Thompson, Roy H.
This thesis reports research into elements of entrepreneurial performance with a particular focus on gender differences and their determinants. Inductive research during the initial literature review uncovered a range of factors affecting performance leading to an investigation of smallholder dairy entrepreneurs in Central Malawi. The primary research utilised a mix of both quantitative and qualitative instruments including innovative use of an adaptation of the ‘circle and stones’ proportional piling instrument. This participatory technique explored changes in the household economy following the introduction of the dairy enterprise, including projecting entrepreneurial intentions into the future. A notable feature of the research was the use of a range of context-specific performance measures developed from an outcomes model. These were both separately applied in a performance ranking exercise, and compiled into an overall performance rating (OPR) which was then compared with the initial post-interview field performance rating (FPR). The research involved extensive use of internal and external triangulation of information sources, comparing results from different instruments in the field research, and situating and comparing primary research findings with those from the academic literature and analysis of secondary data. Despite controlling for factors including industry-type, size of enterprise, provision of business and extension support, and taking into account differences in age and educational background, the research uncovered gender disparities in entrepreneurial performance. The performance disparity was greater for those females who are the de facto head of their households, and lesser for those who have the support of a resident male partner. The finding of female underperformance runs contrary to the a priori expectation of industry key informants in Malawi, and much of the academic literature. The research included exploration of risk mitigation strategies and their potential effect on entrepreneurial performance, as possible explanatory factors. Follow-on fieldwork then sought alternative explanations for the gender differentials through focus group discussions and key informant interviews, which uncovered time constraints of females as a potential factor in underperformance. Future research direction indicated includes an in-depth exploration of the intra-household dynamics of time allocation in managing enterprises.
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the ways in which women and men, who set up a business in the service industries, perceive their pathways into self-employment, and the interaction between their business and family life. This thesis addressed two problems identified in current literature. Firstly, the gendered tradition and the reductionist approach of the push-pull theory, which does not offer an adequate understanding of paths into self-employment where both push and pull forces are involved. Secondly, the low visibility of the interactions between business and family life, and also the tendency for some research to portray partnerships between spouses in a harmonious light. Given the dominance of phenomenon-driven research, this study was aimed at adding to the theoretical consolidation of the study of gender and entrepreneurship. In theoretical terms, this research relied mainly on a synthesis between feminist theorizing, Bourdieu’s theory of practice and insights from studies that focus on biographical experiences leading to self-employment. This study adopted a qualitative research strategy, and used qualitative interviews as a research method. A theoretical sample was constructed, based on two criteria: gender and the industry in which the self-employed person operated. The sample focused on the Lisbon Region, and targeted self-employed people who set up a business between 2005 and 2008. A total of forty-eight interviews were conducted, involving twenty-three women and twenty-five men. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed in their original language: Portuguese. Only those quotations which have been used in the thesis were translated into English. The interpretation of interviews was based on a thematic analysis. Different pathways into self-employment were found. These were grouped under two main perspectives: seeing self-employment as a primary way of working; or as an alternative plan. The lived experiences of the interviewees also gave strength in exploring the various situations that can trigger a leap into entrepreneurship. These were conceptualized as trigger experiences. Two main sorts of trigger experiences were identified: crises (disruptive or corrosive) and encounters. These were deeply embedded in the interviewees’ educational, occupational and family experiences, going back to their social background, and the ways in which these experiences interact with gender relations.Two main contexts of interaction between family and the business were studied: “copreneurships” and “non-copreneurships”. Ambivalent feelings towards the former were illustrated through the cooperation and tensions involving spouses, as well as by the strategies that they devised in order to cope with these tensions. In “non-copreneurships”, the multiple contributions of spouses to interviewees’ activities as self-employed people revealed the connections between the family and business in these types of situation. Gender relations, social background in self-employment, and spouses’ positions in the business were decisive for placing interviewees’ lived experiences into context in this respect.
“The Impact of Female Entrepreneurship Concept under Social Development Project: Case study of Empowerment Project in Cambodia”Nguon, Rothsophal January 2009 (has links)
Overview: Civil wars have turned many aspects of Cambodia upside down: traditional norms and beliefs of a post-conflict society are at the forefront of the citizens of Cambodia’s mind, ahead of all current regulations and laws. The value of women has been reduced to traditional values in the current society. It is traditionally believed that women are second class citizens, even though females and males are legally viewed as equals in all issues based on the Royal Institution of Cambodia. This phenomenon, the treatment of women as second class citizens, is recognized as a major social issue that needs to be addressed. The Cambodian government and various non governmental organizations (NGOs) strive for the improvement of women’s social status by addressing the issue in the National Strategy Development Plan 2006-2010 (NSDP, 2005). The plan focuses on enhancing the quality of education and fostering gender equality through women empowerment projects. The subject study of entrepreneurship has entered into a new era social development. A growing number of case studies have increased the awareness of female entrepreneurship. Researchers around the world are now interested in the link between gender and entrepreneurship development. The topic of female entrepreneurship is a hot topic addressed in recent world economic discussion forums to find the solution for world economic crisis; thus, it is significant to investigate and observe how this new approach integrates in to the social development process though empowerment projects. Thus, this research will be based on following main research questions: How does “Women Empowerment projects” promote Female Entrepreneurship? And How does the female entrepreneurship contribute to provide a better living condition to Cambodian citizen? Purpose: The aim of this research is to discover the impact of social development projects and women empowerment projects using entrepreneurship as the foundation for social change. In line with this, the findings will uncover the impact of specific social development projects, i.e. women empowerment, and how they contribute to the creation of female entrepreneurs and its affects on individual family’s finances within small communities. This shall be accomplished through the study of gender issues in Cambodia, as well as the impact of the women empowerment program “self-Worth”, which is a social development project created by NGOs with the aim of aiding and developing female entrepreneurs. The secondary objectives of this study is to bring awareness of the potential financial value women can contribute to the household, which is the capital for improving family economy; as well as leading to advancing the quality of living condition through the concept of entrepreneurship. Target Audience: This paper would benefit various areas of to academia, especially areas focused on entrepreneurship, social development, and gender studies. The presentation will be made to Industrial Management Students in Mälardalen University, with its focus on delivering the female entrepreneurship concept and sharing the personal experiences of the impact the social development projects had on the individuals who have participated. In addition, the adolescents in the Cambodia community high schools, universities and group of staff in Pact-Cambodia Organization are selected as additional key audiences for future workshops according to their availability. Method: The design of this research thesis is neither purely qualitative nor quantitative. It is hybrid of both research strategies. This case study is also based on primary and secondary data. The bulk of the information came from three sources: documents, interviews, and direct observations. The evidence, data, and literature review are focused on female and male entrepreneurship, gender study, and female empowerment. All of the data presented are aimed at addressing the research objectives. Result: The national strategy development plan (NSDP), Pact-Cambodia activities, and self-WORTH women empowerment program are designed to foster female entrepreneurship through the education of literacy, basic mathematic, leadership skills, and advocacy. Microfinance is a powerful tool to fight poverty and transform lives. After the establishment and implementation of empowerment projects participation are able to access to more information and increase their cooperation network more than ever before. The programs permit thousands of Cambodian women to recognize opportunities. They learned how turn their creativities in to profits, and advance their family’s social status via their knowledge, skill and ability through social networking. This scope is the result of entrepreneurship creation which leads the improvement of family economy growth while more than one members of the family have ability to increase the income. This could be recognized as an innovative sustainability growth of living condition. Poor households use microfinance to move from daily basic survival to a better nutrition, housing, health, and education. The impact of social development programs has led to less gender discrimination in Cambodian society, and has aided with the poverty reduction of national strategy.
Uticaj inkubacionih procesa na razvoj ženskog preduzetništva / Influence of incubation processes on female entrepreneurship developmentKovijanić Tijana 09 October 2020 (has links)
<p>Kreiranje preduzetničkih ekosistema povlači za sobom razvoj programa i inicijativa podrške preduzetništvu, posebno značajnih za žene koje su u znatno manjem broju prisutne na preduzetničkoj sceni. Inkubator se može posmatrati kao preduzetnički ekosistem na mikro nivou koji pored osnovnih usluga u vidu radnog prostora i tehničke infrastrukture, podstiče razvoj preduzetničke aktivnosti kroz organizovanje radionica, sesija sa mentorima i događaja koji omogućavaju umrežavanje i širenje baze kontakata. Istraživanja su pokazala da mentori imaju značajan uticaj na razvoj preduzetničke ideje i samih preduzetnika, te se mogu smatrati katalizatorima inovacija, kreirajući ambijent u kojem se nove uloge mogu uspešno razvijati i negovati. Primenom teorije samodeterminacije formiran je model kojim se može predvideti uticaj i značaj inkubatora kao sredinskog faktora na razvoj preduzetništva, sa posebnim naglaskom na značaj koji imaju za razvoj ženskog preduzetništva. Istraživanje je pokazalo da programi podrške unutar preduzetničkih ekosistema imaju značajan uticaj na žene, razrešavajući dilemu o rodnim predispozicijama za bavljenje preduzetničkim biznisom. Pored priloga unapređenju primene postojeće teorije i instrumenata u oblasti preduzetništva, istraživanje je doprinelo usklađivanju odgovarajućih javnih mera za podsticanje lansiranja i razvoja novih preduzetničkih poduhvata.</p> / <p>Creation of entrepreneurial ecosystems entails development of programs and initiatives to support entrepreneurship, especially for women who are significantly less present in the entrepreneurial scene. The incubator can be seen as an entrepreneurial ecosystem at the micro level, which, in addition to basic services in the form of workspace and technical infrastructure, encourages development of entrepreneurial activity through the organization of workshops, mentoring sessions and events that enable networking and expansion of contacts. Research has shown that mentors have a significant influence on the development of the entrepreneurial idea and the entrepreneurs themselves, and can be considered as catalysts of innovation, creating an environment where new roles could be successfully developed and nurtured. Using the theory of self-determination, a model was formed to predict the impact and importance of incubators as a central factor for development of entrepreneurship, with particular emphasis on the importance they have for the development of female entrepreneurship. Research has shown that support programs within entrepreneurial ecosystems have a significant impact on women, resolving the dilemma of gender bias for entrepreneurship. In addition to contributing to advancing the application of existing theory and instruments in the field of entrepreneurship, the research has contributed to the harmonization of appropriate public measures for encouraging the launch and development of new entrepreneurial ventures.</p>
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