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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The effects of second-order discriminations on complex performance in a chimpanzee

Melia, Kathleen F. 12 1900 (has links)
No description available.

Chimpanzee alarm communications: a zoosemiotic study

Unknown Date (has links)
Evidence for conceptual semantics is well established in monkeys, however this basis of human language is less evident in the great apes. In order to study semantic communications in chimpanzees, I analyzed alarm calls produced towards a blimp as it was flying overhead. I then replayed a set of these alarm calls to the chimps on a different day. The chimps appeared to act in a manner consistent with the presence of the blimp. The calls they produced in response to the playback stimuli were nearly identical to the calls that were produced during the actual flyover. Though the data collected were not sufficient to support a definitive claim, it does appear that the chimpanzees of the study have a meaning-laden vocalization for the aerial stimuli. Whether this call is specific to the blimp or generalizable to other aerial threats is yet to be determined. / by Alyssa M. Raymond. / Thesis (M.A.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2012. / Includes bibliography. / Electronic reproduction. Boca Raton, Fla., 2012. Mode of access: World Wide Web.

Factors shaping social learning in chimpanzees

Watson, Stuart Kyle January 2018 (has links)
Culture is an important means by which both human and non-human animals transmit useful behaviours between individuals and generations. Amongst animals, chimpanzees live particularly varied cultural lives. However, the processes and factors that influence whether chimpanzees will be motivated to copy an observed behaviour are poorly understood. In this thesis, I explore various factors and their influence on social learning decisions in chimpanzees. In turn, the chapters examine the influence of (i) rank-bias towards copying dominant individuals, (ii) majority and contextual influences and finally (iii) individual differences in proclivity for social learning. In my first experiment, I found evidence that chimpanzees are highly motivated to copy the behaviour of subordinate demonstrators and innovators in an open-diffusion puzzle-box paradigm. In contrast, behaviours seeded by dominant individuals were not transmitted as faithfully. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the emergence of novel traditions. In my second experiment, I found that some chimpanzees are highly motivated to relinquish an existing behaviour to adopt an equally rewarding alternative if it is consistently demonstrated by just one or two individuals within a group context, but not in a dyadic context. This contrasts with prior studies which argue that chimpanzees are highly conservative and may hint at a hitherto unrecognised process by which conformity-like behaviour might occur. Finally, I performed a novel type of ‘meta' analysis on 16 social learning studies carried out at our research site to determine whether individuals demonstrated consistency in their social learning behaviour across experimental contexts. Strong evidence for individual differences in social information use was found, with females more likely to use social information than males. No effect of age, research experience or rearing history was found. This presents a promising new method of studying individual differences in behaviour using the accumulated findings of previous work at a study site.

The evolutionary origins of executive functions : behavioural control in humans and chimpanzees

Mayer, Carolina Patricia January 2015 (has links)
Executive functions (EFs) are a set of cognitive operations, including working memory, inhibitory control and attention shifting, that underpin accurate, flexible and coordinated behaviour in many problem-solving contexts. While it seems likely that humans surpass nonhuman animals in EFs, previous research into the evolutionary origins of EFs is limited and lacks systematic comparisons of EFs in human and nonhuman animals. In this thesis, I aimed to overcome these limitations by developing a test battery to study EFs in our closest primate relative, the chimpanzee. Using an individual differences approach, I investigated the performance of 19 chimpanzees on several EF tasks and extracted two factors in an exploratory factor analysis accounting for 70.9 % of the variability. The two measures of working memory loaded onto one factor, suggesting that a common cognitive process underlay performance on both tasks. This factor could be clearly differentiated from a well-established measure of attention shifting, loading onto a second factor. In addition, the measures of inhibitory control did not contribute to a unique factor. Intriguingly, the emerging structure of separable EF processes, paralleled the EF structure suggested for human adults (Miyake et al, 2012). The subsequent comparison of a sub-sample of chimpanzees (n = 12; excluding aged individuals), pre-schoolers (n = 36) and undergraduates (n = 16) on two selected EF tests revealed impressive EF capacities of chimpanzees. Chimpanzees could deal with interference in working memory at levels comparable to four and five year-olds. Additionally, the ability of chimpanzees to shift attention was not significantly different from four year-olds; however, five- year-olds outperformed their primate relatives. My work suggests that important aspects of EFs are shared between humans and chimpanzees; while performance differences in EFs emerge late in human ontogeny. The implications of my results for theories on human cognitive evolution are discussed.

Dissection of observational learning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens)

Hopper, Lydia Meriel January 2008 (has links)
In the wild, a variety of inter-group behavioural differences have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and it has been suggested that these may have resulted from social learning. To determine whether chimpanzees show the necessary propensity for social learning, groups of captive chimpanzees were tested in a series of experiments involving the use of two-action and bidirectional apparatuses. For comparison, and to shed light on any contrasts between our own and chimpanzee learning strategies, similar tests were also conducted with children (Homo sapiens) to ascertain the nature of their observational learning when watching conspecifics. Through the use of open diffusion and diffusion chain techniques, it was shown that both species learnt how to operate different foraging devices from observing an expert conspecific and this learning was strong enough for the generation of behavioural traditions which passed along multiple test ‘generations’. Additionally, ghost conditions were used to distinguish imitative and emulative learning by both species. With one of the two test devices used (the Slide-box) the first evidence for emulation learning by chimpanzees, through the use of a ghost condition, was shown. Children in this condition also showed apparent emulation; a contrast to previous research which has concluded that children tend to rely on imitation. Additionally, to test its potential for use in future social learning experiments, the ability of chimpanzees to learn from video-footage of an unknown conspecific was tested. It was found that the chimpanzees not only learnt how to operate two devices from observing this footage but also used the same alternative method used by the model chimpanzee.

Attention following and nonverbal referential communication in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)

Madsen, Elainie Alenkær January 2011 (has links)
A central issue in the study of primate communication is the extent to which individuals adjust their behaviour to the attention and signals of others, and manipulate others’ attention to communicate about external events. I investigated whether 13 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes spp.), 11 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 7 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) followed conspecific attention and led others to distal locations. Individuals were presented with a novel stimulus, to test if they would lead a conspecific to detect it in two experimental conditions. In one the conspecific faced the communicator, while another required the communicator to first attract the attention of a conspecific. All species followed conspecific attention, but only bonobos in conditions that required geometric attention following and that the communicator first attract the conspecific‘s attention. There was a clear trend for the chimpanzees to selectively produce a stimulus directional ‘hunching’ posture when viewing the stimulus in the presence of a conspecific rather than alone (the comparison was statistically non-significant, but very closely approached significance [p = 0.056]), and the behaviour consistently led conspecifics to look towards the stimulus. An observational study showed that ‘hunching’ only occurred in the context of attention following. Some chimpanzees and bonobos consistently and selectively combined functionally different behaviours (consisting of sequential auditory-stimulus-directional-behaviours), when viewing the stimulus in the presence of a non-attentive conspecific, although at species level this did not yield significant effects. While the design did not eliminate the possibility of a social referencing motive (“look and help me decide how to respond”), the coupling of auditory cues followed by directional cues towards a novel object, is consistent with a declarative and social referential interpretation of non-verbal deixis. An exploratory study, which applied the ‘Social Attention Hypothesis’ (that individuals accord and receive attention as a function of dominance) to attention following, showed that chimpanzees were more likely to follow the attention of the dominant individual. Overall, the results suggest that the paucity of observed referential behaviours in apes may owe to the inconspicuousness and multi-faceted nature of the behaviours.

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) gaze following in the informed forager paradigm : analysis with cross correlations

Hall, Katherine McGregor January 2012 (has links)
I tested two pairs of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the informed forager paradigm: a subordinate saw the location of hidden bait, and then searched with a naïve dominant. This paradigm has tested what subjects know about others' states of knowledge, but my focus was to determine how subjects used different movement types and different gaze types to modify their competitive tactics. In particular, I investigated whether chimpanzees follow opponents' gaze to gain information. Learning more about how primates use visual information to predict others' behaviour can shed light on the continuing debate over to what degree apes possess theory of mind capacities. Previous published studies in this paradigm included narratives of ignorant competitors exploiting informed subjects by following their movement and gaze, and informed subjects avoided this exploitation by walking away from hidden food. The subordinate's behaviour can be considered tactical deception, which is a good place to seek strong evidence of second-order intentionality. Analyses with descriptive statistics, however, fail to capture the complexity of these interactions, which range from single decision-making points to larger patterns of following and misleading. I introduced a novel method of statistical analysis, cross correlations, that enabled me to examine behavioural patterns quantitatively that previous authors have only been able to describe in narrative form. Though previous studies on chimpanzees' understanding of gaze found that they were unable to use (human-given) gaze cues to locate hidden food, the subjects I tested followed their conspecific opponent's gaze, and used information gained from the gaze interaction to modify their own movement towards the hidden bait. Dominants adjusted their physical following of the subordinates as the interaction progressed, which reflected their changed states of knowledge. Subordinates used their movement and gaze differentially to manipulate dominants' behaviour, by withholding information and by recruiting towards a less-preferred bait.

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