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Cognitive processes of prioritization in multitaskingBai, Hao 20 April 2017 (has links)
<p>Previous research suggests that people employ priority-related task attributes (e.g., task importance, task length, and task deadline) in prioritization. The process of prioritization employs heuristics to determine task order (Zhang & Feyen, 2007a). These models only address the prioritization process at a task level and do not address the cognitive mechanisms underlying prioritization. Building on previous findings, a process model of prioritization is proposed to explain prioritization during multitasking. Two experiments examined three cognitive processes of prioritization and the influence of time pressure. Three processes were investigated: 1) a process makes magnitude comparisons on priority-related information, 2) a process integrates multiple pieces of information and checks for potential conflicts among information, and 3) a process solves conflicts among priority-related information during prioritization. Under the influence of time pressure, it is hypothesized that people will adopt strategies that require fewer cognitive resources compared to situations where no time pressure exists. A series of task conditions with various configurations of priority-related task attributes was used to illuminate these processes and hypothesis. Hierarchical regression analyses provided evidence for the three cognitive components and suggested that these cognitive components played different roles under time pressure compared to performance under no time pressure. Three fundamental cognitive processes were identified in prioritization and provide implications for personnel selection and training for jobs demanding prioritization and multitasking in the real world.
Examining eye fixation patterns during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) under varying levels of workloadMiramontes, Adriana J. 03 March 2017 (has links)
<p> The situated approach to situation awareness (SA) claims that operators use tools and displays to store information that cannot be held in working memory when they are performing complex and dynamic tasks. Based on this approach, operators store general and high priority information internally and offload specific and low priority information to the environment. High levels of workload can lead to a reduction in working memory capacity and can increase levels of stress. As a result, workload is likely to affect how an operator stores information. The current study tests the situated approach to SA and its assumptions by examining eye fixations during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) for measuring situation awareness and examines how a shift in workload affects situation awareness and offloading behavior. Results found support for the situated approach to SA such that participants took longer to answer probe queries, made more glances toward the radar scope, and had longer eye glance latencies when answering specific questions than general questions, indicating that they offloaded specific information to the environment. Furthermore, results indicated that workload lead to a change in strategy such that participants took longer to answer probe queries, made more glances toward the radar scope, and had longer eye glance latencies when under high workload conditions. Therefore, higher workload leads an operator to offload information to the environment. </p>
Individual Differences: Accounting for Variation in Embodied Language Processing EffectUnknown Date (has links)
Many researchers have attempted to replicate different embodied language processing effects, with varying degrees of success. We wanted to know what, if any, individual differences might account for the observed variance for these embodied effects. Using the Action-sentence Compatibility Effect (ACE) paradigm from Sell and Kascahk (2012) as our dependent measure, individual differences measures of personality (Big Five Personality Traits, Morizot, 2014) and cognitive abilities (Need for Cognition – Short Form, Cacippo, Petty, and Kao, 1984; Modified Metacomprehension Scale, Mcginnis, Saunders, and Berns, 2007) were first correlated, and then investigated through linear mixed models regression. In both experiments presented, the dependent measure failed to replicate. However, in Experiment 2, we were able to explain the observed variance through a model building approach. From the personality measures, conscientiousness was found to interact with part of the ACE measure. Of the cognitive measures, Need for Cognition was found to significantly interact with the ACE measures, while regulation from the Modified Metacomprehension Scale and conscientiousness from the Big Five interacted with part of the ACE measures. A discussion about the findings follows the presented work. / A Thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the Master of Science. / Fall Semester 2015. / September 15, 2015. / Embodiment, Individual Differences / Includes bibliographical references. / Walter Boot, Committee Member; Arielle Borovsky, Committee Member.
The Role of Fingers in Adults' Numerical ProcessingUnknown Date (has links)
Finger gnosis, the ability to mentally represent one’s fingers, has been shown to predict mathematical ability in children. More recently, researchers have shown that this relation holds for college students as well. In the current study, I sought to replicate and extend the finding that finger gnosis is a predictor of mathematic ability in young adults. To replicate these findings, the relation was assessed utilizing a simple math task that assessed calculation fluency. I attempted to extend past research by also assessing the relation between finger gnosis and a more complex test of mathematical ability, the SAT mathematics test. Additionally, I examined the relation between finger gnosis and both symbolic and non-symbolic measures of numerical magnitude, using a number line estimation task and the dots task, respectively. Finally, memory-based strategy use was tested as a mediator of the relation between finger gnosis and calculation fluency. Results replicate the previous finding that finger gnosis predicts calculation fluency in adults; however, finger gnosis was not a predictor of SAT math performance. Additionally, finger gnosis was a predictor of symbolic but not non-symbolic numerical magnitude estimation. Finally, although I found a relation between finger gnosis and both calculation fluency and use of memory-based strategy, memory-based strategy did not mediate the relation between finger gnosis and calculation fluency. / A Thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the Master of Science. / Summer Semester 2017. / July 21, 2017. / Includes bibliographical references. / Michael Kaschak, Professor Directing Thesis; Colleen Ganley, Committee Member; Sara Hart, Committee Member.
Memory Consolidation during Post-encoding Wakeful RestUnknown Date (has links)
Engaging in post-encoding wakeful rest has been shown to lead to better retention of encoded information versus engaging in a post-encoding task. Brain imaging studies have shown that there is reactivation during post-encoding rest of brain areas that were active during initial encoding, and this process has been attributed to memory consolidation, leading to the improvements in recall. The present set of experiments investigated the impact of conscious thoughts occurring during post-encoding wakeful rest on delayed recall performance for both younger and older adults. Recall was tested across two tests separated by a rest period while verbalizing conscious thoughts or engaging in a visuo-spatial task while verbalizing thoughts. The present set of experiments demonstrated that both younger and older adults engage in post-encoding conscious reply that relates to delayed recall organization. The role of conscious replay in post-encoding processing is discussed. / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Fall Semester 2017. / November 17, 2017. / conscious replay, consolidation, memory, recall organization / Includes bibliographical references. / Michael Bishop, University Representative; Frank Johnson, Committee Member; Walter Richard Boot, Committee Member; Derek Evan Nee, Committee Member.
Threat Processing in the Human Sensory CortexUnknown Date (has links)
The need for expedient detection of and response to signals of danger compels the development of sophisticated neural circuits for threat processing. This threat neural circuitry should support not only identification of and response to innately threatening stimuli, but also learning and memory of sensory cues predictive of such threats. While extensive rodent and human research has established an essential role of the amygdala in processing innate and learned threats, increasing evidence suggests the existence of extra-amygdala neural circuits that are capable of independent threat processing. The sensory cortex emerges as an important part of the threat circuitry, demonstrating heightened neural response to innately threatening stimuli and persistent neural plasticity as a result of threat learning. In three separate yet conceptually-integrated experiments, employing a combination of electrophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods, this dissertation examines threat processing in the human sensory cortex, and importantly, disentangles its unique contribution from that of the amygdala. Study 1 (Chapter 2) indicated that the ventral visual cortex was capable of fast, refined processing of threat scenes, relatively independent of the amygdala. Studies 2 and 3 (Chapters 3 and 4) further applied threat conditioning to examine possible learning and memory mechanisms by which the sensory cortex contributes to the processing of threat. Study 2 demonstrated immediate and long-term plastic changes in the olfactory cortex to learned threat odors, combining fMRI, olfactory aversive conditioning, and a long-term memory retention test (on Day 9). Lastly, Study 3 revealed visual cortical and amygdala contributions to immediate and lasting plastic changes to learned visual threats, respectively, combining brain electrophysiology, visual aversive conditioning, and a long-term memory retention test (on Day 16). Together, these three experiments demonstrate the critical role the sensory cortex plays in threat encoding and the origin of such sensory cortical threat codes via associative learning. / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Fall Semester 2017. / September 20, 2017. / Fear conditioning, Long-term memory, Olfaction, Sensory cortex, Threat, Visual perception / Includes bibliographical references. / Wen Li, Professor Directing Dissertation; Mohamed Kabbaj, University Representative; Colleen M. Kelley, Committee Member; Zuoxin Wang, Committee Member; Jian Feng, Committee Member.
Belief Systems and Executive FunctioningUnknown Date (has links)
Perceiving our world is an active process. We actively explore and investigate the environment rather than passively registering the objects and events we encounter. Our perception and attention reflect our moods, expectations, and beliefs. Recent evidence supporting this approach comes from studies that focus on the impact of individual differences on human perception and attention. Characteristics about the world we live in, like culture or religion, may drive these differences in perception and attention. One of the ways this has been looked at is by examining executive functioning. Inhibitory control, the ignoring of irrelevant information, is an important component of executive functioning. The Simon, Flanker, and Stroop tasks are all common measures of inhibitory control. They all require to some degree the inhibition of irrelevant information when selecting an appropriate response to stimuli. Several studies have reported a bilingual advantage on these tasks. Previous research has indicated differences in cognitive functioning for those of different political beliefs. Differences are seen in perception of multi-level stimuli in people of different cultures and religions and for people with different political leanings. Previous research has found similar differences in performance on a measure of executive functioning for people of different religions. The expected effects for the Simon and Flanker task were found in this sample. Differences in the size of the Simon and Flanker effect were not found in this sample for those of different religious beliefs or political beliefs / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Fall Semester 2017. / November 8, 2017. / Attention, Executive Functioning, Inhibitory control, Political beliefs, Religious beliefs, Simon effect / Includes bibliographical references. / Michael P. Kaschak, Professor Directing Dissertation; Gretchen Sunderman, University Representative; Walter Richard Boot, Committee Member; Colleen M. Kelley, Committee Member; Paul Conway, Committee Member.
The Effects of Mental Workload and Interface Design on Physical MovementJanuary 2018 (has links)
abstract: Interface design has a large impact on the usability of a system, and the addition of multitasking only makes these systems more difficult to use. Information processing, mental workload, and interface design are determining factors that impact the performance of usability, and therefore interface design needs to be more adapted to users undergoing a high mental workload. This study examines how a primary task, visual tracking, is affected by a secondary task, memory. Findings show that a high mental workload effects reaction time and memory performance on layouts with a high index of difficulty. Further research should analyze the effects of manipulating target size and distance apart independently from manipulating the index of difficulty on performance. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Human Systems Engineering 2018
Divided Attention Selectively Impairs Value-Directed EncodingJanuary 2019 (has links)
abstract: The present study examined the effect of value-directed encoding on recognition memory and how various divided attention tasks at encoding alter value-directed remembering. In the first experiment, participants encoded words that were assigned either high or low point values in multiple study-test phases. The points corresponded to the value the participants could earn by successfully recognizing the words in an upcoming recognition memory task. Importantly, participants were instructed that their goal was to maximize their score in this memory task. The second experiment was modified such that while studying the words participants simultaneously completed a divided attention task (either articulatory suppression or random number generation). The third experiment used a non-verbal tone detection divided attention task (easy or difficult versions). Subjective states of recollection (i.e., “Remember”) and familiarity (i.e., “Know”) were assessed at retrieval in all experiments. In Experiment 1, high value words were recognized more effectively than low value words, and this difference was primarily driven by increases in “Remember” responses with no difference in “Know” responses. In Experiment 2, the pattern of subjective judgment results from the articulatory suppression condition replicated Experiment 1. However, in the random number generation condition, the effect of value on recognition memory was lost. This same pattern of results was found in Experiment 3 which implemented a different variant of the divided attention task. Overall, these data suggest that executive processes are used when encoding valuable information and that value-directed improvements to memory are not merely the result of differential rehearsal. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Psychology 2019
Can Accountability be Instilled, in the Absence of an Authority Figure, in a Way Which Enhances a Human-Automation System?January 2019 (has links)
abstract: As automation becomes more prevalent in society, the frequency that systems involve interactive human-automation control increases. Previous studies have shown accountability to be a valuable way of eliciting human engagement and reducing various biases, but these studies have involved the presence of an authority figure during the research. The current research sought to explore the effect of accountability in the absence of an authority figure. To do this, 40 participants took part in this study by playing a microworld simulation. Half were told they would be interviewed after the simulation, and half were told data was not being collected. Eleven dependent variables were collected (accountability, number of resources shared, player score, agent score, combined score, and the six measures of the NASA- Task Load Index), of which statistical significance was found in number of resources shared, player score, and agent score. While not conclusive, the results suggest that accountability affects human-automation interactions even in the absence of an authority figure. It is suggested that future research seek to find a reliable way to measure accountability and examine how long accountability effects last. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Human Systems Engineering 2019
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