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1 
Embedded Local Search Approaches for Routing Optimisation.Cowling, Peter I., Keuthen, R. January 2005 (has links)
No / This paper presents a new class of heuristics which embed an exact algorithm within the framework of a local search heuristic. This approach was inspired by related heuristics which we developed for a practical problem arising in electronics manufacture. The basic idea of this heuristic is to break the original problem into small subproblems having similar properties to the original problem. These subproblems are then solved using time intensive heuristic approaches or exact algorithms and the solution is reembedded into the original problem. The electronics manufacturing problem where we originally used the embedded local search approach, contains the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) as a major subproblem. In this paper we further develop our embedded search heuristic, HyperOpt, and investigate its performance for the TSP in comparison to other local search based approaches. We introduce an interesting hybrid of HyperOpt and 3opt for asymmetric TSPs which proves more efficient than HyperOpt or 3opt alone. Since pure local search seldom yields solutions of high quality we also investigate the performance of the approaches in an iterated local search framework. We examine iterated approaches of LargeStep Markov Chain and Variable Neighbourhood Search type and investigate their performance when used in combination with HyperOpt. We report extensive computational results to investigate the performance of our heuristic approaches for asymmetric and Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problems. While for the symmetric TSP our approaches yield solutions of comparable quality to 2opt heuristic, the hybrid methods proposed for asymmetric problems seem capable of compensating for the time intensive embedded heuristic by finding tours of better average quality than iterated 3opt in many less iterations and providing the best heuristic solutions known, for some instance classes.

2 
Integrated Process Planning and Scheduling for a Complex Job Shop Using a Proxy Based Local SearchHenry, Andrew Joseph 10 December 2015 (has links)
Within manufacturing systems, process planning and scheduling are two interrelated problems that are often treated independently. Process planning involves deciding which operations are required to produce a finished product and which resources will perform each operation. Scheduling involves deciding the sequence that operations should be processed by each resource, where process planning decisions are known a priori. Integrating process planning and scheduling offers significant opportunities to reduce bottlenecks and improve plant performance, particularly for complex job shops.
This research is motivated by the coating and laminating (CandL) system of a film manufacturing facility, where more than 1,000 product types are regularly produced monthly. The CandL system can be described as a complex job shop with sequence dependent setups, operation reentry, minimum and maximum wait time constraints, and a due date performance measure. In addition to the complex scheduling environment, products produced in the CandL system have multiple feasible process plans. The CandL system experiences significant issues with schedule generation and due date performance. Thus, an integrated process planning and scheduling approach is needed to address large scale industry problems.
In this research, a novel proxy measure based local search (PBLS) approach is proposed to address the integrated process planning and scheduling for a complex job shop. PBLS uses a proxy measure in conjunction with local search procedures to adjust process planning decisions with the goal of reducing total tardiness. A new dispatching heuristic, OUMW, is developed to generate feasible schedules for complex job shop scheduling problems with maximum wait time constraints. A regression based proxy approach, PBLSR, and a neural network based proxy approach, PBLSNN, are investigated. In each case, descriptive statistics about the active process plan set are used as independent variables in the model. The resulting proxy measure is used to evaluate the effect of process planning local search moves on the objective function sum of total tardiness. Using the proxy measure to guide a local search reduces the number of times a detailed schedule is generated reducing overall runtime.
In summary, the proxy measure based local search approach involves the following stages:
• Generate a set of feasible schedules for a set of jobs in a complex job shop.
• Evaluate the parameters and results of the schedules to establish a proxy measure that will estimate the effect of process planning decisions on objective function performance.
• Apply local search methods to improve upon feasible schedules.
Both PBLSR and PBLSNN are integrated process planning and scheduling heuristics capable of addressing the challenges of the CandL problem. Both approaches show significant improvement in objective function performance when compared to local search guided by random walk. Finally, an optimal solution approach is applied to small data sets and the results are compared to those of PBLSR and PBLSNN. Although the proxy based local search approaches investigated do not guarantee optimality, they provide a significant improvement in computational time when compared to an optimal solution approach. The results suggest proxy based local search is an appealing approach for integrated process planning and scheduling in complex job shop environment where optimal solution approaches are not viable due to processing time. / Ph. D.

3 
The Search for a Cost Matrix to Solve RareClass Biological ProblemsLawson, Mark Jon 10 December 2009 (has links)
The rareclass data classification problem is a common one. It occurs when, in a dataset, the class of interest is far outweighed by other classes, thus making it difficult to classify using typical classification algorithms. These types of problems are found quite often in biological datasets, where data can be sparse and the class of interest has few representatives. A variety of solutions to this problem exist with varying degrees of success.
In this paper, we present our solution to the rareclass problem. This solution uses MetaCost, a costsensitive metaclassifier, that takes in a classification algorithm, training data, and a cost matrix. This cost matrix adjusts the learning of the classification algorithm to classify more of the rareclass data but is generally unknown for a given dataset and classifier.
Our method uses three different types of optimization techniques (greedy, simulated annealing, genetic algorithm) to determine this optimal cost matrix. In this paper we will show how this method can improve upon classification in a large amount of datasets, achieving better results along a variety of metrics. We will show how it can improve on different classification algorithms and do so better and more consistently than other rareclass learning techniques like oversampling and undersampling. Overall our method is a robust and effective solution to the rareclass problem. / Ph. D.

4 
Ant Colony Optimization and Local Search for the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem: A Case Study in Stochastic Combinatorial OptimizationBianchi, Leonora 29 June 2006 (has links)
In this thesis we focus on Stochastic combinatorial Optimization Problems (SCOPs), a wide class of combinatorial optimization problems under uncertainty, where part of the information about the problem data is unknown at the planning stage, but some knowledge about its probability distribution is assumed.
Optimization problems under uncertainty are complex and difficult, and often classical algorithmic approaches based on mathematical and dynamic programming are able to solve only very small problem instances. For this reason, in recent years metaheuristic algorithms such as Ant Colony Optimization, Evolutionary Computation, Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search and others, are emerging as successful alternatives to classical approaches.
In this thesis, metaheuristics that have been applied so far to SCOPs are introduced and the related literature is thoroughly reviewed. In particular, two properties of metaheuristics emerge from the survey: they are a valid alternative to exact classical methods for addressing realsized SCOPs, and they are flexible, since they can be quite easily adapted to solve different SCOPs formulations, both static and dynamic. On the base of the current literature, we identify the following as the key open issues in solving SCOPs via metaheuristics:
(1) the design and integration of ad hoc, fast and effective objective function approximations inside the optimization algorithm;
(2) the estimation of the objective function by sampling when no closedform expression for the objective function is available, and the study of methods to reduce the time complexity and noise inherent to this type of estimation;
(3) the characterization of the efficiency of metaheuristic variants with respect to different levels of stochasticity in the problem instances.
We investigate the above issues by focusing in particular on a SCOP belonging to the class of vehicle routing problems: the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). For the PTSP, we consider the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic and we design efficient local search algorithms that can enhance its performance. We obtain stateoftheart algorithms, but we show that they are effective only for instances above a certain level of stochasticity, otherwise it is more convenient to solve the problem as if it were deterministic.
The algorithmic variants based on an estimation of the objective function by sampling obtain worse results, but qualitatively have the same behavior of the algorithms based on the exact objective function, with respect to the level of stochasticity. Moreover, we show that the performance of algorithmic variants based on ad hoc approximations is strongly correlated with the absolute error of the approximation, and that the effect on local search of ad hoc approximations can be very degrading.
Finally, we briefly address another SCOP belonging to the class of vehicle routing problems: the Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (VRPSD). For this problem, we have implemented and tested several metaheuristics, and we have studied the impact of integrating in them different ad hoc approximations.

5 
Oblivious and Nonoblivious Local Search for Combinatorial OptimizationWard, Justin 07 January 2013 (has links)
Standard local search algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems repeatedly apply small changes to a current solution to improve the problem's given objective function. In contrast, nonoblivious local search algorithms are guided by an auxiliary potential function, which is distinct from the problem's objective. In this thesis, we compare the standard and nonoblivious approaches for a variety of problems, and derive new, improved nonoblivious local search algorithms for several problems in the area of constrained linear and monotone submodular maximization.
First, we give a new, randomized approximation algorithm for maximizing a monotone submodular function subject to a matroid constraint. Our algorithm's approximation ratio matches both the known hardness of approximation bounds for the problem and the performance of the recent ``continuous greedy'' algorithm. Unlike the continuous greedy algorithm, our algorithm is straightforward and combinatorial. In the case that the monotone submodular function is a coverage function, we can obtain a further simplified, deterministic algorithm with improved running time.
Moving beyond the case of single matroid constraints, we then consider general classes of set systems that capture problems that can be approximated well. While previous such classes have focused primarily on greedy algorithms, we give a new class that captures problems amenable to optimization by local search algorithms. We show that several combinatorial optimization problems can be placed in this class, and give a nonoblivious local search algorithm that delivers improved approximations for a variety of specific problems.
In contrast, we show that standard local search algorithms give no improvement over known approximation results for these problems, even when allowed to search larger neighborhoods than their nonoblivious counterparts.
Finally, we expand on these results by considering standard local search algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems. We develop conditions under which the approximation ratio of standard local search remains limited even for superpolynomial or exponential local neighborhoods. In the special case of MaxCut, we further show that a variety of techniques including random or greedy initialization, large neighborhoods, and bestimprovement pivot rules cannot improve the approximation performance of standard local search.

6 
Models, methods and algorithms for supply chain planningDerrick, Deborah Chippington January 2011 (has links)
An outline of supply chains and differences in the problem types is given. The motivation for a generic framework is discussed and explored. A conceptual model is presented along with it application to real world situations; and from this a database model is developed. A MIP and CP implementations are presented; along with alternative formulation which can be use to solve the problems. A local search solution algorithm is presented and shown to have significant benefits. Problem instances are presented which are used to validate the generic models, including a large manufacture and distribution problem. This larger problem instance is not only used to explore the implementation of the models presented, but also to explore the practically of the use of alternative formulation and solving techniques within the generic framework and the effectiveness of such methods including the neighbourhood search solving method. A stochastic dimension to the generic framework is explored, and solution techniques for this extension are explored, demonstrating the use of solution analysis to allow problem simplification and better solutions to be found. Finally the local search algorithm is applied to the larger models that arise from inclusion of scenarios, and the methods is demonstrated to be powerful for finding solutions for these large model that were insoluble using the MIP on the same hardware.

7 
3D packing of balls in different containers by VNSAlkandari, Abdulaziz January 2013 (has links)
In real world applications such as the transporting of goods products, packing is a major issue. Goods products need to be packed such that the smallest space is wasted to achieve the maximum transportation efficiency. Packing becomes more challenging and complex when the product is circular/spherical. This thesis focuses on the best way to pack threedimensional unit spheres into the smallest spherical and cubical space. Unit spheres are considered in lieu of nonidentical spheres because the search mechanisms are more difficult in the latter set up and any improvements will be due to the search mechanism not to the ordering of the spheres. The twounit sphere packing problems are solved by approximately using a variable neighborhood search (VNS) hybrid heuristic. A general search framework belonging to the Artificial Intelligence domain, the VNS offers a diversification of the search space by changing neighborhood structures and intensification by thoroughly investigating each neighborhood. It is exible, easy to implement, adaptable to both continuous and discrete optimization problems and has been use to solve a variety of problems including largesized reallife problems. Its runtime is usually lower than other meta heuristic techniques. A tutorial on the VNS and its variants along with recent applications and areas of applicability of each variant. Subsequently, this thesis considers several variations of VNS heuristics for the two problems at hand, discusses their individual efficiencies and effectiveness, their convergence rates and studies their robustness. It highlights the importance of the hybridization which yields near global optima with high precision and accuracy, improving many best known solutions indicate matching some, and improving the precision and accuracy of others. Keywords: variable neighborhood search, sphere packing, threedimensional packing, meta heuristic, hybrid heuristics, multiple start heuristics.

8 
Oblivious and Nonoblivious Local Search for Combinatorial OptimizationWard, Justin 07 January 2013 (has links)
Standard local search algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems repeatedly apply small changes to a current solution to improve the problem's given objective function. In contrast, nonoblivious local search algorithms are guided by an auxiliary potential function, which is distinct from the problem's objective. In this thesis, we compare the standard and nonoblivious approaches for a variety of problems, and derive new, improved nonoblivious local search algorithms for several problems in the area of constrained linear and monotone submodular maximization.
First, we give a new, randomized approximation algorithm for maximizing a monotone submodular function subject to a matroid constraint. Our algorithm's approximation ratio matches both the known hardness of approximation bounds for the problem and the performance of the recent ``continuous greedy'' algorithm. Unlike the continuous greedy algorithm, our algorithm is straightforward and combinatorial. In the case that the monotone submodular function is a coverage function, we can obtain a further simplified, deterministic algorithm with improved running time.
Moving beyond the case of single matroid constraints, we then consider general classes of set systems that capture problems that can be approximated well. While previous such classes have focused primarily on greedy algorithms, we give a new class that captures problems amenable to optimization by local search algorithms. We show that several combinatorial optimization problems can be placed in this class, and give a nonoblivious local search algorithm that delivers improved approximations for a variety of specific problems.
In contrast, we show that standard local search algorithms give no improvement over known approximation results for these problems, even when allowed to search larger neighborhoods than their nonoblivious counterparts.
Finally, we expand on these results by considering standard local search algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems. We develop conditions under which the approximation ratio of standard local search remains limited even for superpolynomial or exponential local neighborhoods. In the special case of MaxCut, we further show that a variety of techniques including random or greedy initialization, large neighborhoods, and bestimprovement pivot rules cannot improve the approximation performance of standard local search.

9 
New local search in the space of infeasible solutions framework for the routing of vehiclesHamid, Mona January 2018 (has links)
Combinatorial optimisation problems (COPs) have been at the origin of the design of many optimal and heuristic solution frameworks such as branchandbound algorithms, branchandcut algorithms, classical local search methods, metaheuristics, and hyperheuristics. This thesis proposes a refined generic and parametrised infeasible local search (GPILS) algorithm for solving COPs and customises it to solve the traveling salesman problem (TSP), for illustration purposes. In addition, a rulebased heuristic is proposed to initialise infeasible local search, referred to as the parameterised infeasible heuristic (PIH), which allows the analyst to have some control over the features of the infeasible solution he/she might want to start the infeasible search with. A recursive infeasible neighbourhood search (RINS) as well as a generic patching procedure to search the infeasible space are also proposed. These procedures are designed in a generic manner, so they can be adapted to any choice of parameters of the GPILS, where the set of parameters, in fact for simplicity, refers to set of parameters, components, criteria and rules. Furthermore, a hyperheuristic framework is proposed for optimizing the parameters of GPILS referred to as HHGPILS. Experiments have been run for both sequential (i.e. simulated annealing, variable neighbourhood search, and tabu search) and parallel hyperheuristics (i.e., genetic algorithms / GAs) to empirically assess the performance of the proposed HHGPILS in solving TSP using instances from the TSPLIB. Empirical results suggest that HHGPILS delivers an outstanding performance. Finally, an offline learning mechanism is proposed as a seeding technique to improve the performance and speed of the proposed parallel HHGPILS. The proposed offline learning mechanism makes use of a knowledgebase to keep track of the best performing chromosomes and their scores. Empirical results suggest that this learning mechanism is a promising technique to initialise the GA's population.

10 
Fast target tracking technique for synthetic aperture radarsKauffman, Kyle J. January 2009 (has links)
Title from first page of PDF document. Includes bibliographical references (p. 40).

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