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1 
Using PROC GLIMMIX to Analyze the Animal Watch, a WebBased Tutoring System for Algebra ReadinessBarbu, Otilia C. January 2012 (has links)
In this study, I investigated how proficiently seventhgrade students enrolled in two Southwestern schools solve algebra word problems. I analyzed various factors that could affect this proficiency and explored the differences between English Learners (ELs) and native English Primary students (EPs). I collected the data as part of the Animal Watch project, a computerbased initiative designed to improve the mathematical skills of children from grades 58 in the Southwest. A sample of 86 students (26 ELs and 60 EPs), clustered in four different classes, was used for this project. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) approach with the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS 9.3 showed that students from the classes that had a higher percentage of EL students performed better than those in the classes where the EL concentration was lower. Classes with more EL males were better at learning mathematics than classes with more EP females. The results also indicated: (a) a positive correlation between the students' ability to solve algebra word problems on their first attempt and their success ratio in solving all problems, and (b) a negative correlation between the percentage of problems solved correctly and those considered too hard from the very beginning. I conclude my dissertation by making specific recommendations for further research.

2 
A study on the type I error rate and power for generalized linear mixed model containing one random effectWang, Yu January 1900 (has links)
Master of Science / Department of Statistics / Christopher Vahl / In animal health research, it is quite common for a clinical trial to be designed to demonstrate the efficacy of a new drug where a binary response variable is measured on an individual experimental animal (i.e., the observational unit). However, the investigational treatments are applied to groups of animals instead of an individual animal. This means the experimental unit is the group of animals and the response variable could be modeled with the binomial distribution. Also, the responses of animals within the same experimental unit may then be statistically dependent on each other. The usual logit model for a binary response assumes that all observations are independent. In this report, a logit model with a random error term representing the group of animals is considered. This is model belongs to a class of models referred to as generalized linear mixed models and is commonly fit using the SAS System procedure PROC GLIMMIX. Furthermore, practitioners often adjust the denominator degrees of freedom of the test statistic produced by PROC GLIMMIX using one of several different methods. In this report, a simulation study was performed over a variety of different parameter settings to compare the effects on the type I error rate and power of two methods for adjusting the denominator degrees of freedom, namely “DDFM = KENWARDROGER” and “DDFM = NONE”. Despite its reputation for fine performance in linear mixed models with normally distributed errors, the “DDFM = KENWARDROGER” option tended to perform poorly more often than the “DDFM = NONE” option in the logistic regression model with one random effect.

3 
Spatiotemporal prediction modeling of clusters of influenza casesQiu, Weiyu Unknown Date
No description available.

4 
GoodnessofFit Test Issues in Generalized Linear Mixed ModelsChen, NaiWei 2011 December 1900 (has links)
Linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models are randomeffects models widely applied to analyze clustered or hierarchical data. Generally, random effects are often assumed to be normally distributed in the context of mixed models. However, in the mixedeffects logistic model, the violation of the assumption of normally distributed random effects may result in inconsistency for estimates of some fixed effects and the variance component of random effects when the variance of the randomeffects distribution is large. On the other hand, summary statistics used for assessing goodness of fit in the ordinary logistic regression models may not be directly applicable to the mixedeffects logistic models. In this dissertation, we present our investigations of two independent studies related to goodnessoffit tests in generalized linear mixed models.
First, we consider a seminonparametric density representation for the random effects distribution and provide a formal statistical test for testing normality of the randomeffects distribution in the mixedeffects logistic models. We obtain estimates of parameters by using a nonlikelihoodbased estimation procedure. Additionally, we not only evaluate the type I error rate of the proposed test statistic through asymptotic results, but also carry out a bootstrap hypothesis testing procedure to control the inflation of the type I error rate and to study the power performance of the proposed test statistic. Further, the methodology is illustrated by revisiting a case study in mental health.
Second, to improve assessment of the model fit in the mixedeffects logistic models, we apply the nonparametric local polynomial smoothed residuals over withincluster continuous covariates to the unweighted sum of squares statistic for assessing the goodnessoffit of the logistic multilevel models. We perform a simulation study to evaluate the type I error rate and the power performance for detecting a missing quadratic or interaction term of fixed effects using the kernel smoothed unweighted sum of squares statistic based on the local polynomial smoothed residuals over xspace. We also use a real data set in clinical trials to illustrate this application.

5 
Metodologias estatísticas na análise de germinação de sementes de mamonaBarbosa, Luciano [UNESP] 16 November 2010 (has links) (PDF)
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barbosa_l_dr_botfca.pdf: 2587351 bytes, checksum: 76e343f1e0edbbbee5cb996188d8efd2 (MD5) / É bastante comum na área agrícola, experimentos cujas variáveis respostas são contagens ou proporções. Para esse tipo de dados, utilizase a metodologia de modelos lineares generalizados quando as respostas são independentes. Por outro lado, quando as respostas são dependentes, há uma correlação entre as observações e isso tem que ser levado em consideração na análise, para evitar inferências incorretas sobre os coeficientes de regressão. Na literatura há técnicas disponíveis para a modelagem e análise desses dados, sendo os modelos disponíveis extensões dos modelos lineares generalizados. No presente trabalho, utilizase a metodologia de equação de estimação generalizada, que inclui no modelo uma matriz de correlação para a obtenção de um melhor ajuste. Outra alternativa, também abordada neste trabalho, é a utilização de um modelo linear generalizado misto, no qual o uso de efeitos aleatórios também introduz uma correlação entre observações que tenham algum efeito em comum. Essas duas metodologias são aplicadas a um conjunto de dados obtidos de um experimento para avaliar certas condições na germinação de sementes de mamona da cultivar AL Guarany 2002, com o objetivo de se verificar qual o melhor modelo de estimação para esses dados / Experiments whose response variables are counts or proportions are very common in agriculture. For this type of data, if the observational units are independent, the methodology of generalized linear models can be appropriate. On the other hand, when responses are dependent or clustered, there is a correlation between the observations and that has to be taken into consideration in the analysis to avoid incorrect inferences about the regression coefficients. In the literature there are techniques available for modeling and analyzing such type data, the models being extensions of generalized linear models. The present study explores the use of: 1) generalized estimation equations, that includes a correlation matrix to obtain a better fit; 2) generalized linear mixed models, that introduce a correlation between clustered observations though the addition of random effects in the model. These two methodologies are applied to a data set obtained from an experiment to evaluate certain conditions on the germination of seeds of castor bean cultivar AL Guarany 2002 with the objective of determining the best estimation model for such data

6 
Three Essays on Comparative Simulation in Threelevel Hierarchical Data StructureJanuary 2017 (has links)
abstract: Though the likelihood is a useful tool for obtaining estimates of regression parameters, it is not readily available in the fit of hierarchical binary data models. The correlated observations negate the opportunity to have a joint likelihood when fitting hierarchical logistic regression models. Through conditional likelihood, inferences for the regression and covariance parameters as well as the intraclass correlation coefficients are usually obtained. In those cases, I have resorted to use of Laplace approximation and large sample theory approach for point and interval estimates such as Waldtype confidence intervals and profile likelihood confidence intervals. These methods rely on distributional assumptions and large sample theory. However, when dealing with small hierarchical datasets they often result in severe bias or nonconvergence. I present a generalized quasilikelihood approach and a generalized method of moments approach; both do not rely on any distributional assumptions but only moments of response. As an alternative to the typical large sample theory approach, I present bootstrapping hierarchical logistic regression models which provides more accurate interval estimates for small binary hierarchical data. These models substitute computations as an alternative to the traditional Waldtype and profile likelihood confidence intervals. I use a latent variable approach with a new split bootstrap method for estimating intraclass correlation coefficients when analyzing binary data obtained from a threelevel hierarchical structure. It is especially useful with small sample size and easily expanded to multilevel. Comparisons are made to existing approaches through both theoretical justification and simulation studies. Further, I demonstrate my findings through an analysis of three numerical examples, one based on cancer in remission data, one related to the China’s antibiotic abuse study, and a third related to teacher effectiveness in schools from a state of southwest US. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Statistics 2017

7 
Metodologias estatísticas na análise de germinação de sementes de mamona /Barbosa, Luciano, 1971 January 2010 (has links)
Orientador: Luiza Aparecida Trinca / Banca: Liciana Vaz da Arruda / Banca: Osmar Delmanto Junior / Banca: Célia Regina Lopes Zimback / Banca: Marli Teixeira de A. Minhoni / Resumo: É bastante comum na área agrícola, experimentos cujas variáveis respostas são contagens ou proporções. Para esse tipo de dados, utilizase a metodologia de modelos lineares generalizados quando as respostas são independentes. Por outro lado, quando as respostas são dependentes, há uma correlação entre as observações e isso tem que ser levado em consideração na análise, para evitar inferências incorretas sobre os coeficientes de regressão. Na literatura há técnicas disponíveis para a modelagem e análise desses dados, sendo os modelos disponíveis extensões dos modelos lineares generalizados. No presente trabalho, utilizase a metodologia de equação de estimação generalizada, que inclui no modelo uma matriz de correlação para a obtenção de um melhor ajuste. Outra alternativa, também abordada neste trabalho, é a utilização de um modelo linear generalizado misto, no qual o uso de efeitos aleatórios também introduz uma correlação entre observações que tenham algum efeito em comum. Essas duas metodologias são aplicadas a um conjunto de dados obtidos de um experimento para avaliar certas condições na germinação de sementes de mamona da cultivar AL Guarany 2002, com o objetivo de se verificar qual o melhor modelo de estimação para esses dados / Abstract: Experiments whose response variables are counts or proportions are very common in agriculture. For this type of data, if the observational units are independent, the methodology of generalized linear models can be appropriate. On the other hand, when responses are dependent or clustered, there is a correlation between the observations and that has to be taken into consideration in the analysis to avoid incorrect inferences about the regression coefficients. In the literature there are techniques available for modeling and analyzing such type data, the models being extensions of generalized linear models. The present study explores the use of: 1) generalized estimation equations, that includes a correlation matrix to obtain a better fit; 2) generalized linear mixed models, that introduce a correlation between clustered observations though the addition of random effects in the model. These two methodologies are applied to a data set obtained from an experiment to evaluate certain conditions on the germination of seeds of castor bean cultivar AL Guarany 2002 with the objective of determining the best estimation model for such data / Doutor

8 
A Review and Comparison of Models and Estimation Methods for Multivariate Longitudinal Data of Mixed Scale TypeCodd, Casey 23 September 2014 (has links)
No description available.

9 
Semiparametric Methods for the Generalized Linear ModelChen, Jinsong 01 July 2010 (has links)
The generalized linear model (GLM) is a popular model in many research areas. In the GLM, each outcome of the dependent variable is assumed to be generated from a particular distribution function in the exponential family. The mean of the distribution depends on the independent variables. The link function provides the relationship between the linear predictor and the mean of the distribution function. In this dissertation, two semiparametric extensions of the GLM will be developed. In the first part of this dissertation, we have proposed a new model, called a semiparametric generalized linear model with a logconcave random component (SGLML). In this model, the estimate of the distribution of the random component has a nonparametric form while the estimate of the systematic part has a parametric form. In the second part of this dissertation, we have proposed a model, called a generalized semiparametric singleindex mixed model (GSSIMM). A nonparametric component with a single index is incorporated into the mean function in the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) assuming that the random component is following a parametric distribution.
In the first part of this dissertation, since most of the literature on the GLM deals with the parametric random component, we relax the parametric distribution assumption for the random component of the GLM and impose a logconcave constraint on the distribution. An iterative numerical algorithm for computing the estimators in the SGLML is developed. We construct a loglikelihood ratio test for inference. In the second part of this dissertation, we use a single index model to generalize the GLMM to have a linear combination of covariates enter the model via a nonparametric mean function, because the linear model in the GLMM is not complex enough to capture the underlying relationship between the response and its associated covariates. The marginal likelihood is approximated using the Laplace method. A penalized quasilikelihood approach is proposed to estimate the nonparametric function and parameters including singleindex coe±cients in the GSSIMM. We estimate variance components using marginal quasilikelihood. Asymptotic properties of the estimators are developed using a similar idea by Yu (2008). A simulation example is carried out to compare the performance of the GSSIMM with that of the GLMM. We demonstrate the advantage of my approach using a study of the association between daily air pollutants and daily mortality adjusted for temperature and wind speed in various counties of North Carolina. / Ph. D.

10 
Longitudinal data analysis with covariates measurement errorHoque, Md. Erfanul 05 January 2017 (has links)
Longitudinal data occur frequently in medical studies and covariates measured by
error are typical features of such data. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs)
are commonly used to analyse longitudinal data. It is typically assumed that
the random effects covariance matrix is constant across the subject (and among
subjects) in these models. In many situations, however, this correlation structure
may differ among subjects and ignoring this heterogeneity can cause the biased estimates
of model parameters. In this thesis, following Lee et al. (2012), we propose
an approach to properly model the random effects covariance matrix based on covariates
in the class of GLMMs where we also have covariates measured by error.
The resulting parameters from this decomposition have a sensible interpretation
and can easily be modelled without the concern of positive definiteness of the
resulting estimator. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated through
simulation studies which show that the proposed method performs very well
in terms biases and mean square errors as well as coverage rates. The proposed
method is also analysed using a data from Manitoba Followup Study. / February 2017

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