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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Cultivating classroom curiosity: a quasi-experimental, longitudinal, study investigating the impact of the question formulation technique on adolescent intellectual curiosity

Clark, Shelby E. 31 October 2017 (has links)
Curiosity can be defined as the “urge to know more” that manifests behaviorally in questioning and exploration. Curiosity is associated with a host of positive youth outcomes, including academic achievement, school engagement, and deeper learning, yet studies indicate that few teachers foster curiosity in their classrooms, possibly due to a lack of pedagogical techniques focused on inspiring student curiosity. Many scholars suggest directly teaching questioning to cultivate student curiosity; yet, relatively few empirical studies on the role of questioning in fostering curiosity have been conducted. Accordingly, the present study conducted a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation to examine the relationship between exposure to the Question Formulation Technique (QFT), a classroom-based intervention that seeks to teach students how to ask their own questions, and scores on curiosity and related strengths in a sample of Northeast high school students. Participating English/Language Arts faculty at four high schools (N = 2,217 students; 42 teachers) were randomly assigned to either a fall or spring start condition. The study utilized student self-report questionnaires and teacher fidelity checks at three time points (fall, winter, and spring) across schools in order to consider the potential impact of the QFT on students’ curiosity, divergent thinking, school engagement, and self-efficacy. In light of prior research, it was hypothesized that the QFT would have a significant positive treatment effect on the study constructs, and would positively impact growth in these attributes. In addition, higher teacher fidelity of implementation of the intervention was expected to lead to greater growth in these attributes. Furthermore, positive and reciprocal mediational paths between curiosity, cognitive engagement, and self-efficacy were proposed. Multilevel modeling revealed the QFT to have a positive absolute treatment effect on students’ curiosity, but not an impact on students’ curiosity growth. In addition, high teacher fidelity, but not dosage, led to increases in students’ curiosity growth over the school year. No other overall positive treatment effects were found, although fidelity and dosage were related positively to growth on several variables. In addition, multiple-group structural equation path models revealed several complex indirect and direct pathways between the four variables of interest. Most surprising, cognitive engagement served as predictors of all other variables in the model. Qualitatively, teachers discussed the impact of the QFT on student responsiveness, described adaptations they made to the intervention, and noted the need for professional development. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research are discussed.

Latino Adolescents' Organized Activities: Understanding the Role of Ethnicity and Culture in Shaping Participation

January 2014 (has links)
abstract: Organized activity participation is associated with a wide array of positive developmental outcomes. Latinos are one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the U.S., yet are less likely to participate in organized activities than their peers. Theoretically, the alignment or fit between adolescents' and their activities' characteristics is critical to support youths' use and engagement in organized activities. Using qualitative data in Study 1, I examined parents' and adolescents' perspectives and experiences related to several indicators of ethnicity and culture in their activities. Results suggested that alignment on Spanish-language use was critical for participation. However, some Latino families did not prefer aspects of ethnicity and culture in their activities because adolescents learned about their culture with family or because adolescents wanted to fit in with their majority White peers. Study 2 tested quantitatively whether features of ethnicity and culture in the activity mattered for Latino adolescents' experiences during activities. Ethnic and cultural features in activities, particularly respect for one's ethnicity and culture, fostered positive experiences during activities. Unexpectedly, some ethnic and cultural features were detrimental, such that overt teaching about ethnicity and culture was related to negative feelings during the activity. There was little evidence that the relation between ethnic and cultural features in activities and concurrent experiences varied by Latino cultural orientation. Integrating the findings across these two studies, there was mixed evidence for the traditional theoretical notions that optimal development occurs in environments that fit with individual's characteristics. Complementary fit was optimal when adolescents' needs were considered across the many contexts in which their lives are embedded, including their families and neighborhoods. I recommend that practitioners should take care in learning about the specific families and youth that their activity serves to best understand how to meet their needs. Some aspects of culture, such as Spanish-language use may be critical for participation; other aspects may require special attention from activity leaders, such as teaching about ethnicity and culture. This dissertation is an important step in understanding how to best design activities that promote the recruitment and retention of Latino youth in organized activities. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Family and Human Development 2014

Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being during Developmental Turning Points: Help and Hindrance from Interpersonal Relationships

January 2017 (has links)
abstract: In two complementary studies, I used an innovative ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine associations between adolescents’ daily interactions with parents and peers and their mood states during two developmentally normative, yet demanding contexts: romantic relationships and the transition to college. The first study examined how adolescents’ daily romantic relationship experiences (e.g., romantic emotionality, conflict, affiliation) were related to negative affective states. Eighty-eight adolescent romantic couples (Mage = 16.74 , SD = 0.96; 44% Latina/o, 42% White) completed short electronic surveys twice-weekly for 12 weeks, which assessed their affective states and their relationship processes (24 total possible surveys). Results indicated that greater conflict and negative romantic emotionality predicted greater within-person fluctuations in same-day negative affect. Greater daily affiliation with a romantic partner predicted slightly lower levels of same-day negative affect; positive romantic emotionality did not significantly predict negative affect. Study 2 examined first-year college students’ growth trajectories in positive and negative affect across the transition to college (i.e., spanning the entire first semester), predicted said trajectories and daily affective states. Participants were 146 first-year college students from a large southwestern university entering their first semester of college (Mage = 17.8, SD = 0.5). Electronic diary surveys were administered to students twice weekly between July and December of 2014, so as to span the transition to college and the entire first semester, and assessed daily affective states and interpersonal interactions. Results indicated that students decreased in their positive affect gradually across the first semester, but remained stable in their negative affect. Significant variability emerged around these average trends, and was predicted by indices of conflict and involvement with parents and friends. Generally, greater involvement with friends and parents was associated with greater positive and less negative affect, whereas greater conflict with these important social groups predicted greater negative affect. Together, these studies underscore the importance of positive attachments during developmentally-challenging contexts experienced in adolescence. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Family and Human Development 2017

Profiles of Social Withdrawal in Late Childhood: Associations with Academic Engagement and Achievement

January 2012 (has links)
abstract: The primary goals of this study were to empirically identify subgroups of socially withdrawn youth in late childhood using latent profile analysis and to examine profiles of students' scholastic adjustment. Further, comparisons of the academic functioning for different subtypes of withdrawn children, with particular emphasis on socially disinterested and socially avoidant youth, were made. Participants were 358 fifth grade children. Results indicated that theoretical subtypes of socially withdrawn youth emerge among fifth grade students (i.e., shy, socially disinterested, socially avoidant, and nonwithdrawn). Additionally, associations among subtype membership and various indices of academic engagement and achievement demonstrated unique academic profiles depending on subgroup classification. In particular, youth who were identified as socially avoidant were at greatest risk for academic difficulties compared to their peers. Findings also emerged for socially disinterested youth indicating some degree of academic maladjustment associated with a preference for solitude. These findings have implications for students exhibiting different forms of social withdrawal for their academic functioning in later childhood. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.S. Family and Human Development 2012

Girls' Pubertal Development: An Examination of Predictors and Trajectories

January 2013 (has links)
abstract: This dissertation used an evolutionary approach to examine the antecedents and outcomes to early pubertal development in girls in four major ethnic groups (i.e., European American, African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American). In the first study, logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the links between socioeconomic status (SES), parenting behaviors, and father absence to pubertal development across and within ethnic groups. SES and father absence predicted earlier pubertal development among European, African, and Hispanic Americans but not for Asian Americans. In the second study, growth curves were estimated for sexual outcomes across ethnic groups. Early developing European and African American girls had higher levels of sexual risk and pregnancy into adulthood. Puberty did not predict outcomes for Hispanic and Asian American girls. Overall, the findings from both studies revealed the importance of investigating childhood environmental contexts, puberty, and sexual health outcomes using an evolutionary perspective. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Family and Human Development 2013

A Latent Profile/Latent Transition Approach to Children's Coping with Peer Victimization

January 2013 (has links)
abstract: The current study expands prior work on children's coping with peer victimization by employing person-centered analyses to identify discrete classes of coping behavior, associations with children's maladjustment, and patterns of stability and change over time. Specifically, data were collected at two longitudinal time points from 515 middle school children who reported experiencing at least occasional peer victimization (284 girls, 231 boys; Mage = 8 years, 5 months, SDage = 10.38 months). Three active, behavioral coping strategies were examined: support seeking from teachers, support seeking from friends, and retaliation. A series of cross-sectional latent profile analyses suggested that coping styles may be characterized by 3 distinct classes: (1) support seeking, (2) retaliation, or (3) a combination of these strategies, labeled mixed strategy coping. Peer victimization, depression, and loneliness were included as concurrent covariates of class membership and results indicate that mixed strategy coping may put children at greater social and emotional risk, whereas both support seeking and retaliation may pose potential benefits in the face of victimization. Further, longitudinal latent transition analyses were conducted to examine the stability and change in coping over time, indicating that coping is largely dispositional, though has the potential to change, particularly among children who experience shifts towards greater maladjustment over time. Results emphasize mixed strategy coping - a coping style that is underrepresented in the current research - as both an important factor that may contribute to greater social and emotional difficulties and also as a potential transitioning point during which change in children's coping may be addressed. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Family and Human Development 2013

Relations between Family/Friendship Satisfaction and Anxiety in a Sample of Children with Phobic and Anxiety Disorders: Exploring Variability across Age and Ethnicity

January 2013 (has links)
abstract: Although anxiety may be developmentally appropriate, it can become problematic in some youth. From an ecological perspective, social systems, like family and friendships, are theorized to influence developmental trajectories toward (mal)adjustment, but empirical evidence is scant with regard to the relative impact of subjective satisfaction with family and friendship on anxiety problem development. This thesis study used a subsample of approximately 50% Hispanic/Latino clinic-referred youth (n = 71, ages 6-16 years). Overall, results suggest that the effect of friendship satisfaction on anxiety varied as a function of age but not ethnicity, such that there was a significant negative relationship between child-reported friendship satisfaction and anxiety levels for older children (approx. 9 years and older) but not for younger children. The effect of family satisfaction on anxiety also varied as a function of age, such that older children showed a positive relation between child reported family satisfaction and parent reported anxiety. Furthermore, a positive relation between family satisfaction and anxiety was found only for the H/L children. Post hoc analyses regarding cultural underpinnings of this finding and implications for future research are discussed, as are the results regarding differences between parent and child reports of anxiety. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.A. Psychology 2013

Differential Prediction of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology

January 2013 (has links)
abstract: Using data from an eight-year longitudinal study of 214 children's social and emotional development, I conducted three studies to (1) examine patterns of agreement for internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) symptomatology among different informants (mothers, fathers, teachers, and adolescents) using a recently developed structural equation modeling approach for multi-trait, multi-method data; (2) examine the developmental trajectories for INT and EXT and predict individual differences in symptom development using temperament and parenting variables; and (3) describe patterns of INT and EXT co-occurrence and predict these patterns from temperament and parenting. In Study 1, longitudinal invariance was established for mothers', fathers' and teachers' reports over a six-year period. Sex, age, and SES did not substantially moderate agreement among informants, although both sex and age were differentially related to symptomatology depending on the informant. Agreement among teachers and mothers, but not among mothers and fathers, differed by domain of symptomatology, and was greater for EXT than for INT. In Study 2, latent profile analysis, a person-centered analytic approach, did not provide easily interpretable patterns of symptom development, a failure that is likely the result of the relatively modest sample size. Latent growth curve models, an alternative analytic approach, did provide good fit to the data. Temperament and parenting variables were examined as predictors of the latent growth parameters in these models. Although there was little prediction of the slope, effortful control was negatively related to overall levels of EXT, whereas impulsivity and anger were positively related. Mutually responsive orientation, a measure of the parent-child relationship, was a more consistent predictor of EXT than was parental warmth. Furthermore, the relation between mutually responsive orientation and EXT was partially mediated by inhibitory control. Across informants, there were few consistent predictors of INT. In Study 3, latent profile analysis was used to classify individuals into different patterns of INT and EXT co-occurrence. In these models, a similar class structure was identified for mothers and for teachers. When temperament and parenting were examined as predictors of co-occurring symptomatology, few significant interactions were found and results largely replicated prior findings from this data set using arbitrary symptom groups. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Psychology 2013

Profiles of School Readiness and Implications for Children's Development of Academic, Social, and Engagement Skills

Tremaine, Elizabeth Jane 12 September 2017 (has links)
<p> Academic achievement gaps across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups are apparent as soon as children enter kindergarten: racial minorities, Hispanics, and poor children begin school at a distinct disadvantage compared to their White peers from middle- and high-income families (Chatterji, 2005; Fryer, Jr. &amp; Levitt, 2004; Magnuson, Meyers, Ruhm, &amp; Waldfogel, 2004; Magnuson &amp; Waldfogel, 2005; Reardon, 2011). To understand these gaps at kindergarten entry, it is essential that researchers understand the skills with which children enter kindergarten. </p><p> Previous research on school readiness has been limited by variable-centered methods that separate components of school readiness (e.g., early academic skills, social skills, engagement). As each entering kindergartner possesses their own set of school readiness skills, it is not likely that school readiness skills are independent of one another. School readiness may be better conceptualized and measured as patterns of skills that children possess at the beginning of kindergarten. These detectable patterns of school readiness skills present at kindergarten entry may deferentially support development of academic and non-academic achievement outcomes, such that strengths can promote the development of weaker skills across the kindergarten year. </p><p> Within the framework of Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller, 1994), this study investigated the nature of the relations among children's school readiness skills and their associations with development of academic, social, and engagement skills across the kindergarten year. This study used a person-centered analytic technique to identify profiles of school readiness present in entering kindergartners and explored the different developmental trajectories of academic, social, and engagement skills of children across these profiles. Five school readiness profiles were detected: 1) Scholastic, 2) On Par, 3) Room to Grow, 4) Super Regulator, and 5) Wiggler. Membership in these profiles was predicted by key demographic variables, and membership in profiles in turn uniquely predicted change in achievement outcomes across the kindergarten year. More specifically, children in the Super Regulator profile improved notably in academic skills, which were their weaker skills at school entry, but did not show improvement in social and engagement skills as a group across the year; children in the Wiggler profile showed moderate improvements in engagement skills, social skills, and self control across the year; children in the On Par profile showed no change in social and engagement skills, while showing the most improvement in math scores across all the profiles; the social and engagement skills of children in the Scholastic profile improved moderately, while their academic skills improved the least of all the groups; and children within the Room to Grow profile showed the most growth in social and engagement skills and improved moderately in math skills, but did not show the same improvement in reading skills. </p><p> Furthermore, this study contrasted the person-centered approach described above to a more traditional, variable-centered approach. The author believes that the person-centered approach succeeded in providing findings about school readiness that can be more easily and succinctly communicated to early childhood education stakeholders than did the variable-centered approach. </p><p>

Constructing the Concept of Time| Roles of Perception, Language, and Culture

Tillman, Katharine A. 12 August 2017 (has links)
<p> Understanding the nature and origin of abstract concepts, like the concept of time, is a fundamental problem in cognitive science. From infancy, humans can discriminate brief durations, represent event sequences, and associate temporal and spatial magnitudes. By adulthood, Westerners construe of time as an abstract dimension, which is described and measured using language, clocks, and calendars. Are mature concepts of time built from innate perceptual primitives? In this dissertation, I will argue that they are not, drawing on developmental evidence from 3- to 8-year-old children. In Chapter 1, I show that children do not learn duration words like &ldquo;minute&rdquo; by associating them with perceptual representations of duration. Instead, children's earliest meanings for duration words encode their relations to one another. For example, preschoolers know their relative ordering (e.g., <i>hour > minute > second</i>) long before they know each word&rsquo;s approximate duration. Similarly, in Chapter 2, I present evidence that children do not learn deictic time words like &ldquo;yesterday&rdquo; by associating them with experienced or anticipated events. I find that children&rsquo;s earliest meanings for deictic time words include information about their relative order in the past and future, but not about their approximate temporal distance from the present. Both these cases suggest that children initially use linguistic cues to construct ordered semantic domains for time words, and do not map them to perception until later, <i>after</i> learning their formal definitions. Finally, in Chapter 3, I present evidence that the left-to-right &ldquo;mental timeline&rdquo; English-speaking adults use to organize events is not derived from innate space-time associations. I show that, unlike kindergarteners and adults, preschoolers do not spontaneously represent time linearly. Instead, conventional linear mappings between time and space develop slowly throughout early childhood, in response to increasing cultural exposure and education. Together, these studies suggest that abstract time concepts in children are not built from perceptual primitives, but from structures available in language and cultural artifacts.</p><p>

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