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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
101

A comparison of the effects of reading interventions on the word identification and oral reading fluency of 5th grade students with learning disabilities

Kim, Min Kyung, active 21st century 18 September 2014 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of teacher-directed instruction (i.e., teacher-directed instruction without using an iPad, TDI) and iPad-assisted instruction (IAI) on the word identification and oral reading fluency of elementary school students with reading learning disabilities (RLD), who have reading goals on their individual education plans (IEPs). Four 5th grade students with RLD participated in the study. An alternating treatments design combined with a multiple baseline design across the participants was applied. Visual analysis indicated that a moderate experimental effect from TDI and IAI on word identification and oral reading fluency was present for all four students when the baseline and intervention phases were compared. Specifically, regarding word identification, the percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) and non-overlap of all pairs (NAP) indicated that TDI and IAI are effective reading instructional procedures according to single-case research design standards. The finding was also supported by a Tau-U analysis that suggests both TDI and IAI demonstrated a large effect on improving word identification. Regarding oral reading fluency, however, the results were mixed; Tau-U indicates there was a large and significant effect from TDI and IAI for three of the four students in terms of increasing their oral reading fluency. Although data analysis indicates that TDI and IAI demonstrate moderate evidence in improving word identification and oral reading fluency, there was no clear differentiation found between the two treatments. A social validity questionnaire that examined student perspectives about intervention showed the students' positive views on their intervention experience and revealed their perspectives that intervention was helpful in building their reading skills. The second social validity questionnaire that asked the students about their reading perspectives indicated that the intervention increased their positive attitudes toward their reading (e.g., reading is a source of excitement and interest, reading is fun). / text
102

ADVANCE ORGANIZERS AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY FOR BILINGUAL LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS (READING COMPREHENSION).

LASKY, BETH ANNE. January 1986 (has links)
This study investigated the effects of advance organizers on the English reading comprehension of six bilingual learning disabled students. Little research has examined instructional strategies for teaching bilingual learning disabled students, a growing population in our schools. Based on research dealing with the use of advance organizers as an instructional strategy and on research in bilingual education, this study compared the effectiveness of using advance organizers on the English reading comprehension of six learning disabled students whose primary language was Spanish. An alternating treatment design was maintained. Following each treatment, the students read an expository text written in English and answered eight comprehension questions based on five levels of reading taxonomy. The number of correctly answered comprehension questions was recorded on graphs and statistically analyzed to compare the treatment conditions. In addition, the average proportion of correct responses for different levels of questions was computed and analyzed. Analyses of the data suggest that advance organizers were effective particularly when presented in the dominant language of the student. The five students who demonstrated equal or greater language proficiency in English scored higher when the English advance organizer was compared to the Spanish advance organizer. The student who demonstrated greater language proficiency in Spanish scored higher on the Spanish advance organizer. All students scored higher when the English advance organizer was used in comparison to no advance organizer. Three of the students scored higher on reading comprehension when the advance organizer was presented in Spanish as compared to no advance organizer. Students performed highest on questions at the appreciation and evaluation levels of the reading taxonomy. This study supports the body of research which suggests advance organizers are an effective instructional strategy and suggests their effectiveness with bilingual learning disabled students. This study also highlights the importance of considering students' dominant language, particularly their cognitive/academic/language proficiency, when determining the language for presentation of the advance organizer. Further research needs to systematically investigate the interrelationship between advance organizers and students' dominant language when attempting to facilitate English reading comprehension.
103

THE EFFECT OF SITUATIONAL CONTEXT ON THE READING STRATEGIES OF LEARNING DISABLED AND AVERAGE ACHIEVING STUDENTS.

FILIP, DOROTHY. January 1982 (has links)
An emerging theory of learning disabilities characterized learning disabled students as inactive learners who do not spontaneously employ task-appropriate cognitive strategies. This study addressed the range of tasks to which this characterization applies. It compared learning disabled and average achieving students' spontaneous activation of differential reading strategies as evoked by the situational context of reading tasks. Subjects were 20 learning disabled and 20 average achieving seventh graders. Groups were controlled for age and non-verbal intelligence. Learning disabled students had been diagnosed as such and exhibited serious reading difficulties. Within two experimentally induced situational contexts, students read and retold short, narrative passages which contained interpropositional consistencies. Within a storytelling context, designed to maximize interaction between text and background knowledge, subjects were instructed to think about the appropriateness of the passage for young children and imagine a first-grade audience while accurately retelling the passage. Within a memory context, designed to maximize differentiation of text from background knowledge, the same subjects were to read and retell another story for the sole purpose of maintaining accuracy. Stories were counterbalanced across contexts. Retellings were categorized as either evidencing distortions which resolved text inconsistencies or as accurately maintaining the inconsistencies of the original text. Nonparametric tests were used for data analysis. Results indicated that both groups shifted retell strategy in response to situational context, with no significant differences between groups. Within the storytelling context, retellings tended to resolve passage inconsistencies. Within the memory context, retellings were generally accurate in their maintenance of inconsistencies. The memory context also fostered increased accuracy for both groups on a sentence recognition task. Responses to comprehension monitoring questions suggested on relationship between retell strategy and students' expressed awareness of text inconsistency. Findings indicate that both learning disabled and average students respond to situational contexts of reading tasks. They can activate increased interaction between text and background knowledge or increased differentiation of text from background knowledge. It was concluded that the characterization of learning disabled students as cognitively inactive does not apply to the spontaneous activation of differential reading strategies evoked by the situational context of the reading act.
104

Effects Of Two Fluency Methods On The Reading Performance Of Secondary Students

Dudley, Anne Minot January 2005 (has links)
One predominant hallmark of older struggling readers is their failure to gain reading fluency on instructional and grade-level texts. Students who fail to achieve reading fluency experience multiple negative consequences that affect their academic and social growth, options, and success. Although considerable amounts of research on reading fluency interventions have been conducted with younger developing and struggling readers, little is known about the effects of such interventions on the reading skills of high school students. A single subject across participants design was employed to measure the effectiveness of two, easy-to-implement, reading fluency interventions on the reading fluency and comprehension of 18 high school students with learning disabilities (LD) who read between the first- and sixth-grade levels. A two-way ANOVA was also used to determine the impact of two interventions and initial reading level on the reading fluency and comprehension as measured by the Gray Oral Reading Test -4, the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency. Results suggested that participants whose initial reading skills fell between the first- and third-grade levels made fewer gains in reading fluency and comprehension of connected text during intervention than participants who entered intervention reading between the fourth- through sixth-grade levels. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
105

STUDENTS’ BELIEFS ABOUT LEARNING AND INTELLIGENCE: AN EXAMINATION OF ACADEMIC STREAM, GENDER, LD STATUS, AND ACHIEVEMENT

Matheson, IAN 15 August 2013 (has links)
In the present study, the researcher examined the motivational variables of students within the Ontario Secondary School system, where groups based on course stream, LD status, gender, and achievement level were compared. This research was partially exploratory, where the researcher aimed to validate existing research on gender, LD status, and achievement, as well as to examine how motivational variables relate to course stream. Past research has shown that endorsing an entity theory of intelligence, having a preference for performance goals, attributing success to ability rather than effort, and having low confidence in one’s ability to self-regulate are all associated with lower achievement, and with the presence of a learning disability (e.g., Baird, Scott, Dearing & Hamill, 2009). A total of 243 secondary school students (127 male, 116 female) from one rural school in Ontario participated in this study. The participants completed a 28-item questionnaire made up of several subscales, including the Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (Dweck, 1999), the Learning vs. Performance Goal Preference Scale (Dweck, 1999), the Effort Attribution Scale (Dweck & Leggett, 1988), and the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning Scale (Zimmerman et al., 1992). Regarding stream, an independent t-test revealed that students in the university English course had significantly more confidence in their ability to self-regulate than their peers in the college English course. A MANOVA revealed that individuals who had received a mid-term English grade of A (80-100%), regardless of stream, had significantly more confidence their ability to self-regulate than students who received lower grades. Finally, an independent t-test revealed that participants with a learning disability were more concerned with their personal growth than their performance when compared to participants without a learning disability. No differences in motivational variables were found between males and females. These findings suggest that educators and parents should place more emphasis on helping students to develop confidence in their self-regulatory abilities, as this appears to be an important variable in students’ achievement, as well as related to the academic stream in which they are enrolled. / Thesis (Master, Education) -- Queen's University, 2013-08-12 09:01:56.34
106

Mothers with learning disabilities' experience of relationships with their parents, partners and friends : an IPA study

Scully, Tamara January 2009 (has links)
Many mothers with learning disabilities experience social isolation (McGaw, 1998; Booth & Booth, 1996) despite current research clearly delineating the importance of supportive relationships for mothers with learning disabilities. The aim of this research was to investigate the experience of three types of relationships from the mother’s perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five mothers with learning disabilities about their experience of three types of supportive relationships, with their parents, their partners and their friends. The transcripts were analysed individually using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Super-ordinate themes were identified for each topic area. These were, for parent relationships, the importance of support, and vulnerability; for partner relationships, significance of support, and ambivalence about independence; for friendships, friendships can be dangerous, benefits of friendship. The results were related to existing theoretical frameworks, clinical implications were identified and recommendations for future research were made.
107

The experiences of primary caregivers of people with learning disabilities who have committed an offence : a narrative study

Leah Rebecca, Hull January 2011 (has links)
Background and aims: The experiences of primary caregivers of adults with learning disabilities who have committed an offence is a largely neglected area within current literature. However, primary caregivers have an integral role in the provision of care of adults with learning disabilities and this has implications for service provision and rehabilitation. Our understanding of both learning disability and offending behaviour is affected by societal, cultural and political narratives and these have impact on a primary caregivers meaning making. Having identified a gap in our current understanding, this study aims to develop an understanding as to the storied experience of primary caregivers in order to inform clinical practise and raise awareness of the challenges faced. Methodology: A qualitative approach was selected for this research. A purposive sample of five primary caregivers (three females and two males) was recruited through two NHS services and one community based contact. Field interviews were conducted with each participant, audio-recorded and transcribed. Narrative analysis was used to analyse the transcripts, focusing upon the content of information shared, the way in which the narratives were performed and the contextual factors which may influence story co-construction. Analysis and findings: The narratives shared by participants are presented on a group level. Results are divided into two areas. Firstly the primary caregivers stories are presented chronologically in order to orientate the reader to the context in which primary caregivers were operating. The stories refer to ‘life before the offence’, ‘the offence’, ‘life since the offence’ and ‘future stories’. Secondly attention is given to the underlying emotional content of the storied experience, with four predominant emotions identified; Frustration, Anger, Grief and Fear. This gives an emotional underpinning through which we can interpret the emerging plots and subplots, with consideration of the similarities and differences within these. Four plots were identified: ‘Understanding’, ‘Proximity to offspring’, ‘Relationship with self and others’ and ‘Commitment to care giving role’. These narratives highlight both the temporal nature of the caregiving role and how it may be affected by service responses to the individual with learning disabilities and their families. The findings are considered in regards to their clinical relevance and implications for service provision. The strengths and limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are presented along with personal reflections.
108

How do adults with mild learning disabilities experience bereavement and grief? : a qualitative exploration

McRitchie, Robyn January 2012 (has links)
Background: The vast majority of research into the experiences of people with learning disabilities (LD) in regard to bereavement and grief involves the collection of data from second-hand sources, or via quantitative measures. This qualitative study aimed to explore the lived experiences of bereavement and grief in a group of adults with mild LD. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 adults (aged 20-72 years) with mild LD who had experienced bereavement within the last 3 years. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results: Qualitative analysis highlighted 4 themes which mediated individuals’ experience of bereavement and grief: (1) Intra- and inter-personal experiences, (2) Core beliefs about life and death, (3) Level of inclusion, and (4) Continuing relationship with the deceased. Participants also showed an ability to evaluate their lived experience in terms of having been helpful or otherwise. Conclusions: Overall, the findings suggest that individuals with mild LD experience bereavement and grief in a manner much like the general population, in that they experience a wide range of oscillating emotions, are subject to the same (if not more) losses, and hold similar values when it comes to maintaining their relationship with the deceased. The study endorses the role of clear and open communication, the facilitation of informed choice, and a culture of inclusion.
109

Die invloed van overte en koverte gedragsverandering op kognitiewe impulsiwiteit by kinders met spesifieke leergestremdhede

17 November 2014 (has links)
M.A. (Clinical Psychology) / Please refer to full text to view abstract
110

Music as a therapeutic resource for learning disabled children

Sandbank, Graciela 09 September 2015 (has links)
A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Eduction University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education. Johannesburg November 1983

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