The evaluation of three treatment strategies in subjects with type I diabetes mellitus undergoing intensive diabetes management : metabolic, psycho-social and educational implicationsKalergis, Maria. January 1996 (has links)
Three approaches, differing in flexibility of self-adjustments of insulin to food intake & exercise, have been identified in intensive management of Type I diabetes mellitus. They involve the exchange system (Protocols A/B) & carbohydrate counting (Protocol C) dietary strategies. The goal of this cross-over study was to determine differences among the approaches in terms of metabolic control (primarily glycated hemoglobin-GHb) and psycho-social adaptation (quality of life (QofL), self-efficacy (SE), stress & perceived complexity) in 15 adults with insulin-dependent diabetes. / There were no significant differences in terms of metabolic control, self-efficacy and quality of life. Perceived complexity increased (p $<$ 0.0001) as subjects progressed from protocols A to C (least to most flexible). However, the subjects continued with Protocol B (n = 12) or Protocol C (n = 3) at the end of the study. Subjects who were very accurate in their self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) reporting were also accurate in counting carbohydrate (p $<$ 0.001), more confident (SE) in their ability to adjust their insulin (p $<$ 0.05) and more satisfied (QofL) with their diabetes (p $<$ 0.01). / This study indicated that patients who are not ready to undertake carbohydrate counting need not be excluded from intensive management programs. Accuracy in SMBG reporting can be used to direct educational efforts.
The evaluation of three treatment strategies in subjects with type I diabetes mellitus undergoing intensive diabetes management : metabolic, psycho-social and educational implicationsKalergis, Maria January 1996 (has links)
No description available.
Investigation and management of brittle diabetic patients unresponsive to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusionWilliams, Gareth January 1986 (has links)
No description available.
Effects of self-management education on diabetic control among patients with type 2 diabetes : a systematic reviewYan, Min, 严敏 January 2013 (has links)
Objective: To systematically review the effect of self-management education on diabetic control in type 2 diabetes Research design and methods: PubMed was searched for English-language articles published between 2010 and 2013. All the studies were original articles selected manually and used randomized control trials generating results of self-management education in people with type 2 diabetes referring to diabetic control. Relevant data were divided and tabulated into factors of population characteristics, interventions and outcomes. Interventions were classified into three sections as collaborative information intervention, lifestyle intervention, and skills teaching intervention based on the patterns of education. Outcomes were categorized into glycemic control, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and nephropathy risk factors. Results: A total of 24 studies were identified of initial 41 articles for this review. Effects of self-management education on glycemic control were demonstrated to be positive both in short-term (<10 months) and long-term (>10 months) follow-up, but more positive effects in short-term follow-up. The same effectiveness happens to CVD risk factors, including lipids, weight and blood pressure. On the other hand, with short-term follow-up, teaching skills intervention of self-management education is more effective than collaborative information intervention and lifestyle intervention on reducing glycemic control and CVD risk factors. Also with long-term follow-up, teaching skills intervention of self-management education had more effectiveness than collaborative information intervention and lifestyle intervention on reducing glycemic control. However, few studies including CVD risk factors in the long-term follow-up, so it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of on CVD risk factors with long-term follow-up. Conclusions: Evidences supports the positive effectiveness of self-management education with collaborative information intervention, lifestyle intervention and skills teaching intervention among type 2 diabetes patients on diabetic control, in both short-term follow-up and long-term follow-up, but short-term follow-up is more effective than long-term follow-up. Further research is needed to develop self-management interventions to maintain long-term follow-up effects on glycemic control, CVD risk factors and other diabetes complications. / published_or_final_version / Public Health / Master / Master of Public Health
m-Health smartphone applications on chronic disease monitoring : development and regulatory considerationsLi, Kit-ling, Carol, 李潔寧 January 2014 (has links)
Introduction: The market for chronic disease management apps for patients is growing from year to year. However, policy and regulation of app use for medical purposes in Asia Pacific are not developed. Methods: 1) A systematic review of randomized-controlled trials of diabetes management apps for patients are assessed as to determine whether using the app (intervention group) leads to significant reductions in HbA1c levels ; 2) A comparison of paid and free apps based on number of group functions between Apple iTunes App Store and Google Play for Android. Results: 1) A reduction in HbA1c in both the intervention (m-Health) and control (usual care) group, although two studies identified the changes as statistically insignificant; 2) Apple iTunes App store included 95 free diabetes management apps for patients and 86 paid apps at an average cost of $19.91. Google Play offered 80 free apps and 31 paid apps at an average cost of $4.31. The largest HbA1c reductions could be found when clinical, social, behavioural, and affective factors are taken into account in the app’s supporting system (e.g. WellDoc™ System (WDS). Discussion: There is some evidence to suggest that mobile apps for diabetes management for patients show reductions in HbA1c similar to usual care. In Hong Kong, some progress has been made regarding the promotion of the use of m-Health for the elderly and disabled, but policies on app development, approval, and regulation are absent. Future expansion of ICT may consider m-Health for chronic disease management based on international lessons on medical device and medical apps guidelines. / published_or_final_version / Public Health / Master / Master of Public Health
Effectiveness of meal replacement on type 2 diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia patients : a systematic reviewWang, Ning, 王宁 January 2014 (has links)
Background: Lifestyle intervention is recommended as one important approach for Diabetes Mellitus management. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus could be controlled and maintained by lifestyle intervention with no or less medications. It can delay the onset of diabetes related complications. Meal Replacement is one important lifestyle intervention. It modifies the composition and amount of nutrition intake, through daily meal, in order to control body weight and other metabolic indices. Effectiveness of meal replacement was examined by randomized controlled trials. Reviewing these studies systematically would demonstrate the clinical implication and other benefit of meal replacement, further more to guide the implementation in practice. Method: Search the online literature databases for related Randomized Controlled Trials. Analyze and compare different strategies of these interventions, as well as the outcomes. The effect of MR would be categorized into on body weight, on blood glucose, on serum lipid and on hypoglycemic medication and prognosis. The economic benefit would also be one important objective. Result: MR intervention achieved body weight reduction, and considerable controlling effect on glucose and lipid. Majority of studies also reduced the hypoglycemic medication and improved prognosis. Conclusion: MR is one considerable intervention for T2DM and Intermediate Hyperglycemia patients. It could be integrated into structured lifestyle intervention for prevention and treatment. It also brings economic benefit so that reduce health care burden. Further research is needed for better effectiveness in practice. / published_or_final_version / Public Health / Master / Master of Public Health
A comparison of the treatment of skin ulcers of the diabetic with topical insulin and the light cradleHughey, James Raymond, 1942- January 1974 (has links)
No description available.
Dickason, Beverley Janine
Levels of diabetic care in primary health care settings in South Africa have been found to be sub-optimal. Knowledge deficits and inadequate practices have been implicated in the poor quality of local diabetes care. Type 2 diabetes and hypertension are commonly associated chronic conditions hence to optimise diabetic care, tight control of blood pressure is essential. Although guidelines for the overall management of diabetes in a primary health care setting have been published (Working Group of the National Diabetes Advisory Board, 1997; Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa, 2002a), adherence to these guidelines has not yet been optimised in the primary health care setting. The objectives of the study were: to design and implement an educational intervention aimed at nursing staff, based on the South African guidelines for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, at a public sector primary health care clinic; to determine the impact of the educational intervention on the level of knowledge and attitudes of the nursing staff, and on the level of diabetic and blood pressure control achieved in the patient population, and to determine the impact of the educational intervention on pharmacological management of patients. A questionnaire was used to quantitatively assess the nursing staffs’ knowledge of the management of type 2 diabetes and hypertension at a primary health care level. A qualitative evaluation of the nursing staff attitudes was obtained using focus group interviews. The educational intervention, in the form of lectures and based on national diabetes and hypertension guidelines (Working Group of the National Diabetes Advisory Board, 1997; Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa, 2002a; Milne et al., 2003), was then implemented and directed at the nursing staff at a primary health care clinic. A post-intervention evaluation was performed after four months by repeating the questionnaire and focus group interviews. Comparisons between the pre- and post-intervention questionnaire and focus group interviews evaluated the impact of the educational intervention on the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff towards the management of type 2 diabetes. Pre- and post-intervention patient data was collected from patient medical files and compared to determine if the management of diabetes and hypertension improved in the patient population after the implementation of the educational intervention. The patient population consisted of 103 patients. The educational intervention resulted in an extremely significant improvement in the level of knowledge of the nursing staff [93 correct responses (28.3 percent; n = 329 (pre-intervention)) vs 223 correct responses (67.8 percent; n = 329 (post-intervention)); p < 0.0001, Fisher’s Exact test]. The educational intervention resulted in improved attitudes of nursing staff towards the management of diabetes. Ideal random blood glucose concentrations improved significantly [16 percent; n = 100 (pre-intervention) vs 22 percent; n = 100 (post-intervention); p = 0.0003; Student t test]. The number of patients with a compromised HbA1c level (> 8 percent) decreased by 2 [51; 49.5 percent, n = 103 (pre-intervention) vs 49, 47.5 percent, n = 103 (post-intervention)] which was not a significant improvement. Ideal blood pressure control improved by one from 38 patients [36.9 percent; n = 103 (pre-intervention)] to 39 patients [37.9 percent; n = 103 (post-intervention)] which was not significant. Optimal change of pharmacological management following the referral of an uncontrolled diabetic patient was only noted for 18 patients (20.2 percent, n = 89) referred in the post-intervention phase. Clinical inertia was identified as a major limitation to the optimisation of diabetes care. Implementation of an educational intervention based on the South African diabetes and hypertension guidelines at a public sector primary health care clinic was successful in improving the knowledge levels and attitudes of nursing staff
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global health issues of the 21st century. Insulin-resistance is a condition associated with T2DM and in the cell it is defined as the inadequate strength of insulin signalling from the insulin receptor downstream to the final substrates of insulin action involved in multiple metabolic, gene expression, and mitogenic aspects of cellular function. To investigate the potential mechanisms involved in the development of insulin-resistance, two in vitro liver cell models were established using palmitate or a combination of insulin and fructose as inducers. The development of insulin-resistance was determined via the capacity of the hepatocytes to maintain normal glucose metabolism functionality by measuring hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. It was established that the treatments induced the development of insulinresistance after 24 hours chronic exposure. Previous studies have investigated the potential of Sutherlandia frutescens extracts as therapeutic agents for insulin-resistance. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the ability of a hot aqueous extract of S. frutescens to reverse the insulin-resistant state, via measuring gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, the associated changes in cellular physiology (lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and acetyl- CoA levels), and changes in mRNA expression. The results showed that S. frutescens had a significant effect on reversing the insulin-resistant state in both models of insulin-resistance. Furthermore, S. frutescens was capable of reducing lipid accumulation in the form of triacylglycerol in the high insulin/fructose model, while this was unaffected in the palmitate model. However, S. frutescens did reduce the accumulation of diacylglycerol in the palmitate model. Oxidative stress, seen to be associated with the insulin-resistant state, was successfully treated using the extract, as indicated by a reduction in reactive oxygen species. However no change was seen in the nitric oxide levels, in either model. Interestingly, although S. frutescens had no effect on the level of acetyl-CoA in the insulin/fructose model, it was found to increase this in the palmitate model. It is suggested that this may be due to increased β-oxidation and metabolic activity induced by the extract. The analysis of mRNA expression gave some insight into possible mechanisms by which insulin-resistance develops, although the results were inconclusive due to high variability in samples and the possibility of the RNA being compromised. Future studies will address this issue. The results of this study reflect different proposed clinical causes of insulin-resistance through the responses seen in the two cell models. These indicate that liver steatosis and insulin-resistance are induced by high palmitate as well as high insulin and fructose levels, and reversed by S. frutescens. Therefore the potential of S. frutescens to be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of insulin-resistance is indicated by this study.
WHITE, NANCY EDNA.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of social support on adherence to a therapeutic regimen among obese Type II diabetic clinic patients. The aims of the study were to compare the effect of small reference group management with an educational advice program on the therapeutic outcomes of adherence and to test a theoretical model proposed to explain adherence to a diabetic regimen. The concepts of the model were derived from symbolic interactionist and role theory. Forty-one patients attending an outpatient diabetic clinic were randomly assigned to the two treatment programs and 32 patients completed the 6 month study. Subjects met for a total of 10 one-hour sessions which were held weekly the first month, biweekly the second month, and monthly the final 4 months. Demographic information, knowledge of diabetes, and measures of the model variables (social support, health locus of control, health perceptions, diabetic belief, regimen adherence), were collected at the start (t₁) and the termination of the study (t₁₀). Analysis of audiotapes recorded at t₂ and t₉ indicated that patient-initiated interactions were significantly longer in duration for the small reference group. The experimental group also demonstrated significantly lower blood glucose values at t₁₀, however, there was not a corresponding difference between groups in glycohemoglobin, urine glucose, or percent overweight. The total sample experienced a significant mean reduction in glycohemoglobin (-11.1%; p < .05) and an increase in social support and knowledge. Serial blood glucose and glycohemoglobin values indicated improvement in diabetic control was more marked when subjects met weekly or biweekly and stabilized or worsened when meetings were reduced. The staged recursive theoretical model was analyzed using multiple regression statistics. The empirical test of the model of t₁ indicated minimal support in terms of significant explained variance in 6 of the 8 dependent variables. In addition, some of the path coefficients indicated a possible interaction effect between resistance and locus of control. The t₁₀ model demonstrated cohesion among the first three stages of independent variables and greater explained variance, however, multicollinearity proved to be a significant problem when interpreting the path coefficients.
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