HIV and psychological functioning among Black South African women an examination of psychosocial moderating variables /Lindner, Gretchen K., January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Georgia State University, 2005. / Lisa Armistead, committee chair; Leslie Jackson, Sarah Cook, Page Anderson, committee members. Electronic text (145 p. : ill.) : digital, PDF file. Title from title screen. Description based on contents viewed July 26, 2007. Includes bibliographical references (p. 99-116).
Exploring the applicability of the California mastitis test to detect clinical and subclinical mastitis in milk from HIV-infected women /Dorosko, Stephanie. January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Tufts University, 2005. / Adviser: Davidson Hamer. Submitted to the School of Nutrition Science and Policy. Includes bibliographical references. Access restricted to members of the Tufts University community. Also available via the World Wide Web;
Thesis (MScMed)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / Bibliography. Also available via the Internet.
(has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Microbiology & Immunology, 1998. / Copy of author's previously published article on back end-paper. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 105-158).
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst. / Härtill 6 uppsatser.
Coates, Elizabeth A.
(has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.D.S.) -- University of Adelaide, Dept. of Dentistry, 1999. / Bibliography: leaves 165-175.
Modelling acute HIV infection using longitudinally measured biomarker data including informative drop-out.Werner, Lise. January 2009 (has links)
Background. Numerous methods have been developed to model longitudinal data. In HIV/AIDS studies, HIV markers, CD4+ count and viral load are measured over time. Informative drop-out and the lower detection limit of viral load assays can bias the results and influence assumptions of the models. Objective The objective of this thesis is to describe the evolution of HIV markers in an HIV-1 subtype C acutely infected cohort of women from the CAPRISA 002: Acute Infection Study in Durban, South Africa. They were HIV treatment naive. Methods. Various linear mixed models were fitted to both CD4+ count and viral load, adjusting for repeated measurements, as well as including intercept and slope as random effects. The rate of change in each of the HIV markers was assessed using weeks post infection as both a linear effect and piecewise linear effects. Left-censoring of viral load was explored to account for missing data resulting from undetectable measurements falling below the lower detection limit of the assay. Informative drop- out was addressed by using a method of joint modelling in which a longitudinal and survival model were jointly linked using a latent Gaussian process. The progression of HIV markers were described and the effectiveness and usefulness of each modelling procedure was evaluated. Results. 62 women were followed for a median of 29 months post infection (IQR 20-39). Viral load increased sharply by 2.6 log copies/ml per week in the first 2 weeks of infection and decreased by 0.4 log copies/ml per week the next fortnight. It decreased at a slower rate thereafter. Similarly CD4+ count fell in the first 2 weeks by 4.4 square root cells/ul per week then recovered slightly only to decrease again. Left-censoring was unnecessary in this acute infection cohort as few viral load measures were below the detection limit and provided no improvement on model fit. Conclusion. Piecewise linear effects proved to be useful in quantifying the degree at which the HIV markers progress during the first few weeks of HIV infection, whereas modelling time as a linear effect was not very meaningful. Modelling HIV markers jointly with informative drop-out is shown to be necessary to account for the missing data incurred from participants leaving the study to initiate ARV treatment. In ignoring this drop-out, CD4+ count is estimated to be higher than what it actually is. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2009.
Questionnaire survey to determine the perceived effect of immune boosters on HIV/AIDS patients in South AfricaTsele, Tebogo 25 August 2008 (has links)
The joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in collaboration with the World health Organization (WHO) published a report stating that, 42 million people are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) globally, where 20 million people had already died and where HIV, the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome continued to spread in all countries (Pratt, 2003). In South Africa it is estimated that a total number of 5.6 million individuals have acquired HIV infection by the end of 2003 (Department of Health, 2004). Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is presently the treatment of choice for people with HIV/AIDS. These drug cocktails of protease inhibitors and nucleosides led to the first real medical progress in the treatment of the epidemic. Although most people with HIV/AIDS are encouraged by the results of using the cocktail of Antiretroviral drugs (ARV’s), a recent study published indicated that 27% of people who are HIV positive have an infection that is resistant to all three classes of HIV drugs presently available (Voelker, 2000). This evidence show that there is a need for Alternative and Complementary Therapies to treat a significant number of people living with HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine, by means of a questionnaire survey the perceived effect of Complementary Immune Boosters in HIV/AIDS patients in Johannesburg, Gauteng. This study also determined the knowledge people have of HIV/AIDS and how patients knew about the availability of Complementary Immune Boosters. Age, gender, marital status and employment status of patients were also determined. This study involved acquiring questionnaire survey responses from 200 participants in Johannesburg, Gauteng. Participants were recruited from twenty health shops and pharmacies that purchase Complementary Immune Boosters. A motivating letter (Appendix A) was hand delivered to health shops and pharmacies by the researcher prior to the completion of the questionnaire (Appendix B) to notify the pharmacist or health shop attendant about the research. Responses were recorded and correlated and analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics. The results of this study provide a database estimating how effective Complementary Immune Boosters are on HIV/AIDS patients and reasons why HIV/AIDS patients choose to utilize Complementary Immune Boosters to boost their immune system or to relieve some of their symptoms. Of the 200 respondents only 40% said they are HIV positive, 22.4% said they are not and 37.6% said they do not know if they are HIV positive. The data showed that the percentages of respondents are almost equal with males (51.0%) and females 49.0%. In addition, the majority of respondents are blacks with 81.8%, the second group are whites 8.6%, and coloured 7.1% and Asians are only 2.5%. Cellfood (26.8%) was the most used product by respondents, followed by Hypoxis Hemenocallidea (African potato) 17.7%. The remaining 55,5% was shared by other Immune Boosters. Most respondents said they consume Complementary Immune Boosters to boost their immune system. Data showed that only 1.5% of respondents were advised by their medical practitioners to use Complementary Immune Boosters. With the study done on attitudes of medical practitioners regarding Complementary medicine in South Africa, 70% of medical practitioners felt that Complementary and Alternative Medicine should play an active role in the health care system in South Africa (Selli, 2003). The results of this study are expected to initiate further, much needed research in the area of HIV/AIDS and Complementary and Alternative Medicine. / Dr. M.R.A Moiloa Dr. S. Koopedi
Low viral titre infection of HIV-1 subtype C and increased in vitro production by enhancers of NF-kB.Greeff, Christiaan 21 April 2008 (has links)
In vitro infection is a fundamental part of HIV research. A successful detectable infection forms the basis for most experimentation on drug design or vaccine development. Deviation from this infection gives insight into whether a particular treatment regimen may be effective or not. For example, neutralization assay used in vaccine studies to evaluate induction of neutralizing antibodies requires in vitro infection of cells and measuring the ability of serum antibodies to reduce or prevent an infection. Drug screening also uses the ability to limit infection as the proof of a successful interference with virus production. Infecting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is a very important tool for generating viral stocks (cell free or PBMC-associated) which can be used to infect other cells. Generating these stocks is costly and limiting the use of large volumes of cellfree viral stocks as well as increasing virus yield makes research more cost effective. Thus, studying factors that increase in vitro infection can help us limit virus stock use and provide information on how one can in future gain higher yields from co-culture. This work focused on subtype C since it is the strain that infects most people worldwide and is most abundant in South Africa. Objectives: We wanted to evaluate methods used for enhancement of in vitro infection and possibly develop an in vitro infection protocol for consistent and persistent infection. DNA PCR is not valued as a means of detecting in vitro HIV-1 infections and measuring the secretion of p24 by specialisedELISA is preferred. We therefore wanted to evaluate whether the enhancement of in vitro infection would lead to a better detection of infection in vitro by standard DNA PCR or Real-time(RT)-PCR. Since NF-êâ (a host transcription factor) was identified as playing an essential role in the production of virus the next goal was to evaluate the effect known enhancers of this transcription factor would have on detection of in vitro infection because of a potential increase in virus production. Hypothesis: Spinoculation and NF-êâ enhancement by inducting stimulus gives a higher thus more consistent infection in vitro that can be detected using standard molecular techniques. Methods: Spinoculation and polybrene addition was applied to PM1, CEM.NKR-CCR5 or PBMC cultures to boost infection. Further increase in virus production was attempted using three NF-êâ enhancers. DNA PCR, RT-PCR and p24 ELISA was applied to detect enhancement of infection using the viral strain Du-151. Results: Spinoculation (1200 x g for 3 hours) was superior to polybrene as an enhancer of in vitro infection and this was demonstrated with p24-ELISA, DNA PCR and Real-time PCR. NF-êâ enhancement through UV-C irradiation enhanced viral production in the macrophage/T-cell tropic cell line PM1 (p<0.05) and was superior to H2O2 and LiCl. LiCl had a more pronounced effect in the case of PBMCs. (p<0.05) A viral concentration of 500 TCID50 was sufficiently DNA PCR detectable following 7 day incubation provided that spinoculation and UV-C irradiation was also applied. PM1 was persistently infected in vitro and is in our opinion better suited for experimentation due to the fact that it does not show the degree of cytotoxicity of CEM.NKR-CCR5. This cell line also is known to produce infectious virus that sustain the infection. Conclusion: Detectable PCR results were obtained with 500 TCID50 and the use of enhancing factors. One of these enhancing factors is spinoculation. Spinoculation is a better technique to use to enhance cell virus contact and lacks the toxicity of polybrene. NF-êâ enhancement by UV-C has the best effect on virus production in PM1 where LiCl was found to be better suited for PBMC. DNA PCR can be used to successfully detect infection when enhancing techniques are applied. / Dr. Debra Meyer
HIV/AIDS: a questionnaire survey to determine the attitudes and practices of homoeopaths in seven provinces of South Africa (Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, North West, Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces)York, Joanne 09 June 2009 (has links)
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