricula described.
Hadjistavropoulos, Heather Deanne
A cognitive-behavioural theory (CBT) has been put forth to explain hypochondriasis and less extreme forms of health anxiety (Warwick & Salkovskis, 1990). The extent to which less extreme forms of health anxiety are relevant for understanding illness behaviour remains unclear, however. Further, the independence of health anxiety from a more general construct of negative affectivity, as well as response styles is not known. The CBT of health anxiety predicts that in response to illness information health anxious individuals will show a characteristic cognitive (e.g., attend to and misinterpret information) and behavioural (e.g., avoidance and reassurance seeking) response. Although the predictions are supported by clinical observations, rigorous and systematic contrasts of health anxious and non-health anxious individuals to the same objective health related information have not yet been carried out. Further, there are a number of additional issues that need to be clarified with respect to the theory, including: (a) Are there additional cognitive and behavioural responses involved in health anxiety not predicted by the CBT?; (b) Are health anxious individuals deficient in there use of certain adaptive responses to illness information?; and (c) Are the cognitive and behavioural responses shown by health anxious individuals moderated under certain circumstances? In the present study, students scoring either within normal or nonclinically high ranges on a measure of health anxiety underwent a physiological test ostensibly examining risk for medical complications and were randomly assigned to receive positive, negative, or ambiguous test results. They then underwent a cold pressor task ostensibly to examine physiological activity and were asked questions tapping their responses to the diagnostic information and painful procedure. They were also judged for facial expressiveness. Unmistakable support was found for a dysfunctional cognitive (e.g., negative interpretational focus) and behavioural (e.g., reassurance seeking) response style among health anxious individuals. Little support was found for either cognitive or behavioural avoidance in health anxiety. Not anticipated by the CBT, as time went on health anxious individuals became more expressive of their pain; this may have important implications, since increased expressiveness could result in an increase in the felt emotional experience. Adding to the CBT, evidence was found to suggest that health anxious individuals may have a deficit or be deficient in their use of a positive concrete somatic monitoring strategy. Finally, the results suggested that there are statistically and clinically significant differences among nonclinically health anxious individuals and normals that can not be accounted for by differences in negative affectivity or response styles.
Epistemic reasoning and adolescent egocentrism among adolescent boys with behavioral disorders and their peers without behavioral disordersBeaudoin, Kathleen Mary 05 1900 (has links)
A number of investigations have been conducted to examine social cognition and psychopathology among adolescents, yet little is known about the social cognitive reasoning of adolescents identified as having severe behavioral disorders. The purpose of the present study was to explore the social cognitive reasoning of adolescent boys with behavioral disorders in comparison to their peers without behavioral disorders. Group differences were examined with respect to epistemic reasoning and the dimensions of adolescent egocentrism. In addition, the relation between social cognition and social relationships was investigated. Finally, the relation between social cognition and psychopathology was explored. Thirty-one adolescent boys with behavioral disorders and 32 of their peers without behavioral disorders (matched forage, race, and SES) participated in the study. All participants were individually administered measures designed to assess epistemic reasoning, imaginary audience and personal fable ideation (i.e., invulnerability, omnipotence, personal uniqueness), and personal-intimacy and groupintegration with peers and family. In addition, boys with behavioral disorders completed a measure of internalizing, externalizing, and total problem behaviors. Teacher-ratings of problem behaviors were also completed for each participant in the study. Results revealed that adolescent boys with behavioral disorders were lower in epistemic reasoning than were adolescent boys without behavioral disorders. Groups were not found to differ with respect to imaginary audience or personal fable ideation. For boys with behavioral disorders, no relation was found between social cognition and social relationships. In contrast, for boys without behavioral disorders, personal uniqueness was negatively related to group-integration with peers and omnipotence was positively related to group-integration with family. Social cognitive reasoning was found to predict self-reported problem behaviors for boys with behavioral disorders and teacher-re ported problem behaviors for boys without behavioral disorders. Overall, these results suggest the importance of epistemic reasoning in understanding the relation between social cognition and psychopathology.
The impact of selected variables on breast self-examination in undergraduate females enrolled in a core curriculum classFaulk, Heather L. January 2002 (has links)
The problem of the study was to determine the relationship of breast cancer prevention attitudes, level of body satisfaction, family history of breast cancer, and prior education about breast self-examination (BSE) to the performance of BSE by undergraduate college females. The participants in the study were 356 female college students enrolled in HSC 160, Fundamentals of Human Health, at Ball State University during the spring semester of 2001. Using a cross-sectional data collection process, participants completed a survey instrument measuring the variables of the study.The data were analyzed using both univariate and bivariate statistics. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were used to determine 1) the relationship between the level of performance of BSE among college females and their breast cancer prevention attitudes, 2) the relationship between college females' body dissatisfaction and their level of performance of BSE, 3) the association between the level of performance of BSE and family history of breast cancer, and 4) the association between the performance of BSE and prior education concerning BSE.The results indicated that there was a significant association between the performance of BSE and having prior knowledge concerning BSE, and with having a positive or negative breast cancer prevention attitude. No significant associations were found between the performance of BSE and having a family history of medical problems concerning the breasts, or with the subject's level of body dissatisfaction. / Department of Physiology and Health Science
Schwabrow, Lynsey A.
This study of 79 male and 139 female university students investigated organizational recovery efforts following customer dissatisfaction. Rather than exploring recovery efforts that occur following a service failure, this study examined proactive versus reactive recovery efforts to determine implications for customer service. The purpose of this study was to determine ways in which to prevent a dissatisfying consumer experience from concluding as a complete service failure. This research extended the previous investigations of service recovery by Webster and Sundaram (1998) and Smith, Bolton, and Wagner (1999).A 4 x 3 factorial design employed four service recovery efforts and three service industries. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty served as the primary dependent variables. Results supported the hypothesis that the use of communication before a dissatisfying service event concludes increases both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results also provided evidence that customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are positively correlated. Combination recovery efforts and implications are discussed. / Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services
Two-way communication : a win-win model for facing activists pressure : a case study on McDonald's and Unilever's responses to Greenpeace / Two way communicationCooper, Adrienne D. January 2009 (has links)
This thesis consists of two case studies which examine how Greenpeace, an independent global environmental campaigning organization, targeted major multinational corporations, McDonald’s and Unilever, in attempt to stop destructive agricultural processes in the developing world. This multiple case study examined how these corporations responded to activist pressure and offers prescriptive insight on how corporations can turn criticism in to an opportunity to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes when responding to activist pressure. These case studies will suggest that if public relations practitioners can create a dialogue with activists publics through two-way communication the profession of public relations can be a guiding force for creating more sustainable business practices, fostering corporate social and environmental responsibility, and creating positive social change. This paper examined recent literature on changing attitudes toward environmental issues, the credibility of corporate sustainability, and symmetrical communication. By studying the use of two-way dialogue in the practice of corporate communications with environmental activist organizations, these case studies will help to test the real world validity of theoretical propositions about symmetrical communication (L. Grunig 1992). Rather than directing its campaigns toward Cargill and other agriculture suppliers, Greenpeace chose to focus their efforts on McDonald’s and Unilever, two large highly visible international corporations using their products. Both companies chose to work with Greenpeace, pressured their suppliers to change their environmental policies, and worked toward creating moratoriums to end deforestation. / Department of Journalism
Renbarger, Denna M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the pre and post scores of literacy surveys to determine if there is a differential improvement in the literacy achievement of kindergarten students who attend one of three kindergarten programs: full-day, alternate-day, and half-day. The sample of this study consisted of 1530 kindergarten students enrolled in a centralized kindergarten program during the 2000-2001 and the 2001-2002 school years. Only the scores of the 1530 students who had both pre and post scores were included in the study. The hypothesis was studied at the .05 level of significance.The scores of 1530 students were studied at the pre and post level in two literacy skill areas, letter identification and concepts about print. The findings of the study were:1. There was a significant difference in the increase in student achievement of letter identification between alternate-day and half-day programs, with students in half-day making more gains.2. There was no significant difference in the increase in student achievement of letter identification between alternate-day and full-day programs.3. There was a significant difference in the increase in student achievement of concepts about print (CAP) between alternate-day and full-day, with students in full-day making more gains.4. There was no significant difference in the increase in student achievement of concepts about print between alternate-day and half-day programs.Overall, the findings indicate that students in the alternate-day program achieved the lowest gains in Letter Identification and concepts about print of the three kindergarten programs. / Department of Elementary Education
Using case study instructional methodology in high school biology: its effect on cognitive engagement and critical thinking skillsMcCallum, Joyce 21 January 2015 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that case-based instructional methodology had on student’s development of critical thinking skills, cognitive engagement and learning as compared to the lecture-based instructional methodology. The experimental design consisted of two grade 12 high school biology classes being taught a unit of study with two different teaching methodologies. Each class was taught half the unit with case-based instruction and the other half of the unit using lecture-based instruction. The two classes were taught opposite halves using these instructional methodologies. The Applied Critical Thinking Measure was used to determine the students’ level of development of their critical thinking skills. The measure consisted of five scenarios that required students to read, identify the objective, ask questions that would clarify their understanding, draw upon existing information or list new information needed, and draw a conclusion with supporting statements. Cognitive engagement was measured by direct observations using a criterion checklist of 14 items. The teacher-researcher and her colleague designed three artifacts to measure student learning. T-tests were used to compare the mean scores of the two classes on each of the artifacts collected for student learning. The inferential statistics showed that student learning improved during the case-based teaching section of the unit. The observations showed an increase in cognitive engagement during the case-based instructional section of the unit. There was no significant difference in the mean scores for students’ critical thinking skills in Class 1, but there was a significant difference in the mean scores for Class 2. The difference appears modest but considering the duration of the study it is a notable development. The scope of this study addresses a knowledge gap regarding the use of case-based teaching methodology in high school. The implications are meaningful in that case-based teaching has shown to have an impact on cognitive engagement and student learning in a high school biology classroom.
McNelley, William J.
21 May 1976
The purposes of this study were to (1) identify major problems faced by the youth who, in transition from school to work, have resorted to anti-social behavior and are now inmates of Deuel Vocational Institution, (2) identify the behavioral patterns of youth having employment problems that resulted in incarceration within our penal system, (3) identify a profile of students leaving school who have resorted to anti-social behavior, as indicated by their incarceration within Deuel Vocational Institution, and (4) identify changes in the existing educational programs to aid youth in their transition from school to work. Procedures Thirty-five randomly selected inmates between the ages of 18 and 30 were in the sample for the case studies. Each inmate was interviewed using a directed interview instrument and allowed to express his own opinions regarding school and work. The inmate record jackets were searched to verify the data given in the interview, also for probable causes of anti-social behavior, employment history, family background and educational status. Findings The first part identified drugs as the most common link to antisocial behavior. In every case involving a youth indulging in the use of "reds" and alcohol, the crime was of the following nature: the smashing of a man's head with a concrete water meter cover; the apparently motiveless shooting of a man walking on a beach; the clubbing of a woman because "she called me a son of a bitch." In each case involving a youth using heroin, the anti-social behavior was related to the procurement of the money necessary to support a habit costing up to one hundred fifty dollars per day. The heroin addict is a thief, a robber or a drug dealer. The drug user seemed to feel he could not support his habit through regular employment or have the time needed to use the drugs. There were no cases of drug addicts gainfully employed. Every case investigated showed the inmate to be predominantly self-centered, There were no cases in which the inmate, either in his own statement about the crime or at any time during incarceration, stated that he felt concern for the victim or the relatives of the victim, A major portion of the inmates' records indicated antisocia1. behavior at an early age: the youngest was arrested at the age of nine and 90 percent were arrested before the age of 16. Most cases included two arrests before the inmate had left school. Thirty seven percent of the youth were involved in organized gangs. The gangs protected and provided for their members through a myriad of anti-social crimes. Four cases were involved in gang murders related to fights and recruitment drives. "Hanging out, standing around on the street or in the park was reported by many of the cases. "Hanging out" is a form of unstructured gang promoting drugs, alcohol and a philosophy that excludes working--or the slang term for working, "snapping"--to provide subsistence. Conclusions The following conclusions were derived from this study: (1) The major problems faced by the inmates in transition from school to work were developed before the age of 16. (2) The major factors relating to the inmates' anti-social behavior had very little to do with their education. (3) A major portion of those youth inclined toward anti-social behavior did not want to, and would not, work. (4) Those youth inclined toward anti-social behavior that did desire work were successfully employed at the time of the crime. (5) Anti-social behavior was not related to the inmates' transition from school to work. / Graduation date: 1977
Purpose: To develop and test the validity and reliability of the Life Sustaining Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (LSTAQ), a survey instrument to elicit family member decision-maker attitudes toward life sustaining treatments for the critically ill at end of life. Background: Attitudes toward life sustaining treatments (LST) have been shown to influence decision-making at end of life (EOL). A reliable and valid tool to elicit attitudes specifically from family member decision-makers may help healthcare professionals facilitate decision-making during serious illness at end of life. Methods: A 33-item LSTAQ instrument was tested in 170 adults. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Correlations established convergent and discriminant validity. Reliability testing for internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and corrected split half reliability coefficients. All procedures were done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18) software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, 111). Results: A 30-item final LSTAQ tool was derived from this study. Principal components factor analysis extracted six factors explaining 62.7% of variance. Correlations with a similar tool supported convergence (r = .72, ? <.01). Discriminant validity was confirmed by the absence of significant correlation with the dissimilar tool. LSTAQ internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = .92). A preliminary exploration of differences in LSTAQ scores by ethnicity revealed a sampling size and distribution that was not optimally responsive to detection of ethnic differences. Conclusion: The LSTAQ is a reliable and valid tool to elicit LST attitudes specifically from family member decision-makers. The knowledge gained may help healthcare professionals promote interventions that facilitate family decision-making on life support for the ill relative at end of life. This might help reduce decision difficulties that cause preventable discomfort, unnecessary treatment and prolonged suffering for the terminally ill patient, as well as avoidable distress among family members involved in decisions for the sick relative.
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