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21 
A critical assessment of crack growth criteria in unidirectional compositesBarbe, Andre January 1985 (has links)
The problem examined is an infinite anisotropic layer with a through crack at arbitrary orientation, subjected to uniform inplane remote loading. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of several theoretical models for predicting the direction of crack propagation and the level of load causing crack extension, and to present a new model for predicting the critical load. The discussed models are particularly examined in detail with regard to the physical parameters affecting the results. Comparison is made with available experimental results. It is shown that the normal stress ratio theory provides good agreement with experimental crack growth direction, independent of physical parameters, and that the newly proposed traction ratio theory predicts well the critical load causing crack extension. / M.S.

22 
Effects of load proportioning on the capacity of multiplehole composite jointsChastain, Patrick Alan January 1985 (has links)
This study addresses the issue of adjusting the proportion of load transmitted by each hole in a multiplehole joint so that the joint capacity is a maximum. Specifically twoholeinseries joints are examined. The results indicate that when each hole reacts 50% of the total load, the joint capacity is not a maximum. One hole generally is understressed at joint failure. The algorithm developed to determine the load proportion at each hole which results in maximum capacity is discussed. The algorithm includes twodimensional finiteelement stress analysis and a failure criteria. The algorithm is used to study the effects of joint width, hole spacing, and hole to jointend distance on load proportioning and capacity. To study hole size effects, two hole diameters are considered. Three laminates are considered: a quasiisotropic laminate; a crossply laminate; and a 45 degree angleply laminate. By proportioning the load, capacity can be increased generally from 5 to 10%. In some cases a greater increase is possible. / M.S.

23 
An experimental/analytical investigation of combined shear/end loaded compression strength testing of unidirectional compositesHahn, Steven Eric 23 December 2009 (has links)
The Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI) composite compression test method is probably the most widely accepted as producing accurate results. Difficulties associated with the application of this method, however, have fueled continued research into alternate methods.
In this study, the Wyoming EndLoaded SideSupported (ELSS) test scheme was investigated in a combined shear/end loaded mode. This system was examined experimentally and analytically to establish the method as a reasonable alternative to IITRI testing. Combined shear/end loading was accomplished by applying a controlled amount of clamping force to the stabilizing blocks, allowing them to transmit shear force to the coupon faces through friction.
The fabrication of test specimens from a BASF graphite IBMI material system is described in detail, including the application of a novel "pressclave" processing system developed at Virginia Tech. This system allows for costeffective manufacture of flat panels under conditions similar to autoclave processing. For the material system employed in this study, this process proved superior to conventional hot press processing.
Experimental results include strengths and failure modes for both tabbed and untabbed coupons tested by the combined loading ELSS method, and these data are compared to the results by the IITRI method. Strength was found to increase with increasing clamping, but reached a maximum with both untabbed and tabbed specimens. The maximum strength achieved with untabbed specimens was still significantly below the IITRI value, but the tabbed specimens reached strengths comparable to the IITRI data. The failure mode also changed with increased clamping, from end crushing to brooming with untabbed specimens, and from end crushing to shear failure with tabbed specimens. As the strength and failure mode achieved with the combined loading ELSS method using tabbed specimens are both similar to those seen in the IITRI tests, this modified technique can be considered equivalent to the IITRI method. Preliminary data from tests using novel nonbonded tabs were also similar to those given by the IITRI method.
The finite element method was used to analyze the effect of increasing the clamping force. Competing effects of locally complex and severe stresses at the coupon end and a stress concentration which develops at the end of the gage section were shown to limit the maximum strength. Tabs appear to reduce the stress concentration while further decreasing the stresses at the end, allowing results comparable to those given by the IITRI method to be achieved. / Master of Science

24 
An assessment of subscale notched specimens for composites shear property measurementBudiman, Haryanto Tiara 05 September 2009 (has links)
The feasibility study of subscale notched specimens to determine the shear response of composites is presented. The investigation consists of finite element analyses, conventional straingaged testing, and photomechanics experiments. Several notch geometries of the subscale specimens are studied, the standard 900 V notch, Unotch, and circular notch. The investigation is performed on two different material systems, a standard high performance graphite/epoxy (AS4/35016) material and an SMC R28 material reinforced with 28% volume fraction strand glass fiber.
The moduli obtained from the subscale specimens are compared with those obtained from the standard specimens. Different degrees of twisting observed in testing the sub scale specimens are discussed.
Numerical and experimental results of the SMC R28 materials are presented. The dependence of the measured shear modulus on the relative orientation of the specimen in the panel is identified. The application of the subscale, circular notched specimens to obtain the shear modulus of the SMC material is discussed. / Master of Science

25 
An investigation of stiffness reduction as an indicator of fatigue damage in graphite epoxy compositesCamponeschi, Eugene Thomas January 1980 (has links)
This investigation concerns the validity and feasibility of using moduli reduction to monitor the effect of fatigue damage in graphite epoxy composites.
Five laminate orientations were considered, [O]₄, [90]₄, [±45]<sub>s</sub>, [0,90]<sub>s</sub>, [0,90,±45]<sub>s</sub>, and four inplanestiffness properties were monitored for each. The stiffness parameters were E<sub>xx</sub>, E<sub>yy</sub>, G<sub>xy</sub>, and v<sub>xy</sub>, and were measured using a longitudinal tension test, a rail shear test and a transverse bend test. Nondestructive testing techniques such as Cscan and edge replication were also performed to aid in the observation of damage development.
Results describe the response of each laminate orientation in tensiontension fatigue, including a record of changes in the stiffness properties at intervals during fatigue.
Longitudinal stiffness (E<sub>xx</sub>) and shear stiffness (G<sub>xy</sub>) were shown to significantly decrease for the [0,90,±45]<sub>s</sub>, laminate following fatigue loading. The inplane stiffness properties for the other four laminates remain essentially unchanged following fatigue loading. Matrix cracking and delamination appears to contribute to the stiffness reductions that occur in the [0,90,±45]<sub>s</sub> laminate. / Master of Science

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Structural analysis and optimum design of geodesically stiffened composite panelsPhillips, John L. 12 March 2009 (has links)
A simple, computationally efficient analysis approach is developed to predict the buckling of geodesically stiffened composite panels under inplane loads. This procedure accounts for the discrete flexural contribution of each stiffener through the use of Lagrange multipliers in an energy method solution. An analysis is also implemented for the buckling of simply supported anisotropic rhombic plates. Examples are presented to verify results of the stability analyses and to demonstrate their convergence behavior.
Analysis routines are coupled with a versatile numerical optimizer to create a package for the design of minimummass stiffened panels, subject to constraints on buckling of the panel assembly, local buckling of the stiffeners, and material strength failure. The design code is used to conduct a preliminary design study of structurally efficient stiffened aircraft wing rib panels. Design variables include thickness of the skin laminate, stiffener thickness, and stiffener height. Applied loads are uniaxial compression, pure shear, and combined compressionshear. Two different geodesically stiffened wing nib configurations with increasing numbers of stiffeners are considered. Results are presented in the form of structural efficiency curves and are compared with those for minimumweight longitudinally stiffened panels and unstiffened flat plates. Trends in design parameters, including skin thickness and stiffener height, stiffener thickness, stiffener aspect ratio, stiffener load fraction, and stiffener mass fraction, are also examined for the geodesic panels under compression and shear. The effects of skin laminate geometry and anisotropy on the local buckling behavior of crossstiffened geodesic panels are examined using the rhombic plate analysis. / Master of Science

27 
The residual strength determination due to fatigue loading by fracture mechanics in notched composite materialsJen, MingHwa Robert January 1985 (has links)
The objective of this investigation is to predict the residual strength of notched composite Iaminates with various layups, subjected to low frequency fatigue loading with constant amplitude at room temperature, by using a material modeling approach, fracture and fatigue mechanics and the finite element method (FEM).
For simplicity, after thousands of cycles, the geometry of a circular hole of the deformed laminate was categorized as (1) uniformly expanded hole into elliptic shape, (2) crack propagation around the hole transversely. Both types were studied for 12 cases of layups with various proportions of 0, 45, 45 and 90 degree plies. The effect of geometry change during fatigue on residual strength was attributed to the elliptical hole, longitudinal splitting, matrix cracking (reduction moduli of plies), crack propagation and local delamination. Due to the thin throughthethickness notched laminate, twodimensional FEM was used and interlaminar stresses were not considered.
Reduction of stress concentration is a reason for the increase of the residual strength of the notched laminate. The stress concentration factor decreases while the elliptic hole becomes more slender; that was examined by the FEM. The residual strength and stiffness were determined by the material modeling with moduli reduction and damaged zone, and the numerical result was obtained by FEM. Laminate theory, point stress criterion, polynomial failure criterion, ply discount method, and fatigue and fracture mechanics (Paris' Power Law) were also included in this research.
Geometry change and moduli reduction are two major effects that are considered to predict the notched strength. The WN point stress fracture model is adopted for simplicity, instead of the average stress criterion. K<sub>tg</sub> that corresponds to the unnotched strength in the normalized stress base curve is used to obtain the characteristic length (d<sub>o</sub>). We find that K<sub>tg</sub> decreases when the elliptic hole becomes more slender and more moduli are reduced (more plies crack). At the time d<sub>o</sub> that is determined from K<sub>tg</sub> in the base curve is not necessarily a fixed material constant.
The correlation between the fatigue life and the residual strength as predicted by the model and those determined numerically is found within acceptable errors in comparison with the experimental data. / Ph. D.

28 
Interlaminar mode III fracture ECT method  testing and analysisUnknown Date (has links)
In an effort to obtain an improved mode III fracture toughness test suitable for a testing standard, mechanics analysis, experimental testing, and finite element analysis (FEA) have been conducted. Of particular concern are the merits of onepoint and twopoint edge crack torsion (ECT) test methods, the influence of specimen geometry that overhangs beyond load/support points, and the influence of crack length on the compliance and energy release rate. Shear stress distributions at the crack front are determined to examine the uniformity of mode III loading and mode II influence. The shear stress distributions in the onepoint and twopoint tests are virtually identical, indicating that either of the two tests could be used interchangeably. Based on the uniformity of the mode III shear stress distribution along the crack front, it was found that the ECT specimen should have minimum overhang. Longer crack lengths tend to produce nonuniform shear stress distributions. A modified twopoint ECT test fixture was developed to allow testing of specimens with a range of dimensions. This development enabled experimental verification of the results from the FEA overhang series. The specimens with a minimum overhang produced consistant mode III toughness data. The most reliable way to reduce data is through the original compliance calibration method. A modified ECT specimen was developed with a staggered crack front to produce uniform mode III crack growth. Finite element analysis of the modified ECT specimen shows a uniform mode III stress distribution along the crack front with little mode II interaction. / by Grant Browning. / Thesis (M.S.C.S.)Florida Atlantic University, 2009. / Includes bibliography. / Electronic reproduction. Boca Raton, Fla., 2009. Mode of access: World Wide Web.

29 
Determination of the tensile strength of the fiber/matrix interface for glass/epoxy & carbon/vinylesterUnknown Date (has links)
The tensile strength of the fiber/matrix interface was determined through the development of an innovativetest procedure.Aminiature tensile coupon with a throughthickness oriented, embedded single fiberwas designed. Tensile testing was conducted ina scanning electron microscope (SEM)while the failure process could be observed.Finite element stress analysis was conducted to determine the state of stressat the fiber/matrix interface in the tensile loaded specimen, and the strength of the interface.Test specimensconsistingof dry Eglass/epoxy and dry and seawater saturatedcarbon/vinylester510Awere preparedand tested.The load at the onset of debondingwascombined withthe radial stressdistributionnear thefree surface of the specimento reducethe interfacial tensile strength. For glass/epoxy, was 36.7±8.8MPa.For the dryand seawater saturated carbon/vinylester specimensthetensilestrengthsof the interface were 23.0±6.6 and 25.2±4.1MPa, respectively.The difference is not significant. / Includes bibliography. / Thesis (M.S.)Florida Atlantic University, 2015. / FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection

30 
Optimisation and improvement of the design of scarf repairs to aircraftHarman, Alex Bruce, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UNSW January 2006 (has links)
Flush repairs to military aircraft are expected to become more prevalent as more thick skin composites are used, particularly on the surface of the fuselage, wings and other external surfaces. The use of these repairs, whilst difficult to manufacture provide an aerodynamic, ???stealthy??? finish that is also more structurally efficient than overlap repairs. This research was undertaken to improve the design methodology of scarf repairs with reduced material removal and to investigate the damage tolerance of scarf repair to low velocity impact damage. Scarf repairs involve shallow bevel angles to ensure the shear stress in the adhesive does not exceed allowable strength. This is important when repairing structures that need to withstand hot and humid conditions, when the adhesive properties degrade. Therefore, considerable amounts of parent material must be machined away prior to repair. The tips of the repair patch and the parent laminate are very sharp, thus a scarf repair is susceptible to accidental damage. The original contributions include: ??? Developed analytic means of predicting the stresses within optimised scarf joints with dissimilar materials. New equations were developed and solved using numerical algorithms. ??? Verified using finite element modelling that a scarfed insert with dissimilar modulus subjected to uniaxial loading attracted the same amount of load as an insert without a scarf. As such, the simple analytic formula used to predict load attraction/diversion through a plate with an insert may be used to predict the load attraction/diversion into a scarf repair that contains a dissimilar adherend patch. ??? Developed a more efficient flush joint with a doubler insert placed near the mid line of the parent structure material. This joint configuration has a lower load eccentricity than external doubler joint. ??? Investigated the damage tolerance of scarf joints, with and without the external doubler. The results showed that scarf joints without external doublers exhibited a considerable strength reduction following low velocity impact. Based on the observations, the major damage mechanics in the scarf joint region following impact have been identified. These results demonstrated that it is important to incorporate damage tolerance in the design of scarf repairs.

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