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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Transient convection in vaporizing liquid layers

Grewal, Sukhminder Singh. January 1978 (has links)
Thesis--Wisconsin. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 226-230).
2

Integrace technologie pro zahušťování digestátu v bioplynové stanici / Integration of a technology for digestate thickening in a biogas plant

Miklas, Václav January 2018 (has links)
This diploma thesis is mainly focused on the digestate thickening in a biogas plant. First, overview of the biogas technology in the Czech Republic is presented. Furthermore, problems with waste heat utilization and processing of fermentation residues (digestate) are described in more detail. Based on the research, multi-stage flash (MSF) evaporation was chosen as the technology for the digestate thickening. The main part deals with the integration of the chosen technology into a biogas plant process. The programming language Python was used to simplify the given task. In the preliminary stage, a complex mathematical model of a biogas plant was created, focusing particularly on the mass and energy balances. Subsequently, a computational model of the MSF evaporator was programmed. A procedure for the integration was suggested using the sensitivity analyses. Additionally, the model of a biogas plant was extended with the MSF evaporator. The key outcome of the thesis is a technical-economic analysis in which the impact of digestate transport price and electricity feed-in tariff on payback period is investigated. The results suggest profitability of MSF evaporator for biogas plants without subsidized feed-in tariff. Contrastingly, installation of MSF evaporator in older biogas plants with subsidized feed-in tariff can be economically viable only in cases of significantly longer transport distances.
3

Zařízení pro zahušťování odpadní vody z bioplynových stanic / Equipment for Thickening Waste Water from Biogas Plants

Vondra, Marek January 2017 (has links)
This dissertation thesis deals with the development of technology which could tackle two major issues related to biogas plants. These issues concern the insufficient use of waste heat from biogas combustion and its subsequent processing. It also concerns the use of the fermentation residues which are formed in large quantities and whose use is restricted by law. Based on a literary search of separation methods, a vacuum evaporator was selected as the most suitable technology. Its advantages include its simple construction, operational reliability and robustness, low costs of thickening medium pre-treatment, potential for a quick commercial application and, especially, the chance to use a low-potential waste heat. A primary purpose of this technological unit is the reduction in the volume of fermentation residues. Other benefits include the efficient use of waste heat from a biogas plant, which would otherwise be wasted. Evaporators with a low consumption of electrical energy (which is a main product of a biogas plant) seem to be the best option for applications in the biogas plants. Three of these technologies were subjected to a more thorough analysis, which included the development of computational models and their quantification for conditions in a sample biogas plant. A one-stage evaporator with a forced circulation (680 – 712 kWhth/m3, 25.9 – 30.5 kWhel/m3) was evaluated as the least suitable option in terms of energy demands. The energy intensity of a three-stage evaporator with a falling film (241 – 319 kWhth/m3, 12.0 – 23.6 kWhel/m3) and a nine-stage flash evaporator (236 – 268 kWhth/m3, 13.6 – 18.4 kWhel/m3) is significantly lower. A multi-stage flash evaporator (MSF) was then chosen for development and will form the central focus of this thesis. The reasons for the choice are as follows: the low requirements on the heat transfer surface, good operational experience in the field of desalination, its simple construction, modularity and evaporation outside the heat transfer surface. A thorough technical-economic evaluation was also performed on the integration of the evaporator into the biogas plant. The main part of the work included the experimental development of a MSF evaporator prototype. The main objective of this development was to achieve a stable flow rate of the thickening liquid digestate fraction and the continuous formation of the distillate. This was not an easy objective to achieve, especially due to the properties of the liquid digestate, which has a non-newtonian characteristic and increased density and viscosity compared to water. The tendency of the liquid digestate to form foam was also the subject of analysis. The development of the evaporator and first successful operational test are described in the thesis in detail. This required the use of an anti-foaming product. A fully-developed prototype of the MSF evaporator allowed us to achieve continuous operation with a distillate production, reaching from 5 to 10 kg/h at a liquid digestate flow rate of 0.4–0.5 m3/h. The main drawback of this technology is the pollution of the distillate with ammonia nitrogen, and it is for this reason that the basic procedures of its subsequent elimination was selected for further analysis.

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