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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Self-adjusting doses of oral antihyperglycemic therapy using repaglinide or glyburide in type 2 diabetes : the soaring study

MacKinnon, Lindsay M. January 2006 (has links)
Cette etude pilote de six mois examinait si l'autogestion (AG) intensive par un agent secreteur d'insuline avait pour consequence une glycemie amelioree en comparaison avec une gestion standard (GS) chez les individus atteints de diabete de type 2. Des patients ont ete randomises soit a l'AG avec du repaglinide (n=8), ou du glyburide (n=6) ou a la GS (n=5). Des analyses biochimiques, alimentaires, comportementales, et d'activite physique ont ete effectuees. Les deux groupes de l'AG ont recu un enseignement d'autogestion en fonction du taux de glucose sanguin et une evaluation nutritionnelle qualitative. Le groupe AG (n=11) a suivi la cedule 65% du temps et a fait des ajustements 29% du temps. Une relation inverse significative a ete trouvee entre le changement de l'Alc et le pourcentage de temps d'ajustements accomplis correctement (r=0.64, p=0.035). La difference de masse corporelle entre l'AG et la GS n'etait pas significative, tout comme la masse corporelle moyenne a six mois. Une recherche plus approfondie avec un echantillon de plus grande taille serait necessaire afin d'explorer les avantages potentiels de la gestion du diabete via l'autogestion de medicaments oraux.
2

An epidemiological study of drug-induced acute pancreatitis utilizing a Swedish case-control network /

Jorsäter-Blomgren, Kerstin B, January 2006 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst., 2006. / Härtill 5 uppsatser.
3

Identification and characterization of anti-diabetic activity of banaba extract, tannic acid and penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose (PGG) /

Kim, Jaekyung. January 2004 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Ohio University, June, 2004. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 126-138).
4

In silico and in vitro screening of marrubiin and marrubiin derivatives for antidiabetic activity on PTP1ß, C2C12 myocytes, chang liver hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes

Nicholas, Rudi Berto January 2013 (has links)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a life changing disease which affects a large portion of the population and the economy through high medical costs and loss of productivity. Marrubiin (MAR), a diterpenoid isolated from Leonotis leonurus, a plant indigenous to Southern Africa, is used by traditional healers to alleviate DM symptoms. This study aims to screen the inhibitory potential of MAR and MAR derivatives on PTP1β and glucose uptake properties of Chang liver, C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Marrubiin and 19 of its derivatives were tested to determine the inhibition constants for PTP1β. A Ki of 21 μM and 0.047 μM was detected for oleanolic acid in silico and in vitro, respectively. All other diterpene derivatives did not display substantial levels of inhibition of PTP1β. Treatment of Chang liver cells with the various MAR derivatives (10 μM) did not significantly increase glucose uptake beyond metformin, a known antidiabetic drug. The various treatments showed a protective/proliferative effect on the C2C12 muscle cells with two MAR treatments (DC16 and DC18) significantly increasing glucose uptake as compared to metformin in C2C12 muscle cells. It was noted that DC17, DC18 and MAR significantly increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, relative to the control. Contrary to cytotoxicity studies with Chang liver and C2C12 muscle cells, adipocytes displayed no cytotoxicity to treatments while a significant increase in cell viability was seen for DC9 and DC15. To unravel the mechanism of action, Western blotting analysis was completed and an increased expression of PTP1β was observed for treatments with DC17 and DC6 was seen in adipocytes, while DC18 and metformin decreased expression significantly. This correlated with a significant decrease of Ser 612 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS1) for DC17. Real time qPCR of IRS1 and GLUT4 highlighted that DC17 and MAR were able to significantly increase expression of IRS1 and GLUT4, respectively. The results show that MAR and the selected derivatives (DC6, DC17, DC18) have been found to increase glucose uptake in peripheral tissue types with IRS1, GLUT4 and PTP1β being associated with the mechanism of action. However, a complete understanding of the mechanisms is yet to be established.
5

Self-adjusting doses of oral antihyperglycemic therapy using repaglinide or glyburide in type 2 diabetes : the soaring study

MacKinnon, Lindsay M. January 2006 (has links)
No description available.
6

Evaluation of the anti-diabetic activities of non-starch polysaccharides extracted from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus.

January 2005 (has links)
by Li Chi Yeung. / Thesis submitted in: November 2004. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2005. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 151-176). / Abstracts in English and Chinese. / Thesis Committee --- p.i / Acknowledgement --- p.ii / Abstract (English Version) --- p.iii / Abstract (Chinese Version) --- p.v / Content Page --- p.vii / List of Tables --- p.xiii / List of Figures --- p.xv / Abbreviation --- p.xvii / Chapter Chapter 1 --- Introduction --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1 --- Diabetes Mellitus --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1.1 --- Epidemiology --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1.2 --- Economic Impact --- p.3 / Chapter 1.2 --- "Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism of Carbohydrates" --- p.4 / Chapter 1.2.1 --- Carbohydrate Digestion --- p.4 / Chapter 1.2.2 --- Carbohydrate Absorption --- p.6 / Chapter 1.2.3 --- Insulin Secretion --- p.6 / Chapter 1.3 --- Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus --- p.7 / Chapter 1.3.1 --- Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (lDDM) --- p.7 / Chapter 1.3.1.1 --- Genetics --- p.8 / Chapter 1.3.1.2 --- Autoimmunity --- p.9 / Chapter 1.3.2 --- Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NlDDM) --- p.11 / Chapter 1.3.2.1 --- Insulin Resistance --- p.11 / Chapter 1.3.2.2 --- Impaired Insulin Secretion --- p.14 / Chapter 1.4 --- Management of Diabetes Mellitus --- p.15 / Chapter 1.4.1 --- Sulfonylureas --- p.15 / Chapter 1.4.2 --- Biguanides --- p.16 / Chapter 1.4.3 --- Problems Encountered in the Management of Diabetes --- p.16 / Chapter 1.4.4 --- Role of Dietary Fiber in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus --- p.18 / Chapter 1.4.4.1 --- Dietary Fiber and Gastric Emptying Time --- p.19 / Chapter 1.4.4.2 --- Dietary Fiber and Glucose Absorption in Small Intestine --- p.20 / Chapter 1.4.5 --- Other Natural Products used for Diabetes Treatment…… --- p.22 / Chapter 1.5 --- Mushrooms --- p.22 / Chapter 1.5.1 --- The Definition of Mushrooms --- p.23 / Chapter 1.5.2 --- Nutritional Values of Mushrooms --- p.24 / Chapter 1.5.3 --- Production of Mushrooms --- p.25 / Chapter 1.6 --- Medicinal (Antidiabetic) Properties of Mushrooms --- p.28 / Chapter 1.6.1 --- Ganoderma lucidum --- p.29 / Chapter 1.6.2 --- Tremella aurantia --- p.33 / Chapter 1.6.3 --- Auricularia auricula --- p.36 / Chapter 1.6.4 --- Grifola frondosa --- p.37 / Chapter 1.7 --- Medicinal Uses of Hericium erinaceus --- p.39 / Chapter 1.7.1 --- HeLa Cell Proliferation Inhibitors --- p.39 / Chapter 1.7.2 --- Induction of Growth of Nerve Cells --- p.42 / Chapter 1.7.3 --- Antitumour Activity --- p.42 / Chapter 1.7.4 --- Antidiabetic Effect --- p.43 / Chapter 1.8 --- Objectives --- p.45 / Chapter Chapter 2 --- Materials and Methods --- p.46 / Chapter 2.1 --- Extraction of Polysaccharides from the Fruiting Body of H. erinaceus --- p.46 / Chapter 2.1.1 --- Small-scale Extraction --- p.46 / Chapter 2.1.2 --- Large-scale Extraction --- p.47 / Chapter 2.2 --- Physico-Chemical Characterization of HE-polysaccharides --- p.52 / Chapter 2.2.1 --- Carbohydrate Content: Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method --- p.52 / Chapter 2.2.2 --- Protein Content: Lowry Assay --- p.52 / Chapter 2.2.3 --- Uronic Acid Content --- p.53 / Chapter 2.2.4 --- Molecular Weight Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) --- p.55 / Chapter 2.2.5 --- Determination of Monosaccharide Composition of Non-Starch Polysaccharides by Gas Chromatography (GC) --- p.56 / Chapter 2.2.5.1 --- Acid Depolymerisation --- p.56 / Chapter 2.2.5.2 --- Neutral Sugar Derivatisation --- p.56 / Chapter 2.2.5.3 --- Determination of Neutral Sugar Composition by Gas Chromatography (GC) --- p.57 / Chapter 2.2.6 --- Structural Study of Polysaccharides by Methylation --- p.59 / Chapter 2.2.6.1 --- Preparation of dry Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) --- p.59 / Chapter 2.2.6.2 --- Preparation of Methylsulfinyl Methyl Sodium (CH3SOCH2-Na+) from the dry DMSO and Sodium Hydride --- p.59 / Chapter 2.2.6.3 --- Methylation Procedure --- p.60 / Chapter 2.2.6.4 --- Preparation of Partially Methylated Alditol Acetates (PMAAs) --- p.61 / Chapter 2.2.6.5 --- Analysis of the PMAAs by GC --- p.62 / Chapter 2.2.7 --- The Measurement of Viscosity --- p.62 / Chapter 2.3 --- In vitro Hypoglycemic Tests of HE-Polysaccharides --- p.64 / Chapter 2.3.1 --- Glucose Dialysis Retardation Index (GDRl) --- p.64 / Chapter 2.3.1.1 --- Experimental Setup --- p.64 / Chapter 2.3.1.2 --- Measurement of Glucose in the Dialysate --- p.65 / Chapter 2.3.2 --- Inhibition of Amylolysis --- p.66 / Chapter 2.3.2.1 --- Experimental Setup --- p.66 / Chapter 2.3.2.2 --- Measurement of Maltose in the Dialysate --- p.66 / Chapter 2.4 --- In vivo Hypoglycemic Evaluation of HE-Polysaccharides --- p.67 / Chapter 2.4.1 --- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) --- p.67 / Chapter 2.4.2 --- Induction of Type l Diabetes in Normal BALB/c Mice --- p.69 / Chapter 2.4.2.1 --- lnduction Protocol --- p.69 / Chapter 2.4.2.2 --- Measurement of Plasma Glucose Level --- p.70 / Chapter 2.4.3 --- Hypoglycemic Test on Normal and Diabetic BALB/c Mice --- p.71 / Chapter 2.4.4 --- Measurement of Insulin Level by Enzyme-Linked Immunoadsorbent Assay (ELlSA) --- p.72 / Chapter 2.4.4.1 --- Plasma Samples used in ELlSA --- p.72 / Chapter 2.4.4.2 --- Assay Procedure --- p.73 / Chapter 2.5 --- Statistical Evaluation --- p.74 / Chapter Chapter 3 --- Results and Discussion --- p.75 / Chapter 3.1 --- Yield of Polysaccharides extracted from H. erinaceus --- p.75 / Chapter 3.2 --- Physico-chemical Properties of HE Polysaccharides --- p.79 / Chapter 3.2.1 --- "Carbohydrate, Protein and Uronic Acid Content" --- p.79 / Chapter 3.2.2 --- Monosaccharide Compositions --- p.83 / Chapter 3.2.3 --- Molecular Weight of the HE polysaccharides --- p.85 / Chapter 3.2.4 --- Structure of HE polysaccharides --- p.90 / Chapter 3.2.5 --- Conclusion for the Physico-chemical Properties of HE-Polysaccharides --- p.96 / Chapter 3.2.6 --- Viscosity of HE Polysaccharides --- p.99 / Chapter 3.3 --- In vitro Study of the Hypoglycemic Effect of HE-Polysaccharides --- p.101 / Chapter 3.3.1 --- Glucose Dialysis Retardation Index (GDRl) --- p.101 / Chapter 3.3.2 --- Inhibition of α-Amylase Activity --- p.105 / Chapter 3.4 --- In vivo Hypoglycemic Evaluation of HE-Polysaccharides --- p.109 / Chapter 3.4.1 --- In vivo Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in Normal Mice --- p.109 / Chapter 3.4.1.1 --- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test --- p.109 / Chapter 3.4.1.2 --- Effect of Change of Viscosity of HE Polysaccharide in the Gl Tract of Mice --- p.114 / Chapter 3.4.2 --- Establishment of a Diabetic Murine Model --- p.120 / Chapter 3.4.3 --- Hypoglycemic Activity of HE-polysaccharides in Normal Mice --- p.123 / Chapter 3.4.4 --- Hypoglycemic Activity of HE-polysaccharides in Diabetic Mice --- p.126 / Chapter 3.4.5 --- Change of Plasma Insulin Level in the Hypoglycemic Test --- p.132 / Chapter 3.4.6 --- Comparison of Hypoglycemic Activity of HE-Polysaccharides in Normal and Diabetic mice --- p.139 / Chapter 3.4.6.1 --- Severity of Diabetic Conditions lnduced --- p.139 / Chapter 3.4.6.2 --- Change in Insulin Secretion --- p.140 / Chapter 3.4.6.3 --- Glucose Transporter --- p.140 / Chapter 3.5 --- Other Factors that Affect in vivo Hypoglycemic Activity of the HE-polysaccharides --- p.141 / Chapter 3.5.1 --- Route of Administration: Oral Feeding and Intraperitoneal Injection --- p.141 / Chapter 3.5.2 --- Molecular Mechanisms of Hypoglycemic Activity --- p.142 / Chapter 3.5.3 --- Glucose Toxicity --- p.144 / Chapter 3.5.3.1 --- Insulin Resistance --- p.144 / Chapter 3.5.3.2 --- Impaired Insulin Secretion --- p.145 / Chapter Chapter 4 --- Conclusions and Future Works --- p.147 / References --- p.151
7

In vitro antidiabetic and antimicrobial properties of Ocimum species (Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum) (L.)

Malapermal, Veshara January 2016 (has links)
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master in Technology, Department of Biomedical Technology and Clinical Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2016. / Introduction In Africa, use of phytotherapy for treatment of diabetes mellitus is a common form of practice. Considering the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa efforts are directed at simple, cost effective, non-hazardous and efficient methods to treat cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The role of phytonanotherapy is an attractive proposition for advancing new therapies. Metal nanoparticles are a possible means for delivery of such therapies. However, this requires investigation on interactions, mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy upon co-administering ethnobotanicals with metal nanoparticles and existing drug therapy in human beings. Aim The primary aim of the study was to test the in vitro antidiabetic and antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum (leaf extracts and flower extracts), Ocimum basilicum (leaf extracts and flower extracts), and a combination of the leaf extracts of both, and to observe whether any antidiabetic and antibacterial activity was enhanced in due to phyto-synthesised bimetallic gold-silver (Au-Ag) nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles. Methods Aqueous and ethanol extracts of O. sanctum and O. basilicum leaf and flowers alone and combined (leaf + flower) were prepared using hot vs cold water extraction techniques and 60% and 70% ethanol as polar solvents. A simple, rapid, cost effective and reproducible green chemistry method synthesised alloyed bimetallic (Au-Ag) nanoparticles using O. basilicum leaf and flower aqueous extracts and prepared silver nanoparticles (AgNps) using O. basilicum and O. sanctum leaf aqueous extracts singly and in combination (O. sanctum + O. basilicum). The size, shape and elemental analysis of the nanoparticles was carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supported by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) identified the bio-capping agents. Antidiabetic carbohydrate metabolising enzymes, α-amylase (porcine) and Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase as models tested the in vitro inhibitory potential of the aqueous and ethanol plant extracts and the phyto-synthesised (Au-Ag) bimetallic and AgNps. In addition, the study investigated the antibacterial potential for the aqueous plant preparations and their respective phyto-synthesised bimetallic and AgNps against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to gentamycin and vancomycin. Results Bimetallic nanoparticles (synthesised from leaf and flower aqueous extracts) displayed inhibitory activity that showed uncompetitive inhibition (leaf extract), and non-competitive inhibition (flower extract) of α-amylase and competitive (leaf extract) and uncompetitive inhibition (flower extract) of α-glucosidase. Bimetallic nanoparticles were higher in inhibitory activity than acarbose and the crude O. basilicum ethanol and aqueous leaf and flower extracts. In the antibacterial analysis, bimetallic nanoparticles derived from O. basilicum leaf showed inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were greater in activity compared to the crude aqueous leaf extract from O. basilicum. The in vitro inhibitory effect of AgNps derived from O. sanctum and AgNps derived from O. basilicum on both enzymes was higher in activity than acarbose and their respective crude extracts. However, in combination (O. sanctum + O. basilicum), the derived AgNps appeared to be a less potent inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme and was lower than acarbose. AgNps synthesised from the combination of O. sanctum and O. basilicum showed the highest percentage inhibition against Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase, and AgNps derived from O. sanctum and AgNps derived from O. basilicum displayed competitive type of inhibition. In the antibacterial analysis, AgNps derived from the various extracts showed zones of inhibition against the Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial test strains. However, AgNps synthesised from the O. sanctum leaf extract showed higher inhibition against Escherichia coli than the positive control gentamycin and higher inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus compared to vancomycin. In addition, AgNps from O. sanctum leaf extract displayed inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella species, thus representing the highest antibacterial potential. Conclusion The results demonstrate the possibility of synthesis of stable silver and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ocimum sp. The synthesised silver nanoparticles and first time synthesis of bimetallic (Au-Ag) nanoparticles displayed enhanced antihyperglycaemic properties compared to their respective crude extracts and, therefore, show promising effects in lowering postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients with dual potential for antibacterial treatment. However, the antidiabetic and antibacterial effect will need to be further affirmed in a clinical context. Medicinal plants with therapeutic value may create a new platform for further research to explore the potential for herbal medicine and nanoscience as effective biomedical and industrial applications, and for improving existing drug delivery systems in diabetic patients. Investigations into the cytotoxicity of these extracts and phytosynthesised nanoparticles is recommended. / M
8

The possible mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists in controlling graft rejection

Cai, Qi, January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (M. Phil.)--University of Hong Kong, 2006. / Title proper from title frame. Also available in printed format.
9

Effect of glucose control on satiation, gut hormones and metabolic response to a meal in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Mourad, Carine J. January 2008 (has links)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often characterized with hyperglycemia, delayed gastric emptying time and a blunted response of gut hormones during feeding that may modulate hunger and satiety. We hypothesized that poor diabetes control is associated with greater hunger suppression, satiation and satiety than good control. We studied 9 T2DM men, after an overnight fast and in response to a 689 kcal mixed meal, twice with or without oral antihyperglycemic agents in a crossover design. Untreated, subjects had higher fasting and postprandial glucose, showed prolonged gastric emptying time and higher thermic effect of food; all factors associated with hunger suppression. Treated, glycemia decreased by 24% and postprandially GLP-1 and PYY3-36 , peptides associated with hunger suppression, were higher than without medication. Thus, no differences were observed in satiation scores between studies. However food intake from a buffet offered 5 hours post meal, an index of satiety, related to hunger scores only in the study with medication.
10

The effects of Momordica charantia and cinnamon extracts on glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells /

Roffey, Ben. January 2006 (has links)
To examine the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) and cinnamon on glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion (AS) fat cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with a water extract of cinnamon (CE) and three concentrations of MC water and ethanol extracts. The treatment combination of 0.2 mg/ml MC water extract and 0.5 nM insulin was associated with an increased glucose uptake into the cells (61%) and increased AS from the cells (75%). Without insulin, 0.2 mg/ml of CE increased glucose uptake (100%) and completely inhibited AS from the cells. Sub-optimal concentrations of insulin did not further enhance the CE activity and, in combination with 50 nM insulin, a dose-dependent decrease in glucose uptake was observed. The present results indicate that preferentially water-soluble component(s) in MC enhance the glucose uptake action of sub-optimal concentrations of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This effect is accompanied by and may be a result of increased AS. CE increases glucose uptake in these adipocytes but inhibits AS.

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