A METHODOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF ONTARIO WATERCOURSES WITH RESPECT TO THE PERMIT TO TAKE WATER PROGRAMWatt, Sean Patrick 23 October 2007 (has links)
The Ontario Water Resources Act requires a Permit To Take Water (PTTW) for withdrawals greater than 50,000 L/day. The permitting process includes a requirement to minimize the environmental effects of the withdrawal, but does not include a specific framework to do so. A methodology is proposed for estimating the water supply, the water demand, both anthropogenic and ecological, and the amount available for withdrawal. Water supply is estimated using statistical analysis of recorded daily flows in the watershed of interest, in adjacent watersheds, and in the region. Anthropogenic demand is given by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment’s PTTW database. Ecological demand is also estimated using statistical analysis of recorded daily flows, and through field measurement methods such as the Wetted Perimeter method. A case study of Millhaven Creek in eastern Ontario shows that the methodology is appropriate for this area and, with minor modifications, would apply to the rest of Ontario. Evaluation of the existing methods for water supply estimation showed that using long-term data for analysis is the best method, and that the regional analysis work completed for Ontario is out of data and needs revising. Estimation methods for ecological demand are not necessarily appropriate for all areas. A single instream flow requirement based on the Mean Annual Flow is not appropriate for Millhaven Creek, and even a set of flows based on Mean Monthly Flows needs modification to be acceptable for Millhaven Creek. Supply minus demand varies from month to month, and therefore the decision on whether to issue a permit depends on the season as well as the duration of the withdrawal (e.g. seasonal vs. continuous) and type of use proposed (e.g. golf course irrigation vs. municipal drinking water). / Thesis (Master, Civil Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2007-10-22 23:08:00.728
Dickerson, Kelli Denise McCloud,
Thesis (M.S.)--Missouri State University, 2008. / "May 2008." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 94-107). Also available online.
2012 August 1900
Humans impact rivers in many ways that modify ecological processes yielding ecosystem services. In order to mitigate anthropogenic impacts, scientists are challenged to understand interactions among physicochemical factors affecting large river food webs. An understanding of socioeconomic factors also is critical for ecosystem management. In this dissertation, I explore spatiotemporal patterns in floodplain river food webs and political barriers to management of environmental flows, an important factor influencing river ecology. In Chapter II, I reviewed the scientific literature to test conceptual models of river food webs and predictions of environmental factors that might produce variation in basal production sources supporting consumer biomass. My review indicates that algae are the predominant production source for large rivers worldwide, but consumers assimilate C3 plants in rivers 1) with high sediment loads and low transparency during high flow pulses, 2) with high dissolved organic matter concentrations, and 3) following periods of high discharge or leaf litter fall that increase the amount of terrestrial material in the particulate organic matter pool. In Chapter III, I descrobe field research conducted to examine relationships among hydrology, nutrient concentrations, turbidity, and algal primary production and biomass in the littoral zone of five rivers in Texas, Peru, and Venezuela differing in physicochemical conditions. I used stable isotope signatures to estimate contributions of algal-versus terrestrial-based production sources to consumers during different hydrologic periods. My research indicates that during flow pulses in floodplain rivers, a decrease in algal biomass and productivity, combined with increased inputs of terrestrial organic matter, can result in increased terrestrial support of metazoan consumers in the aquatic food web. In 2007, Texas Senate Bill 3 directed that environmental flow recommendations be developed for river basins. Despite emphasis on use of the "best available science" to develop environmental flow regimes and "stakeholder involvement" to address needs of all water users, for the first two basins to complete the SB3 process, final environmental flow rules did not mimic a natural flow regime. In Chapter IV, I reviewed this process, concluding that incentives for river authorities to increase compromise with diverse stakeholders should result in more sustainable management of freshwater.
Hoffman, Kinsey H.
26 October 2015
Increasing demand and competition for freshwater is threatening instream uses including ecosystem services and aquatic habitat. A standard method of evaluating impacts of alternative water management scenarios on instream habitat is Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). The primary outputs of IFIM studies are: 1) habitat rating curves that relate habitat availability to streamflow for every species, lifestage, or recreational use modelled; and 2) habitat time series under alternative water management scenarios. We compiled 428 habitat rating curves from previous IFIM studies across 11 rivers in Virginia and tested the ability to reduce this number based on similarities in flow preferences and responses to flow alteration. Individual site-species combinations were reduced from 428 objects to four groups with similar seasonal habitat availability patterns using a hierarchical, agglomerative cluster analysis. A seasonal habitat availability (SHA) ratio was proposed as a future indicator of seasonal flow preferences. Four parameters calculated from the magnitude and shape of habitat rating curves were proposed as response metrics that indicate how a lifestage responds to flow alteration. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and post-hoc tests identified significantly different means for the SHA ratio, QP (F=63.2, p<2e-16) and SK (F=65.6, p<2e-16). A reduced number of instream flow users can simplify the incorporation of aquatic habitat assessment in statewide water resources management. / Master of Science
Walden, Diana L
01 January 2008
(has links) (PDF)
Most northeastern river basins are stressed by the effects of development but the complexity of evaluating rivers often hinders the establishment of effective management regulations. Many methodologies have been proposed for assessing instream habitat, determining critical flow levels, and evaluating biological communities, but no one approach is universal. The overall objective of this thesis is to move towards standardizing components of river modeling. Rather than examine a full model, I investigated individual steps of MesoHABSIM, an instream habitat modeling approach. The two components studied involved applying the Reference Fish Community (RFC) method to identify a biological reference; and using depth and velocity data to standardize the description of hydraulic types. The RFC approach identifies the fish species and the expected proportions that should be present in a less impacted version of a river system. The Eightmile River watershed, was the focus of the study in which the RFC approach was employed to determine whether the fish community of this rural watershed, meets or exceeds a community developed using reference rivers. Similarity indices were used to identify differences between the existing (field-sampled) and expected communities. While the analysis of the Eightmile community indicates that it is in a better condition than the majority of rivers studied, it also shows some deviation from the reference, most likely due to elevated water temperatures and regional declines. The hydraulic type characterization study was developed to reduce the effort needed in depth and velocity measurement after this was identified as the most time consuming portion of the MesoHABSIM methodology. I used a series of pair-wise, independent-sample, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests on a large bank of depth and velocity data to determine if patterns could be confirmed for each type of hydromorphological unit (HMU) across various streamflows. Few of the data sets were statistically similar enough to be combined and the mapping effort could not be simplified based on this investigation. Neither investigation provided the intended reference for the particular component of river modeling, further emphasizing the complexity in this area of study. However, the information gathered can be used as pioneering steps in future investigations.
Habitat Suitability Criteria for Fishes of the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and an Investigation into Observer Effects Associated with Two Techniques of Direct Underwater ObservationRamey, Robert Clayton 29 April 2009 (has links)
This study constructed habitat suitability criteria for fishes of the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, in Virginia. The criteria will be used in an IFIM study to produce estimates of the discharge required by fishes in the South Fork. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate whether criteria described habitat use to a statistically significant degree. Secondly, chi-square tests were used to test transferability. The criteria described the habitat use of seven taxa commonly found in the South Fork to a statistically significant degree. Habitat criteria for two taxa did not describe their habitat use to a statistically significant degree. One set of criteria from the North Fork of the Shenandoah transferred to the fish observed in the South Fork. Secondly, this paper examined observer effects of underwater observation. It was of interest to explore how observer effects influenced habitat suitability criteria.
Vazão ecológica na bacia hidrográfica do rio Meia Ponte, Goiás / Instream flow in river basin Meia Ponte, GoiásBarbosa , Duane Izabel 26 July 2013 (has links)
Submitted by Luciana Ferreira (firstname.lastname@example.org) on 2014-10-23T11:12:23Z No. of bitstreams: 2 Dissertação - Duane Izabel Barbosa - 2013.pdf: 4083948 bytes, checksum: df6bdd5229474c30743d7d9816f0f843 (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Luciana Ferreira (email@example.com) on 2014-10-23T11:53:49Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 2 Dissertação - Duane Izabel Barbosa - 2013.pdf: 4083948 bytes, checksum: df6bdd5229474c30743d7d9816f0f843 (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2014-10-23T11:53:49Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 Dissertação - Duane Izabel Barbosa - 2013.pdf: 4083948 bytes, checksum: df6bdd5229474c30743d7d9816f0f843 (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-07-26 / Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq / The resulting conflicts between the protection of aquatic ecosystems and the increasing demand for water catchment rivers, intended for different uses, have become increasingly complex due to the growing recognition of these ecosystems as legitimate users of water resources. In this sense the instream flow has been used as a tool to guide one ecologically sustainable management, which aims to protect the ecological integrity of the ecosystem affected, while serving the needs. The aim of this study is to determine the instream flows for 06 points basin Meia Ponte River using the hydrologic methods Q7,10, Curve Permanence Flows, Tennant and hydraulic method Wetted Perimeter and also characterize the conditions of the schemes streamflow at the point of study method of Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. We used data from gauged stations of ANA (Agência Nacional das Águas). It is recommended the adoption of the IHA method (Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration ) to check, especially the behavior of the five components of flow considered ecologically relevant and together, apply, according to the specificities of each site and the financial resources available, another method that considers not only flows minimum to be maintained, but rather a series of measured flows that address the intra-and interannual variation characteristics of the hydrological regimes of each site. However, considering the impossibility of applying methods that contemplate instream flows or hydrograph ecological variables, it is recommended that, among the methods used in this study, the adoption of Q90 flow as instream flow for the points to be studied by this less restrictive that the flow rates obtained with other methods and therefore be able to address a wider range of ecological factors that maintain, wherever possible, the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. / Os conflitos gerados entre a proteção dos ecossistemas aquáticos e a crescente demanda para a captação de água nos rios, destinada à diferentes usos, têm se tornado cada vez mais complexos devido ao crescente reconhecimento destes ecossistemas como legítimos usuários dos recursos hídricos. Neste sentido, a vazão ecológica tem sido utilizada como ferramenta para nortear um gerenciamento ecologicamente sustentável, o qual visa proteger a integridade ecológica do ecossistema afetado, ao mesmo tempo em que atende as necessidades. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi determinar as vazões ecológicas para 06 pontos da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Meia Ponte utilizando os métodos hidrológicos Q7,10, Curva de Permanência de Vazões, Tennant e o método hidráulico do Perímetro Molhado e, também, caracterizar as condições dos regimes de vazões nos pontos de estudo pelo método dos Indicadores de Alteração Hidrológica. Foram utilizados os dados das estações fluviométricas da ANA (Agência Nacional das Águas). Recomenda-se a adoção do método IHA (Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration) para verificar, principalmente, o comportamento dos cinco componentes de vazão considerados ecologicamente relevantes e, juntamente, aplicar, de acordo com as especificidades de cada local e os recursos financeiros disponíveis, outro método que não considere somente vazões mínimas a serem mantidas, mas sim uma série de valores de vazões que contemplem as variações intra e interanuais características dos regimes hidrológicos de cada local. Porém, considerando-se a impossibilidade da aplicação de métodos que contemplem vazões ecológicas variáveis ou hidrogramas ecológicos, recomenda-se, entre os métodos utilizados no presente estudo, a adoção da vazão Q90 como vazão ecológica para os pontos estudados por ser esta menos restritiva que as vazões obtidas com demais métodos e, por isso, ser capaz de contemplar uma gama maior de fatores ecológicos que manterão, na medida do possível, a integridade dos ecossistemas aquáticos.
Developing Habitat Suitability Criteria for Individual Species and Habitat Guilds in the Shenandoah River BasinPersinger, Jason William 09 April 2003 (has links)
The diversity of fish species found in warmwater stream systems provides a perplexing challenge when selecting species for Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) studies. An often-suggested approach has been to use habitat guilds to incorporate the diversity found in these systems. My goal is to determine the feasibility of developing habitat suitability criteria (HSC) for the entire fish assemblage in the North and South Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia, using habitat guilds. I examined the strengths and weaknesses of direct underwater observation via snorkeling and throwable anode electrofishing to sample fish habitat use (e.g., depth, velocity, distance to cover, dominant and subdominant substrate, cover, and embeddedness) indicates that using the data collected from both techniques may produce better criteria than using just one of the two sampling techniques. To develop habitat suitability criteria using habitat guilds I placed each species a priori into a guild based on a hypothesized guild structure. Transitional life stages with significantly different habitat use were placed separately into the guild structure. The four guilds (riffle, fast generalist, pool-run, and pool-cover) were found to be significantly different from each other using the data collected for the species assigned to the guilds. Criteria were then developed for representative species from each guild and the entire guilds. Criteria developed for depth, velocity, Froude number, cover, distance to cover, substrate, and embeddedness were used to estimate a habitat response function (i.e., the relations between usable habitat and stream flow) for a representative species from each guild, the guild itself, and for a second species from each guild for comparisons. Both the representative species and guild criteria showed similar habitat response functions for the riffle guild, fast generalist guild, and pool-run guild. However, neither set of criteria performed well for the pool-cover guild. For guilds, other than pool-cover, either the guild or the representative species approach may be a viable option to developing habitat suitability criteria. The transferability tests were performed to determine if criteria developed in the North Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia would transfer to the South Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia. Only criteria for the margined madtom (Noturus insignis) and the juvenile smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) transferred for both suitable and optimal habitat. Criteria for mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), Cyprinella sp. (spotfin and satinfin shiners), river chub (Nocomis micropogon), adult and juvenile redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), and adult smallmouth bass did not transfer. Only the pool-cover guild criteria transferred for both suitable and optimal habitat, while riffle guild, fast generalist guild, and pool-run guild criteria did not transfer. I recommend the use of site-specific criteria for the South Fork Shenandoah or different variable combinations. / Master of Science
Chan, Matthew D.
25 May 2001
This research tested the ability of fish morphology to predict membership of fishes in habitat guilds, their swimming performance, and habitat preference. Further, it considered methods for choosing a surrogate species to identify habitat of target species. Morphological discriminant functions were developed using morphological traits of fishes from one river to identify membership in two habitat guild systems (mesohabitat and microhabitat). Functions were then used to test factors influencing classification success of holdout tests and validated using fishes of a second river. Morphology was only partly successful (50%) at predicting membership in habitat guilds. Morphology identified species by shape, i.e., classifying test species into guilds with members of their genus, but not habitat use, because morphology and habitat were not strongly linked through function. By improving guild definition, relationships between morphology and habitat (Froude number) were identified for all fish groups examined (darters, benthic minnows, pelagic minnows, and suckers). Relationships were not transferable among groups. Further, morphology of eight minnows was linked to swimming performance, a key task for using habitat, in lab measurements of critical swimming speeds. In turn, swimming performance was related to habitat (Froude number). Morphology will be most successful at predicting habitat use of fishes when (1) more, discrete guilds are used, (2) guilds are identified within families, (3) variation in lifestyles (benthic vs. pelagic) is considered, and (4) key tasks related to using habitat are strongly associated with morphology. Finally, I examined a phylogenetic approach to identifying useable habitat. Closely related surrogate species were not more accurate in identifying habitat of target species than surrogates chosen by other methods. When a target species used only one mesohabitat, the highest overlap in habitat use occurred with other fishes of the same family using that mesohabitat (within a physiographic province). For target species using several mesohabitat types, surrogates from the next highest taxonomic unit, e.g., genus or subgenus, provided the most accurate information. Ecomorphology offers a mechanistic and defensible method for identifying habitat preferences of fishes and should be more widely considered as a tool for establishing habitat relationships of stream fishes. / Ph. D.
Análise de critérios para definição da vazão remanescente em usinas hidrelétricas. / Analysis of criteria to the remaining flows definition in hydroelectric plants.Luciana de Deus Melo 01 April 2011 (has links)
Tem crescido a demanda por energia em todo o mundo. No Brasil, com o aquecimento da economia aumentam ainda mais as pressões. O parque gerador Brasileiro é fortemente baseado na geração hidrelétrica, que representa aproximadamente 77,6% da oferta de geração de eletricidade. Entre os impactos ambientais gerados pela construção de barragens e reservatórios de aproveitamentos hidrelétricos está a mudança do regime fluvial de jusante, a chamada vazão remanescente. Entre outros, esta vazão deve garantir as condições adequadas à sobrevivência e continuação das espécies e dos ecossistemas, associando as necessidades humanas, ambientais e as características de cada região. Tomou-se como objeto de análise dois estudos de caso, a pequena central hidrelétrica (PCH) Santa Gabriela, localizada no rio Correntes, na divisa entre os estados de Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul e a usina hidrelétrica (UHE) Batalha, situada no rio São Marcos, na divisa entre os estados de Minas Gerais e Goiás. Embora o assunto seja discutido amplamente pela comunidade técnica e acadêmica, não há ainda nos marcos legais Brasileiros associados, uma definição explícita de critérios ou limites para estabelecimento da vazão remanescente. Em geral, as legislações estaduais estabelecem valores máximos outorgáveis determinados a partir de percentuais da curva de permanência (Q90, Q95) ou da vazão mínima anual de sete dias de duração e tempo de recorrência de 10 anos Q7,10, garantindo consequentemente as vazões mínimas remanescentes. Essas metodologias implicam num único valor fixo para a vazão ao longo do ano, o que não condiz com a realidade do regime hidrológico natural. Estudos atuais apontam para um hidrograma ecológico, que represente a variação das vazões entre os meses de estiagem e cheia. Assim, a metodologia envolveu a comparação entre critérios de outorga utilizados em alguns estados Q90, Q95 e Q7,10 e métodos citados na literatura para estudo da vazão ecológica (Tennant, Texas, Vazão Base e Perímetro Molhado) e as Resoluções referentes à Declaração de Reserva de Disponibilidade Hídrica (DRDH) das usinas, que especificam a vazão remanescente nas fases de enchimento e operação, emitidas pela Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA). Observaram-se valores de vazões substancialmente diferenciados entre os seis métodos empregados. Cabe destacar, que representa um avanço a publicação do Manual de Estudos de Disponibilidade Hídrica para Aproveitamentos Hidrelétricos (ANA, 2009), que visa à padronização dos documentos para fins obtenção da DRDH e da outorga do uso do potencial de energia hidráulica em corpo de água de domínio da União. Assim, o empreendedor poderá propor e negociar a demanda hídrica para as necessidades ambientais com as autoridades competentes, o que deverá ser discutido em reunião técnica inicial que deverá contar com a participação da Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (ANEEL), ANA, órgão ambiental, empreendedor e a empresa responsável pelos estudos ambientais. / Worldwide, the demand for energy has been increasing. In Brazil, with the economy warming up in the last years, the demand for energy supply further increased. The Brazilian power generating facilities are heavily based on hydroelectric generation, which represents 77,6% of the total generated electricity. Among the environmental impacts caused by the construction of dams and reservoirs are the changes on downstream discharges, known as the remaining discharge. This discharge should ensure the appropriate conditions to the survival and perpetuation of ecosystems, linking human and wild life needs of each region. In this respect, two case studies are taken as object of analysis: (1) a small hydroelectric power plant Santa Gabriela, located in Correntes river, in the limits of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul States; (2) the hydropower plant Batalha, in São Marcos river, in the limits of Minas Gerais and Goiás States. Although its been observed that this issue is widely discussed by technical and academic communities, no legal framework or an explicit definition, or criteria, or limit values has been identified for the establishment of the remaining discharge in hydroelectric power plant projects. Generally, values have been defined based on criteria adopted in states water use rights acts that define minimum discharge parameters based on time series frequency analysis such as Q90%, Q95% or Q7, 10. These methodologies imply on a single value discharge throughout the year, which does not reflect the variability of natural hydrological regime. Current studies lead to an, so called, ecological hydrogram, which would represent discharges variability during drought and flood periods. The methodology of analysis in which the discussion presented in this master dissertation was based, involved the comparison of values obtained by different water use rights criteria adopted in some states like Q90%, Q95% and Q7, 10 and, methods quoted in the literature to define the ecological discharge (Tennant, Texas, Base Flow and Wetted Perimeter), as well as National Water Agencys (ANA) declarations related to the Water Availability Reserve Statement (WARS) which specifies remaining dischargesflow for the reservoir filling and operating phases. It was observed that the application of the different methods in the two case studies resulted in significantly different values for the definition of the remaining discharge. However, its worth to note that the publication of the Guidelines for Water Availability Study for Hydroelectric Power Plants (ANA, 2009) that aims the standardization of documents to obtain WARS and granting the use of water for energy generation purposes in federal jurisdiction represents an advance in these matters. By that, the developer may propose and negotiate water demands for wild life needs with the involved authorities, which should be discussed in the initial technical meeting that will count on the National Electrical Energy Agency (ANEEL), ANA, the related environmental agency, the developer and the organization/agency responsible for the environmental studies.
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