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Analysis of initial condensation and the effects of distillers' spent grain pellet orientation and superheated steam operating parameters on effective moisture diffusivityBourassa, Justin 18 August 2015 (has links)
Distillers’ spent grain (DSG) is a byproduct of ethanol production and used for swine feed supplement due to its nutrient composition. Lowering the moisture content of DSG using superheated steam (SS) drying can be more energy efficient compared to hot air drying. One objective was to investigate parameters associated with SS drying on DSG including maximum condensation, condensation time, and restoration time. Increasing SS temperature from 120 to 180 °C and SS velocity from 1.0 to 1.4 m/s resulted in a 97% and 67% decrease in maximum condensation, respectively. Another objective was to determine the effect of SS temperature, velocity, and pellet orientation on effective moisture diffusivity of DSG pellets. The diffusion model was based on finite cylinder geometry accounting for volumetric shrinkage. The diffusivity coefficient was determined to be 1.56 × 108 m2/s. A significant effect of pellet orientation on moisture diffusivity was found during the constant dryingrate period. / October 2015

2 
Computational Study of a Plate Mounted Finite Cylinder: Aspect Ratio and Boundary Layer Thickness EffectsHummer, Christopher J. 12 September 2013 (has links)
No description available.

3 
The wake of an exhaust stack in a crossflowAdaramola, Muyiwa S 23 April 2008
Relatively few studies have been carried out on the turbulent wake structure of a finite circular cylinder and a stack partially immersed in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer. There is a need to develop a better understanding of the wakes of these structures, since they have many important engineering applications. This thesis investigates the influence of the aspect ratio on the wake of a finite circular cylinder and the effects of the ratio of jet flow velocity to crossflow velocity (velocity ratio, R) on the wake of a stack in a crossflow. <p>The wake characteristics of flows over a finite circular cylinder at four different aspect ratios (AR = 3, 5, 7 and 9) were investigated experimentally at a Reynolds number of ReD = 6104 using twocomponent thermal anemometry. Each cylinder was mounted normal to a ground plane and was either completely or partially immersed in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer. The ratio of boundary layer thickness to the cylinder diameter was 3. <p>A similar turbulent wake structure (timeaveraged velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds shear stress distributions) was found for the cylinders with AR = 5, 7, and 9, while a distinctly different turbulent wake structure was found for the cylinder with AR = 3. This was consistent with the results of a previous study that focused on the timeaveraged streamwise vortex structures in the wake. In addition, irrespective of the value of AR, high values were observed for the skewness and flatness factors around the free end of the cylinders, which may be attributed to the interaction of the tip vortex structures and downwash flow that dominates this region of the cylinder.<p>The wake characteristics of a stack of aspect ratio AR = 9 were investigated using both the sevenhole pressure probe and thermal anemometry. The sevenhole probe was used to measure the three components of the timeaveraged velocity field, while the thermal anemometry was used to measure two components of the turbulent velocity field at various downstream locations from the stack. The stack was mounted normal to the ground plane and was partially immersed in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer, for which the ratio of boundary layer thickness to the stack diameter was 4.5. In addition, measurements of the vortex shedding frequency were made with a singlecomponent hotwire probe. The crossflow Reynolds number was ReD = 2.3 x 104, the jet Reynolds number ranged from Red = 7.6 x 103 to 4.7 x 104, and R was varied from 0 to 3. <p>In the stack study, three flow regimes were identified depending on the value of R: the downwash (R < 0.7), crosswinddominated (0.7 < R < 1.5), and jetdominated (R ≥ 1.5) flow regimes. Each flow regime had a distinct structure for the timeaveraged velocity and streamwise vorticity fields, and turbulence characteristics, as well as the variation of the Strouhal number and the power spectrum of the streamwise velocity fluctuations along the stack height. The turbulence structure is complex and changes in the streamwise and wallnormal directions within the near and intermediate stack and jet wakes. In the downwash and crosswinddominated flow regimes, two pairs of counterrotating streamwise vortex structures were identified within the stack wake. The tipvortex pair and basevortex pair were similar to those found in the wake of a finite circular cylinder, located close to the free end and the base of the stack (ground plane), respectively. In the jetdominated flow regime, a third pair of streamwise vortex structures was observed, referred to as the jetwake vortex pair, which occurred within the jetwake region above the free end of the stack. The jetwake vortex pair has the same orientation as the base vortex pair and is associated with the jet rise.

4 
The wake of an exhaust stack in a crossflowAdaramola, Muyiwa S 23 April 2008 (has links)
Relatively few studies have been carried out on the turbulent wake structure of a finite circular cylinder and a stack partially immersed in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer. There is a need to develop a better understanding of the wakes of these structures, since they have many important engineering applications. This thesis investigates the influence of the aspect ratio on the wake of a finite circular cylinder and the effects of the ratio of jet flow velocity to crossflow velocity (velocity ratio, R) on the wake of a stack in a crossflow. <p>The wake characteristics of flows over a finite circular cylinder at four different aspect ratios (AR = 3, 5, 7 and 9) were investigated experimentally at a Reynolds number of ReD = 6104 using twocomponent thermal anemometry. Each cylinder was mounted normal to a ground plane and was either completely or partially immersed in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer. The ratio of boundary layer thickness to the cylinder diameter was 3. <p>A similar turbulent wake structure (timeaveraged velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds shear stress distributions) was found for the cylinders with AR = 5, 7, and 9, while a distinctly different turbulent wake structure was found for the cylinder with AR = 3. This was consistent with the results of a previous study that focused on the timeaveraged streamwise vortex structures in the wake. In addition, irrespective of the value of AR, high values were observed for the skewness and flatness factors around the free end of the cylinders, which may be attributed to the interaction of the tip vortex structures and downwash flow that dominates this region of the cylinder.<p>The wake characteristics of a stack of aspect ratio AR = 9 were investigated using both the sevenhole pressure probe and thermal anemometry. The sevenhole probe was used to measure the three components of the timeaveraged velocity field, while the thermal anemometry was used to measure two components of the turbulent velocity field at various downstream locations from the stack. The stack was mounted normal to the ground plane and was partially immersed in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer, for which the ratio of boundary layer thickness to the stack diameter was 4.5. In addition, measurements of the vortex shedding frequency were made with a singlecomponent hotwire probe. The crossflow Reynolds number was ReD = 2.3 x 104, the jet Reynolds number ranged from Red = 7.6 x 103 to 4.7 x 104, and R was varied from 0 to 3. <p>In the stack study, three flow regimes were identified depending on the value of R: the downwash (R < 0.7), crosswinddominated (0.7 < R < 1.5), and jetdominated (R ≥ 1.5) flow regimes. Each flow regime had a distinct structure for the timeaveraged velocity and streamwise vorticity fields, and turbulence characteristics, as well as the variation of the Strouhal number and the power spectrum of the streamwise velocity fluctuations along the stack height. The turbulence structure is complex and changes in the streamwise and wallnormal directions within the near and intermediate stack and jet wakes. In the downwash and crosswinddominated flow regimes, two pairs of counterrotating streamwise vortex structures were identified within the stack wake. The tipvortex pair and basevortex pair were similar to those found in the wake of a finite circular cylinder, located close to the free end and the base of the stack (ground plane), respectively. In the jetdominated flow regime, a third pair of streamwise vortex structures was observed, referred to as the jetwake vortex pair, which occurred within the jetwake region above the free end of the stack. The jetwake vortex pair has the same orientation as the base vortex pair and is associated with the jet rise.

5 
Axisymmetric Finite Cylinder With Rigid Ends And A Circumferential Edge CrackDurucan, Ayse Rusen 01 August 2010 (has links) (PDF)
An axisymmetric finite cylinder with rigid ends and a circumferential edge crack is considered in this study. The finite cylinder is under the action of uniformly distributed loads at two rigid ends. Material of the finite cylinder is assumed to be linearly elastic and isotropic. This finite cylinder problem is solved by considering an infinite cylinder containing an internal ringshaped crack located at z=0 plane and two pennyshaped rigid inclusions located at z=± / L planes. General expressions of the infinite cylinder problem are obtained by solving Navier equations with Fourier and Hankel transforms. This infinite cylinder problem is then converted to the target problem by letting the radius of the rigid inclusions approach the radius of the cylinder and letting the outer edge of the crack approach the surface of the cylinder. Consequently, these rigid inclusions form the rigid ends and internal crack form the circumferential edge crack resulting in the problem of a finite cylinder with rigid ends having an edge crack. The problem is reduced to a set of three singular integral equations. These singular integral equations are converted to a system of linear algebraic equations with the aid of GaussLobatto and GaussJacobi integration formulas and are solved numerically.

6 
Cracked Semiinfinite Cylinder And Finite Cylinder ProblemsKaman, Mete Onur 01 May 2006 (has links) (PDF)
This work considers a cracked semiinfinite cylinder and a finite cylinder. Material of the cylinder is linearly elastic and isotropic. One end of the cylinder is bonded to a fixed support while the other end is subject to axial tension. Solution for this problem can be obtained from the solution for an infinite cylinder having a pennyshaped rigid inclusion at z = 0 and two pennyshaped cracks at z = ± / L. General expressions for this problem are obtained by solving Navier equations using Fourier and Hankel transforms. When the radius of the inclusion approaches the radius of the cylinder, the end at z = 0 becomes fixed and when the radius of the cracks approaches the radius of the cylinder, the ends at z = ± / L become cut and subject to uniformly distributed tensile load. Formulation of the problem is reduced to a system of three singular integral equations. By using GaussLobatto and GaussJacobi integration formulas, these three singular integral equations are converted to a system of linear algebraic equations which is solved numerically.

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