• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 6
  • 3
  • 3
  • Tagged with
  • 15
  • 15
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The influence of the diurnal variation of stability on potential evaporation

Ek, Michael Bryan 10 December 1982 (has links)
A method of calculating surface evapotranspiration by separately including the effects of vegetation and atmospheric evaporative demand under the condition of nonlimiting soil moisture is presented. A literature survey is conducted to determine the effects of plants on evapotranspiration. To represent the atmospheric evaporative demand, the original potential evaporation equation of Penman (1948) is utilized and then modified to include the effect of atmospheric stability using turbulent exchange coefficients formulated by Louis et al. (1982). The original and modified Penman expressions are compared for different asymptotic cases. Using boundary layer data from the Wangara experiment (Clarke et al., 1971), the diurnal variations of the original and modified Penman equations are compared. The daily total potential evaporation using linearized and integrated forms of the original and modified expressions are also compared. Finally, the nonlinear effects of averaging both the original and modified expressions are examined. It is found that including the diurnal variations of stability in the modified expression causes large hourly differences with the original expression under non-neutral conditions, while daily averages of the two compared fairly well. The diurnal variation of the surface moisture flux appears to be much larger than predicted by the original Penman expression. However, the original Penman expression remains a reasonable estimate of the 24-hour total potential evaporation. / Graduation date: 1983

Penman-Monteith surface resistance for hybrid poplar trees

Butler, Dana Anthony 21 April 2000 (has links)
The application of the widely used Penrnan-Monteith evapotranspiration equation to hybrid poplar trees is impossible without a valid surface resistance. The increase in applications of drip-irrigated hybrid poplar trees for wood chip stock and veneer production, as well as bioremediation, constitutes a need for estimating the evapotranspiration of these trees. To the author's knowledge, there are no published estimates of surface resistance for poplar trees. Six years of weekly soil moisture content for drip-irrigated, hybrid poplar trees were used in a water balance to compute evapotranspiration. The weekly data were adjusted with reference evapotranspiration data to compute a daily evapotranspiration. Only data that represent fully leaved hybrid poplars are used in this study and the data were screened for the effects of drainage. Additional parameters applied in this study include solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and relative humidity taken at a nearby AGRIMET Weather Station. The results of this study indicate that surface resistance values cannot be described as a function of meteorological data within the constraints of the current experiment design. The graph of poplar evapotranspiration versus surface resistance shows that for a given evapotranspiration there can be multiple rs values. This scatter is the influence of parameters other than rs within the Penman-Monteith model. The use of an instrument to directly measure the surface resistance is recommended in further studies. / Graduation date: 2000

An experimental investigation of the evaporation rate from stationary water pools into moving air

Farley, Beth Ann 12 1900 (has links)
No description available.

Evaluation and verification of conservation and similarity approaches for estimating regional evapotranspiration

Davis, Luke Howell 08 1900 (has links)
No description available.

Estimating bank storage and evapotranspiration using soil physical and hydrological techniques in a gaining reach of the San Pedro River, Arizona

Whitaker, Martha Patricia Lee. January 2000 (has links)
Bank storage is defined as a volume of water that periodically infiltrates a river's banks during increases in stream stage. It is a potentially critical variable for accurately modeling the water budget in semi-arid riparian systems, but is particularly difficult to assess and quantify. It is especially essential for understanding ground-water/surface-water interactions. In collaboration with other projects, a field-scale vadose monitoring effort took place in the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA), Arizona. The San Pedro River flows north from Mexico into the United States, and SPRNCA is a 60 km stretch of U.S.-protected ecosystem north of the border. In addition to a progressive climate of ecological conservation, hydrological research that leads to an improved understanding of the water budget will ultimately improve the prospects for improved water policy decisions. Soil moisture, stream stage, and soil tension data were collected for over 8 consecutive months in both 1997 and 1998, and the data were used as input into a software program called HYDRUS-2D (§imiinek et al. 1996), which models two-dimensional, variably saturated flow. Field-collected data and subsequent modeling efforts suggest that the effects of bank storage were estimated to contribute approximately 8.5% of the river's total flow for 147 days in 1997. Accordingly, bank storage and its effects should be considered in future water-balance simulations of stream-aquifer interaction, and of the San Pedro River in particular. In addition, model estimates of root water uptake match favorably with other estimates of evapotranspiration in the cottonwood-willow forest gallery of the SPRNCA.

Suburban evapotranspiration estimates in Vancouver from energy balance measurements

Kalanda, Brian Douglas January 1979 (has links)
This study is concerned with the energy balance of a suburban area of south central Vancouver and in particular with the role of evapotranspiration in this balance. In the late summer - early fall of 1977 a measurement program was conducted to determine the energy balance components using the Bowen ratio - energy balance approach. The Bowen ratio was obtained from differential psychrometric measurements taken above mean roof-level. Net radiation was measured directly and the volumetric heat storage was parameterized in terms of net radiation. The results indicate that the Bowen ratio - energy balance approach is applicable to suburban environments. An error analysis developed for the reversing psychrometer system indicates that the errors in the turbulent fluxes were typically 10 - 20%. The turbulent latent heat flux was always a significant and often the dominant energy sink for this 'surface'. This is shown to be largely due to soil moisture replenishment by precipitation and irrigation (especially lawn sprinkling). The turbulent fluxes tended to be in-phase with net radiation during the day. This appears to be a result of the decreasing importance of non-radiative controls (especially the vapour pressure deficit) on evapotranspiration as the land use changes from rural to heavily urbanized. Sustained periods of positive turbulent fluxes were recorded at night, however the Bowen ratio was predominantly negative indicating that only one turbulent flux was positive. The data do not reveal any dependence on wind direction. The influence (if any) of the sea breeze could not be isolated. The equilibrium evapotranspiration rate often closely approximated the measured evapotranspiration. / Arts, Faculty of / Geography, Department of / Graduate

A comparative evaluation of residual energy balance, Penman, and Penman-Monteith estimates of daytime variation of evapotranspiration

Ortega-Farias, Samuel Orlando 28 September 1993 (has links)
Graduation date: 1994

Sensible heat flux and evaporation for sparse vegetation using temperature-variance and a dual-source model.

Abraha, Michael Ghebrekristos. January 2010 (has links)
The high population growth rate and rapid urbanization that the world is experiencing today has aggravated the competition for the already scarce resource ¡V water ¡V between the agricultural sector and the other economic sectors. Moreover, within the agricultural sector, water is increasingly being used for commercial plantations as opposed to growing food crops, threatening food security. Therefore, it is very important that this scarce resource is managed in an efficient and sustainable manner, for now and future use. This requires understanding the process of evaporation for accurate determination of water-use from agricultural lands. In the past, direct measurements of evaporation have proven difficult because of the cost and complexity of the available equipments, and level of expertise involved. This justifies a quest for relatively simple, accurate and inexpensive methods of determining evaporation for routine field applications. Estimation of sensible heat flux (H) from high frequency air temperature measurements and then calculating latent energy flux (ƒÜE) and hence evaporation as a residual of the shortened surface energy balance equation, assuming that closure is met, is appealing in this sense. Concurrent net irradiance (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) measurements can be conducted with relative ease for use in the energy balance equation. Alternately, evaporation can also be mathematically modelled, using single- or multi-layer models depending on vegetation cover, from less expensive routine meteorological observations. Therefore, the ultimate objective of this study is to estimate and model H and ƒÜE, and thereby evaporation, accurately over sparsely vegetated agricultural lands at low cost and effort. Temperature-variance (TV) and surface renewal (SR) methods, which use high-frequency (typically 2 to 10 Hz) air temperature measurements, are employed for estimation of H. The TV method is based on the Monin and Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) and uses statistical measures of the high frequency air temperature to estimate H, including adjustments for stability. The SR method is based on the principle that an air parcel near the surface is renewed by an air parcel from above and, to determine H, it uses higher order air temperature differences between two consecutive sample measurements lagged by a certain time interval. Single- and double-layer models that are based on energy and resistance combination theory were also used to estimate evaporation and H from sparse vegetation. Single- and double-layer models that were extended to include inputs of radiometric temperature in order to estimate H were also used. The transmission of solar irradiance to the soil beneath in sparse canopies is variable and depends on the vegetation density, cover and apparent position of the sun. A three-dimensional radiation interception model was developed to estimate this transmission of solar irradiance and was used as a sub-module in the double-layer models. Estimations of H from the TV (HTV), SR (HSR) and double-layer models were compared against H obtained from eddy covariance (HEC), and the modelled ƒÜE (single- and double-layer) were compared with that obtained from the shortened energy balance involving HEC. Besides, long-term ƒÜE calculated from the shortened energy balance using HTV and HSR were compared with those calculated using HEC. Unshielded and naturally-ventilated fine-wire chromel-constantan thermocouples (TCs), 75 ƒÝm in diameter, at different heights above the ground over sparse Jatropha curcas trees, mixed grassland community and bare fallow land were used to measure air temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer mounted at a certain height above the ground surface was also used to measure virtual temperature and wind speed at all three sites. All measurements were done differentially at 10-Hz frequency. Additional measurements of Rn, G and soil water content (upper 60 mm) were also made. The Jatropha trees were planted in a 3-m plant and inter-row spacing in a 50 m ¡Ñ 60 m plot with the surrounding plots planted to a mixture of Jatropha trees and Kikuyu grass. Average tree height and leaf area index measurements were taken on monthly and bimonthly basis respectively. An automatic weather station about 10 m away from the edge of the Jatropha plot was also used to obtain solar irradiance, air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation data. Soil water content was measured to a depth of 1000 mm from the surface at 200 mm intervals. Soil and foliage surface temperatures were measured using two nadir-looking infrared thermometers with one mounted directly above bare soil and the other above the trees. The three-dimensional solar irradiance interception model was validated using measurements conducted on different trees and planting patterns. Solar irradiance above and below tree canopies was measured using LI-200 pyranometer and tube solarimeters respectively. Leaf area density (LAD) was estimated from LAI, canopy shape and volume measurements. It was also determined by scanning leaves using either destructive sampling or tracing method. The performance of the TV method over sparse vegetation of J. curcas, mixed grassland community and fallow land was evaluated against HEC. Atmospheric stability conditions were identified using (i) sensor height (z) and Obukhov length (L) obtained from EC and (ii) air temperature difference between two thermocouple measurement heights. The HTV estimations, adjusted and not adjusted for skewness (actual and estimated) of air temperature (sk), for unstable conditions only and for all stability conditions were used. An improved agreement in terms of slope, coefficient of determination (r2) and root mean square error (RMSE), almost over all surfaces, was obtained when the temperature difference rather than the z/L means of identifying stability conditions was used. The agreement between the HTV and HEC was improved for estimations adjusted for actual sk than not adjusted for sk. Improved agreement was also noted when HTV was adjusted using estimated sk compared to not adjusting for sk over J. curcas. The TV method could be used to estimate H for surfaces with varying homogeneity with reasonable accuracy. Long-term water-use of a fetch-limited sparse vegetation of J. curcas was determined as a residual of the shortened surface energy balance involving HTV and HSR and compared with those estimated using HEC. Concurrent measurements of Rn and G were also performed. The long-term water-use of J. curcas trees calculated from the shortened surface energy balance involving HTV and HSR agreed very well when compared with those obtained from HEC. The seasonal HTV and HSR also agreed very well when compared with HEC. Changes in structure of the canopy and environmental conditions appeared to influence partitioning of the available energy into H and ƒÜE. The seasonal total evaporation for the EC, TV and SR methods amounted to 626, 640 and 674 mm respectively with a total rainfall of 690 mm. Footprint analysis also revealed that greater than 80% of the measured flux during the day originates from within the surface of interest. The TV and SR methods, therefore, offer a relatively low-cost means for long-term estimation of H, and ƒÜE, hence the total evaporation, using the shortened surface energy balance along with measurements of Rn and G. Evaporation and biomass production estimations from tree crops requires accurate representation of solar irradiance transmission through the canopy. A relatively simple three-dimensional, hourly time-step tree-canopy radiation interception model was developed and validated using measurements conducted on isolated trees, hedgerows and tree canopies arranged in tramline mode. Measurements were obtained using tube solarimeters placed 0.5 m from each other starting from the base of a tree trunk in four directions, along and perpendicular to the row up to mid-way between trees and rows. Model-simulations of hourly radiant transmittance were in good agreement with measurements with an overall r2 of 0.91; Willmott.s index of agreement of 0.96; and general absolute standard deviation of 17.66%. Agreement between model-estimations and measurements, however, was influenced by distance and direction of the node from the tree trunk, sky conditions, symmetry of the canopy, and uniformity of the stand and leaf distribution of the canopy. The model could be useful in planning and management applications for a wide range of tree crops. Penman-Monteith (PM) equation and the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) model, representing single- and dual-source models respectively, were used to determine the total evaporation over a sparse vegetation of J. curcas from routine automatic weather station observations, resistance parameters and vegetation indices. The three-dimensional solar irradiance interception model was used as a sub-module in the SW model. The total evaporation from the sparse vegetation was also determined as a residual of the shortened surface energy balance using measurements of Rn, G and HEC. The PM equation failed to reproduce the .measured. daily total evaporation during periods of low LAI, with improved agreement with increased LAI. The SW model, however, produced total evaporation estimates that agreed very well with the .measured. with a slope of 0.96, r2 of 0.91 and RMSE of 0.45 mm for a LAI ranging from 0 (no leaves) to 1.83 m2 m-2. The SW model also estimated soil evaporation and plant transpiration separately, and about 66 % of the cumulative evaporation was attributed to soil evaporation. These findings suggest that the PM equation should be replaced by the SW model for surfaces that assume a range of LAI values during the growing season. The H was estimated using (i) SW model that was further developed to include surface radiometric temperature measurements; (ii) one-layer model, but linked with a two-layer model for estimation of excess resistance, that uses surface radiometric temperature; and (iii) the SW model (unmodified). The agreement between modelled and measured H, using 10-min data, was in general reasonably good with RMSE (W m-2) of 45.11, 43.77 and 39.86 for the three models respectively. The comparative results that were achieved from (iii) were not translated into the daily data as all models appeared to have a tendency to underestimate H. The resulting RMSEs for the daily H data for the three models were (MJ m-2) 1.16, 1.17 and 1.18 respectively. It appears that similar or better agreement between measured and estimated H can be forged without the need for surface radiometric temperature measurements. The study showed, in general, that high frequency air temperature measurements can be used to estimate H with reasonable accuracy using the simple and relatively low-cost TV and SR methods. Moreover, these methods can be used to calculate ƒÜE, hence ET, as a residual of the shortened surface energy balance equation along with measurements of Rn and G assuming that energy balance closure is met. The simple and low-cost nature of these methods makes replication of measurements easier and their robust nature allows long-term measurements of energy fluxes. The study also showed that H and ƒÜE can be modeled using energy and resistance combination equations with reasonable accuracy. It also reiterated that the SW-type models, which treat the plant canopy and soil components separately, are more appropriate for estimation of H and ƒÜE over sparse vegetation as opposed to the PM-type models. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2010.

Sensible heat flux under unstable conditions for sugarcane using temperature variance and surface renewal.

Nile, Eltayeb Sulieman. January 2010 (has links)
Increased pressure on the available limited water resources for agricultural production has a significant impact on sugarcane production. Routine monitoring of evaporation with reliable accuracy is essential for irrigation scheduling, for more efficient use of the available water resources and for management purposes. An indirect method for estimating evaporation involves measuring the sensible heat flux (H) from which latent energy flux and hence total evaporation can be calculated, as a residual using the shortened energy balance from measurements of net irradiance and soil heat flux. Various methods for measuring H may include Bowen ratio energy balance, eddy covariance (EC), flux variance (FV), optical scintillation, surface renewal (SR) and temperature variance (TV). Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, in terms of method theoretical assumptions, accuracy, complexity, cost, fetch requirements and power consumption. The TV and SR methods are inexpensive and reasonably simple with a reduced power requirement compared to other methods since they require high frequency air temperature data which is obtained by using an unshielded naturally-ventilated type-E fine-wire thermocouple at a single point above the canopy surface. The TV method is based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) and uses the mean and standard deviation of the air temperature for each averaging period. Currently, there are two TV methods used for estimating sensible heat flux (HTV) at sub-hourly time intervals, one includes adjustment for stability, and a second that includes adjustment for air temperature skewness. Another method used to estimate sensible heat flux from the mean and standard deviation of air temperature is based on MOST and uses spatial second-order air temperature structure function. For the TV method adjusted for stability and the method based on MOST that uses a spatial second-order air temperature structure function, the Monin-Obukhov atmospheric stability parameter () is needed. The parameter  can be estimated from EC measurements or alternatively estimated independently using an iteration process using horizontal wind speed measurements. The TV method including adjustment for air temperature skewness requires the mean and standard deviation of the air temperature and air temperature skewness for each averaging time period as the only input. The SR method is based on the coherent structure concept. Currently, there are various SR models method for estimating sensible heat flux. These include an ideal SR analysis model method based on an air temperature structure function analysis, the SR analysis model with a finite micro-front period, combined SR with K-theory and combined SR model method based on MOST. The ideal SR analysis model based on an air temperature structure function analysis should be calibrated to determine the SR weighting factor (). The other SR approaches require additional measurements such as crop height and horizontal wind speed measurements. In all of the SR approaches, air temperature time lags are used when calculating the air temperature structure functions. In this study, the performance of TV and SR methods were evaluated for estimation of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes at different heights for air temperature time lags of 0.4 and 0.8 s for daytime unstable conditions against EC above a sugarcane canopy at the Baynesfield Estate in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. For all methods, latent energy flux (LE) and hence evaporation was estimated as a residual from the shortened energy balance equation using H estimates and net irradiance and soil heat flux density measurements. The ideal SR analysis model method based on an air temperature structure function analysis approach was calibrated and validated against the EC method above the sugarcane canopy using non-overlapping data sets for daytime unstable conditions during 2008. During the calibration period, the SR weighting factor was determined for each height and air temperature time lag. The magnitude of ranged from 0.66 to 0.55 for all measurement heights and an air temperature time lag of 0.8 s. The value increased with a decrease in measurement height and an increase in air temperature time lag. For the validation data set, the SR sensible heat flux (HSR) estimates corresponded well with EC sensible heat flux (HEC) for all heights and both air temperature time lags. The agreement between HSR and HEC improved with a decrease in measurement height for the air temperature time lag of 0.8 s. The best HSR vs HEC comparisons were obtained at a height of 0.20 m above the crop canopy using = 0.66 for an air temperature time lag of 0.8 s. The residual estimates of latent energy flux by SR and EC methods were in good agreement. The LESR at a height of 0.20 m above the canopy yielded the best comparisons with LEEC estimated as a residual. The performance of the TV method, including adjustment for stability, and / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2010.

Heat and energy exchange above different surfaces using surface renewal.

Mengistu, Michael Ghebrekidan. January 2008 (has links)
The demand for the world’s increasingly scarce water supply is rising rapidly, challenging its availability for agriculture and other environmental uses, especially in water scarce countries, such as South Africa, with mean annual rainfall is well below the world’s average. The implementation of effective and sustainable water resources management strategies is then imperative, to meet these increasingly growing demands for water. Accurate assessment of evaporation is therefore crucial in agriculture and water resources management. Evaporation may be estimated using different micrometeorological methods, such as eddy covariance (EC), Bowen ratio energy balance (BR), surface renewal (SR), flux variance (FV), and surface layer scintillometry (SLS) methods. Despite the availability of different methods for estimating evaporation, each method has advantages and disadvantages, in terms of accuracy, simplicity, spatial representation, robustness, fetch, and cost. Invoking the shortened surface energy balance equation for which advection and stored canopy heat fluxes are neglected, the measurement of net irradiance, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux allows the latent energy flux and hence the total evaporation amount to be estimated. The SR method for estimating sensible heat, latent energy, and other scalars has the advantage over other micrometeorological methods since it requires only measurement of the scalar of interest at one point. The SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux from canopies involves high frequency air temperature measurements (typically 2 to 10 Hz) using 25 to 75 ìm diameter fine-wire thermocouples. The SR method is based on the idea that parcel of air near a surface is renewed by an air parcel from above. The SR method uses the square, cube, and fifth order of two consecutive air temperature differences from different time lags to determine sensible heat flux. Currently, there are three SR analysis approaches: an ideal SR analysis model based on structure function analysis; an SR analysis model with finite micro-front period; and an empirical SR analysis model based on similarity theory. The SR method based on structure function analysis must be calibrated against another standard method, such as the eddy covariance method to determine a weighting factor á which accounts for unequal heating of air parcels below the air temperature sensor height. The SR analysis model based on the finite micro-front time and the empirical SR analysis model based on similarity theory need the additional measurement of wind speed to estimate friction velocity. The weighting factor á depends on measurement height, canopy structure, thermocouple size, and the structure function air temperature lag. For this study, á for various canopy surfaces is determined by plotting the SR sensible heat flux SR H against eddy covariance EC H estimates with a linear fit forced through the origin. This study presents the use of the SR method, previously untested in South Africa, to estimate sensible heat flux density over a variety of surfaces: grassland; Triffid weed (Chromolaena odorata); Outeniqua Yellow wood (Podocarpus Falcatus) forest; heterogeneous surface (Jatropha curcas); and open water surface. The sensible heat flux estimates from the SR method are compared with measurements of sensible heat flux obtained using eddy covariance, Bowen ratio, flux variance, and surface layer scintillometer methods, to investigate the accuracy of the estimates. For all methods used except the Bowen ratio method, evaporation is estimated as a residual using the shortened energy balance from the measured sensible heat and from the additional measurements of net irradiance and soil heat flux density. Sensible heat flux SR H estimated using the SR analysis method based on air temperature structure functions at a height of 0.5 m above a grass canopy with a time lag r = 0.5 s, and á =1 showed very good agreement with the eddy covariance EC H , surface layer scintillometer SLS H , and Bowen ratio BR H estimates. The half-hourly latent energy flux estimates obtained using the SR method SR ë E at 0.5 m above the grass canopy for a time lag r = 0.5 s also showed very good agreement with EC ë E and SLS ë E . The 20-minute averages of SR ë E compared well with Bowen ratio BR ë E estimates. Sensible heat and latent energy fluxes over an alien invasive plant, Triffid weed (C. odorata) were estimated using SR , EC , FV and SLS methods. The performance of the three SR analysis approaches were evaluated for unstable conditions using four time lags r = 0.1, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 s. The best results were obtained using the empirical SR method with regression slopes of 0.89 and root mean square error (RMSE) values less than 30 W m-2 at measurement height z = 2.85 and 3.60 m above the soil surface for time lag r = 1.0 s. Half-hourly SR H estimates using r = 1.0 s showed very good agreement with the FV and SLS estimates. The SR latent energy flux, estimated as a residual of the energy balance ë ESR , using time lag r = 1.0 s provided good estimates of EC ë E , FV ë E , and SLS ë E for z = 2.85 and 3.60 m. The performance of the three SR analysis approaches for estimating sensible heat flux above an Outeniqua Yellow wood stand, were evaluated for stable and unstable conditions. Under stable conditions, the SR analysis approach using the micro-front time produced more accurate estimates of SR H than the other two SR analysis approaches. For unstable conditions, the SR analysis approach based on structure functions, corrected for á using EC comparisons produced superior estimates of SR H . An average value of 0.60 is found for á for this study for measurements made in the roughness sublayer. The SR latent energy flux density estimates SR ë E using SR H based on structure function analysis gave very good estimates compared with eddy covariance ( EC ë E ) estimates, with slopes near 1.0 and RMSE values in the range of 30 W m-2. The SR ë E estimates computed using the SR analysis approach using the micro-front time also gave good estimates comparable to EC ë E . The SR and EC methods were used to estimate long-term sensible heat and latent energy flux over a fetch-limited heterogeneous surface (J. curcas). The results show that it is possible to estimate long-term sensible heat and latent energy fluxes using the SR and EC methods over J. curcas. Continuous measurements of canopy height and leaf area index measurements are needed to determine á . The weighting factor á was approximately 1 for placement heights between 0.2 and 0.6 m above the Jatropha tree canopy. The daily sensible heat and latent energy flux estimates using the SR analysis gave excellent estimates of daily EC sensible heat and latent energy fluxes. Measurements of sensible heat and estimates of the latent energy fluxes were made for a small reservoir, using the SR and EC methods. The SR sensible heat flux SR H estimates were evaluated using two air temperature time lags r = 0.4 and 0.8 s at 1.0, 1.3, 1.9, 2.5 m above the water surface. An average á value of 0.175 for time lag r = 0.4 s and 0.188 for r = 0.8 s was obtained. The SR H and EC H estimates were small (-40 to 40 W m-2). The heat stored in water was larger in magnitude (-200 to 200 W m-2) compared to the sensible heat flux. The SR and EC latent energy fluxes were almost the same in magnitude as the available energy, due to the small values of the sensible heat fluxes. The daily evaporation rate ranged between 2.0 and 3.5 mm during the measurement period. The SR method can be used for routine estimation of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes with a reliable accuracy, over a variety of surfaces: short canopies, tall canopies, heterogeneous surface, and open water surface, if the weighting factor á is determined. Alternatively, the SR method can be used to estimate sensible heat flux which is exempt from calibration using the other two SR analysis approaches, with additional measurement of wind speed for estimating friction velocity iteratively. The advantages of the SR method over other micrometeorological methods are the relatively low cost, easy installation and maintenance, relatively low cost for replicate measurements. These investigations may pave the way for the creation of evaporation stations from which real-time and sub-hourly estimates of total evaporation may be obtained relatively inexpensively. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2008.

Page generated in 0.1416 seconds