Gray, James N., Hillis, W. Daniel, Kahn, Robert E., Kennedy, Ken, Miller, John P., Nagel, David C., Shortliffe, Edward H., Smarr, Larry, Thompson, Joe F., Vadasz, Leslie, Viterbi, Andrew J., Wallach, Steven J.
In Transforming Health Care Through Information Technology the PITAC offers six key recommendations that could significantly expand access to health care, improve its quality, reduce its costs, and transform the conduct of biomedical research. The PITAC sees these recommendations as critical steps toward addressing the challenges that exist to improving Americans' health and health care: *Establish pilot projects and Enabling Technology Centers to extend the practical uses of information technology to health care systems and biomedical research; *NIH, in close collaboration with NSF, DARPA, and DOE, should design and deploy a scalable national computing and information infrastructure to support the biomedical research community; *Congress should enhance existing privacy rules by enacting legislation that assures sound practices for managing personally identifiable health information; Establish programs to increase the pool of biomedical research and health care professionals with training at the intersection of health and information technology; *DHHS should outline its vision for using IT to improve health care and subsequently devote the resources to conduct the IT research critical to accomplishing these goals in the long term; and *DHHS should appoint a senior information technology leader to provide strategic leadership across DHHS and focus on the importance of information technology in addressing pressing problems in health care
Information systems - informing systems. Keynote presentation given at 5th CONTECSI 2008, São Paulo, June 5 9.00-10.30Hjørland, Birger 05 1900 (has links)
This presentation considers some basic theoretical issues concerning information systems. Theoretical and conceptual issues are seen as important, although difficult, neglected and perhaps somewhat disappointing in the short run. An analysis of the concept "information" demonstrates that anything can be information. But if anything is information, what then is the content of information systems? What principles guide the selection of "information". If information is understood as something that informs somebody about something, it follows that information systems should be understood as informing systems. Information systems are teleological (goal directed) systems in which the intention and goals behind the systems determine what to consider information, how informative objects should be selected, labeled, described, organized and retrieved. (as opposed to "objective" or "universal" criteria governing these processes). Theory in relation to information systems spans several levels: 1) The theory of information science and information systems, 2) the theory of the contents in information systems ("information" or "knowledge", i.e. the theory of knowledge), 3) the nature of users (cognition) and 4) the theory of languages and symbolic systems used by cultures, communities and domains. Basically are the theories governing all layers influenced by epistemological views (often unconsciously). The epistemological theories are thus seen as fundamental for all levels. There are many theories of knowledge and the point is, of course, that it is important for information science and information systems research to be based on the most fruitful one. By implication it is important for us to defend a specific epistemology on which to base our work. My recommendation is "pragmatism" understood broadly and in contrast to other views such as empiricism, rationalism and positivism. Pragmatism is related to historicism but emphasizes the study of goals, values and consequences, which is important given the teleological nature of information systems. The pragmatic understanding of information systems, the knowledge represented in the information systems, the users and the languages is consequently outlined and implications for information systems design is proposed.
This chapter is from an invited presentation (15 pages long) given at the Aachen Colloquium on Click - A Split World, November 2004. It has appeared in the book [Gespaltene Welt? Technikzugange in der Wissensgesellschaft, edited by Max Kerner and Thomas Muller, and published by Bohlau Verlag, Koln, 2006] and is the author's final version. Introduction: I am asked to reflect on social and cultural consequences of technical development and try to answer a few questions: â ¢ In what different kind of ways access to knowledge is modified in an information technology-based society that is dominated by technical resources? â ¢ Does global exchange of information enable ubiquitous access to knowledge? â ¢ By which means do information technologies contribute to the solution or intensify global and local problems? â ¢ Which requirements arise from this problem for an IT-based society? I shall try to answer these questions from the point of view of a Third Worlder. Most other speakers at this colloquium are thinkers and experts known for their scholarship and academic achievements. I do not belong to the same league. I am not saying this out of humility; I am making a statement of fact. Then why am I here? Because I have felt the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the developing world and I have been working for many years to overcome the 1 deleterious consequences of ICTs in the context of the poor and the marginalized. I wish to share with you what I have learnt through working in the field. I am coming from India where we had a major election a few months ago. We are happy about the election for two reasons. One, contrary to what is happening in many parts of the developing world, democracy in India is vibrant and we have been holding free and fair elections consistently for more than 50 years. Two, despite outstanding achievements in the areas of high technology in general and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in particular, the ruling governments in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh belonging to two different parties have failed to return to power, largely because the rural poor voted against them. Thanks to rapid developments in indigenous capabilities combined with favorable policies by the governments in these two southern states of India, a number of IT industries and research laboratories â both Indian and multinational â sprung up, mainly in the capital cities Bangalore (referred to as the Silicon Valley of the East) and Hyderabad (half jocularly called Cyberabad). But these developments did not have a perceptible impact on the rural poor, who felt that they were neglected. What can information and communication technologies (ICTs) do to help the poor? Can they do anything at all? That is a question that dominates the development discourse. If poverty has been so persistent that we could not eliminate it with all our efforts till now, how can the use of ICTs make a difference? Poverty is much more than absence of money. Often generations in poverty lead people to a sense of utter hopelessness and deprive them of their sense of self-respect and dignity. They are deprived of access to essential assets and opportunities such as education, healthcare, employment, land and other natural resources, services, infrastructure and credit. They have little say in their polity and society. They are not empowered to participate in making the decisions that shape their lives. They become increasingly marginalized, excluded and vulnerable to exploitation. This exploitation manifests in several forms such as bonded labour, child labour, inadequate compensation for work if and when they get work, ill treatment and deprivation of basic rights. It will be naÃ¯ve to believe that we can solve the problem of poverty by providing access to computers and telecommunication to the poor of the world.1 We have always lived in an unequal world, but now the gap between information â havesâ and â have-notsâ is widening fast. As Kofi Annan2 has noted, â there is a real danger that the worldâ s poor will be excluded from the emerging knowledge-based 2 global economy.â Virtually every new technology tends to exacerbate the inequalities that separate the rich from the poor. The last few years have seen many initiatives that deploy ICTs in rural communities in many developing countries. Many world leaders have spoken in glorious terms about the tremendous potential of these new technologies in transforming the lives of the poor. â Technology doesnâ t come after you deal with poverty, but is a tool you use to alleviate poverty,â says James D Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank. Says Mark Malloch Brown, Head of UNDP, â ICTs can help us reach the Millennium Development Goals including the goal of halving poverty by 2015.â It is mastery over technology that enabled the early adopters of industrial revolution technologies to colonize and exploit the rest of the world. If the developing countries fail to take advantage of the new ICTs, the consequences could be far more serious. If we want technology to work for the poor we must make special efforts. In this talk I will describe from my own personal experience two widely different programmes where we are attempting to bridge the gulf that divides the rich from the poor through innovative use of information and communication technologies. In the first part of my talk we will look at how we at the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) are trying to harness ICTs as part of a holistic strategy for alleviating poverty in rural India. I will show why the emphasis should be on people and the public commons approach rather than on technology. In the second part, we will look at how the advent of new technologies has opened up the possibility for making knowledge distribution in science and scholarship a level-playing field. Here again the public commons approach is the key to success.
This report is part of a series of publications on the status and development of the North-American Information Systems (IS) field and Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI), its counterpart in German speaking countries. Information systems in businesses and organizations are the main subject of research in IS and WI. Hence, both disciplines are applied fields of research. Thus, the valuation of research results and graduates by business practice are vital indicators for the disciplinesâ status and success. Between 1991 and 2001 a plethora of articles were published in leading Information Systems (IS) journals and conference proceedings addressing the issue of relevance of IS research and teaching. This research report provides a comprehensive content analysis of this â relevance debateâ in the North-American Information Systems field. The perceptions, opinions, and recommendations of the contributors are presented structured according to statements of valuation, perception, explanation, and recommendation. The reconstruction of the main IS relevance debate indicates that all debate participants agree that relevance to practice plays a vital role for the IS discipline, but that the field largely lacks relevance in terms of research as well as in terms of teaching. The lack of relevance is, for example, illustrated by the general perception that research results rarely impact practice and that IT/IS professionals usually do not read academic IS journals. In order to analyse if the debate has lead to any changes in terms of practice relevance of the IS field the most recent literature and studies available on IS relevance are evaluated. Analysis results indicate that no significant changes took place. But various IS researchers still report on problems in terms of acceptance and perception of IS degree programs and research. Based on the perspectives of experienced researchers from WI and other European IS communities the concluding remarks of this report attempt to explain the apparent lack of change in the North-American IS field and provide suggestions for improving the current status of the IS field in terms of relevance.
Pursuing fit: a grounded theory of e-recruitment in Namibia – an integrated jobseeker and agency perspectiveAbia, Mike 22 December 2020 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to identify the main concern of jobseekers and recruitment agencies in electronic recruitment (e-recruitment) and determine how it was resolved. The country of Namibia was chosen for the study because many of its jobseekers and recruitment agencies are adopting e-recruitment to overcome challenges in their recruitment context. In order to meet the purpose of the study, Classic Grounded Theory Methodology (classic-GTM) was used. Through the application of classic-GTM it emerged that jobseekers' and recruitment agencies' perspectives on e-recruitment are varied and shifting, which together with the dynamics in information technology bring many possibilities and fluidity of stakeholders' behaviour. Therefore, jobseekers and recruitment agencies are mainly concerned about Fit or lack thereof between their conceptualizations of Objects of Concern (namely information technology, jobseekers, job providers (recruitment agencies and employers) and jobs) in such a dynamic environment. Pursuing Fit emerged as the core variable (core category) representing how the participants continuously resolved their main concern. Two sub-categories constituting Pursuing Fit are Interpreting Fit and Positioning for Fit and they explain how stakeholders interpret e-recruitment concepts and position themselves and other Objects of Concern based on interpretation. Recruitment is likely to take place when Objects of Concern relate in a desirable (fitting) manner. The study's contribution to knowledge is through the theory of Pursuing Fit that suggests a systematic way of understanding e-recruitment and of conceptualizing information technology in e-recruitment to increase chances of recruitment. Implications common for both jobseekers and recruitment agencies are context awareness and flexibility. Context awareness allows stakeholders to interpret Objects of Concern based on the context and flexibility makes it possible to change from a previously held position. The study can be used as the foundation for research involving multiple stakeholders in e-recruitment. In conclusion, e-recruitment is a process of meaning creation in which stakeholders interpret concepts and based on the meanings relate the concepts with each other.
The influence of stakeholder power, proximity and urgency on the selection and prioritization of projects within IT project portfolio managementChristoffels, Mervyn January 2010 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 118-122). / IT investments constitute a major portion of the capital budgets of many organizations. It can be challenging to select the right projects that fit the corporate strategy to maximize value for the organization. In the past, senior executives focused on projects that met three criteria, namely being on-time, on budget and in scope. However, a shift has occurred as a result of the fact that senior executives are more concerned about the right mix of projects that will best utilise the organization's resources and deliver long-range growth. Some of the benefits of IT Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) are to provide executives with the ability to monitor projects ensure business alignment and identify risks quickly. It is argued that maintaining a balanced portfolio of diverse projects can reduce the risk of an individual project and can produce a higher rate of return.
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 73-79). / The study was conducted with the agents in a contact centre environment in one of the leading insurance organisations in South Africa. The framework adopted was Theoretical Framework of User Satisfaction with a Web Interface which is adapted from Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory.It was found that there are several factors impacting agents' job performance and customer service, including systems performance, page loading capacity, complexity and speed of information seeking tasks, system-telephonic integration, system-emails integration, system-system integration, frequent changes of service delivery processes, and difficulties of combining products with systems training. It was found that the greatest impact of these factors was on average handling time (AHT) and 'not ready' time.
An investigation into the influence of information behaviour and use of ICT on the quality of life with people with disabilitiesGarbutt , Malcolm January 2014 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. / People with disabilities are frequently denied access to information and information technologies due to their impairments. Whereas physical impairment is a predominant, economic barriers are also a constraint for people with disabilities. The disability-poverty link hinders knowledge building resulting in a lack of information for everyday life leading to further economic poverty. Nevertheless, a paradox is observed whereby people with disabilities report a higher quality of life (QOL) than anticipated. This research explores the disability paradox by taking a hypothetico-deductive approach to investigate the influence of information behaviour on the quality of life of people with disabilities and the role that information and communication technology (ICT) contributes. Although the majority of participants had regular access to ICT no influence on quality of life was observed for technology. Likewise, information behaviour was not observed to influence quality of life. However, the type of information needed was associated with quality of life while associations were revealed between information behaviour, ICT, and type of information needed. Six primary type of information needs - Social Support; Independence; Finances and Employment; Attitude; Mobility; and Technology - were observed to exhibit a complex relationship with disability both influencing and being influenced by quality of life. An area of concern was identified in the observation of low demand for ethical information which is arguably one of the most needed areas both in ICT and for people with disabilities today. These findings are supported by literature which has failed to conclusively prove direct associations between ICT and QOL. Nonetheless, ICT access has been associated with information behaviour although verbal and media information sources are ranked highly. In this study, verbal communication was observed to be preferred for information sharing supporting findings that offline communication is a greater predictor of quality of life than online communication. Whilst respondents sought more information on technology they encounter barriers including economic limitations, inaccessibility of Internet content and technology, lack of training, fear of technology, and lack of knowledge of technology offerings. Furthermore, a negative perception of dependency on the technology was identified. This study supports prior observations that people with disabilities manifest higher quality of life than expected. While technology is not directly linked to improved quality of life it was shown to support factors that improve quality of life. For people with disabilities this includes assistive technologies and ICT for information gathering and sharing, however the very disability that the technology seeks to overcome may also be a barrier to its use.
Investigating recurring impediments to effective IT continuity management in a South African insurance firmVan Beulen, Ilse January 2010 (has links)
Includes abstract. / Includes bibliographical references. / The research was undertaken in Company X, one of South Africa’s leading financial services groups. Despite a strong Business Continuity ethos inherent in the Company, an analysis of several tests over two years highlighted the fact that they experienced recurring issues within the IT Continuity sphere. The study was borne out of the need to understand why the same issues were encountered year after year, what factors contributed to these issues, and what measures were required to mitigate these issues.
Growth in online communities has generated a new labour pool. Organisations are using Web 2.0 tools to tap into this online labour pool, with one approach being 'crowdsourcing'. People from different geographical destinations can now work for organisations that are thousands of kilometres from them. Organisations face a huge task of attracting a large crowd of workers that can actively contribute answers to their business problems. Knowing what motivates users and how to keep them actively participating over a long period of time is therefore crucial. This study explores how organisational, individual, technical and social factors affect users' motivation to participate in crowdsourcing projects. A single case study using a crowdsourcing company based in South Africa was used. The crowdsourcing company uses crowdsourcing for monitoring online activities on behalf of other companies for online conversations on social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, news articles, blog posts and listings on directory sources such as Gumtree or property listings. A qualitative study on thirteen participants was conducted through semi - structured Skype interviews. A conceptual model is presented based on the research findings. Besides re - establishing a number of factors which affect motivation to participate in crowdsourcing, the study established new emergent factors which had not been common in previous studies. The factors include authenticity of the whole crowdsourcing project, mentorship of new users by seasoned users, flexibility of technological tools in meeting users' expectations and feedback. Practical lessons drawn from the study could help crowdsourcing practitioners understand users' motivation to participate in crowdsourcing and how to ensure a conducive environment for crowd participation and hence quality output. Additionally the study could inform key considerations when implementing a crowdsourcing project in an organisation.
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