Linking Ecological Function and Ecosystem Service Values of Estaurine Habitat Types Associated with a Barrier Island SystemFrancis, Jeffrey Michael 14 March 2013 (has links)
Ecosystem services are benefits humans receive as a function of natural processes. Many current studies seek to express these benefits as an economic value per unit of habitat type without quantifying the ecological functions that allow for the provision of ecosystem services. This study is designed to model each habitat type in an effort to explicitly link the major estuarine habitat types of Mustang Island (oyster reefs, seagrass meadows, and intertidal salt marsh) to their contribution to Nitrogen cycling services. First, a dynamic biomass model of each foundational species was created using Simile, a declarative modeling framework. Second, a monthly snapshot of Nitrogen captured in living biomass was used to quantify the contribution of each species to the Nitrogen cycling services. Finally, the amount of Nitrogen captured in living biomass was valued using a replacement cost approach. An effort was also made to link the provision of recreational fishing services provided by each aforementioned habitat type by partitioning travel costs and license sales weighted by the density of fish found in each habitat type. It was found that oyster reefs of Mustang Island contribute $173,000 yr^-1, seagrass meadows contribute $12,054,095 yr^-1, and intertidal salt marshes contribute $5,242,755 yr^-1 in potential Nitrogen cycling services. The total value of recreational fishing services within the study site was calculated to be $83.8 million dollars yr^-1. A portion of the total value was then attributed to each habitat type: Marsh edge: $2 million; Seagrass meadows: $81 million; and Oyster: $81,000 thousand. These efforts have been made to translate ecological function into economic benefit to improve communication among a wide variety of stakeholders that are more likely to understand economic value. Further refinement of both the models and the economic data necessary to support them, will have the potential to improve the applicability and results of these tools. These results, and the modeling framework through which they are calculated, provide a platform to evaluate management relevant scenarios in a simple, flexible manner that may be adjusted and transferred to other study sites given appropriate local data.
Cressey, Roger F.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Boston University / PLEASE NOTE: Boston University Libraries did not receive an Authorization To Manage form for this thesis or dissertation. It is therefore not openly accessible, though it may be available by request. If you are the author or principal advisor of this work and would like to request open access for it, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Thank you. A publicly available 1967 version of this work is available at the Smithsonian Libraries: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.121-3570.1. / During the years 1963 and 1964 pandarid copepods were collected from 39 species of sharks. This material, in addition to collections of the United States National Museum, made possible a complete revision and redescription of the family Pandaridae. The copepods examined were from all major oceanic areas with the exception of polar regions. The author collected in the Gulf of Mexico and the Indian Ocean. Many collections were solicited and received from investigators in other geographic areas. Methods of collection and study are discussed. Complete redescriptions of poorly known species and descriptions of 5 new species are presented [TRUNCATED] / 2031-01-01
Life on a gradient : activity levels of the seastar Patiriella exigua in different abiotic conditionsSankar, Kishan 15 February 2017 (has links)
Two morphs of Patiriella exigua occur in South Africa. These morphs occur on opposite sides of a temperature divide present at Cape Point. The green morph occurring on the West Coast (cold temperate) and the mottled morph occurring on the South Coast (warm temperate). In a previous study by Katherine Dunbar these two morphs were shown to be the same species. This project tests if there is a physiological difference between the two morphs of P. exigua. This was achieved by observing the activity coefficient of righting response of the two morphs of P. exigua under different temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The green morph was collected from Green Point (West Coast) and the mottled morph from Kalk Bay (South Coast). The results of a general linear model indicated that temperature and dissolved oxygen were significant factors determining righting time of P. exigua with P-values of less than 0.05. AT-test indicated that there was a significant difference between the righting times of the two morphs of P. exigua with the green morph turning at a faster rate than the mottled morph when placed under similar conditions.
01 February 2017
Algal turfs play an important role in both tropical and temperate reef ecology, supporting a diverse array of macrofauna as well as being primary producers within both intertidal and subtidal ecosystems. Biodiversity and biomass patterns of the intertidal algal turfs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa have not yet been established so this study was undertaken to investigate these. It was hypothesised that both biodiversity and biomass would decrease with increasing height along the shore, as well as that sediment would have an effect on the community composition of the turfs. The community was sampled over a vertical range of 1.2 m and found to be dominated by the red alga Jania intermedia (24.21 % of total algal coverage) followed by Tolypiocladia glomerulata (18.05 %), Dictyota sp. (13.39 %), Jania adhaerens (12.32 %) and Sphacelaria tribuloides. (5.83 %). No significant vertical zonation patterns were found, though certain species showed vertical trends such as Asparagopsis taxiformis and Sphacelaria tribuloides, which occurred in greatest biomass lower down on the shore, while Tolypiocladia glomerulata occurred higher up on the shore. Sand was found to affect certain species more than others, with Tolypiocladia glomerulata, Jania adhaerens and Asparagopsis taxiformis occurring in greatest biomass when the amount of sediment found in the quadrat was low, while Sphacelaria tribuloides. showed the opposite pattern and Jania intermedia showed no distinct pattern. Sampling took place over 1.2 m vertical height along the shore at spring low tide therefore covering 60 % of the intertidal zone vertically (maximum tidal range in South Africa is 2 m). It is therefore possible that the turfs are the cause of a decline in zonation by remaining damp and decreasing desiccation gradients vertically along the shore.
Deep water parapagurid hermit crabs: their distribution, abundance, population structure and associations in the Southern BenguelaWright, Amy Grace January 2017 (has links)
The parapagurids Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883) and Parapagurus bouvieri (Stebbing, 1910) dominate South African deeper-water benthic invertebrate communities. Samples from the 2016 DAFF bi-annual hake demersal research trawl surveys provided data on population structure and morphology. Since these species forego the use of "traditional" gastropod shells in favour of symbiotically-associated Epizoanthus pseudoshells, these data were also used to investigate parameters of pseudoshell association. S. dimorphus to have a female-biased sex ratio of 1:1.5, and P. bouvieri of 1:1. The proportion of males in both species increased with cephalothoracic shield (CL) length. S. dimorphus males had positive allometric major right chelipeds, while P. bouvieri cheliped lengths were positively allometric in males, and negatively allometric in females. All collected P. bouvieri occurred in pseudoshells, but S. dimorphus showed a real shell occupancy rate of 3.39% (n = 38). A positive relationship was found between CL size and real shell occupation frequency (r2 = 0.96). S. dimorphus pseudoshell zoanthid polyps increased in number as a function of both total shell volume (R2 = 0.73) and colony height (R2 = 0.61), with polyps present on every available part of the shell. No such relationship was found for P. bouvieri, presumably because the polyps are distributed in a linear pattern around the back and outside of the pseudoshell. Juvenile parapagurids appear to select for Naticidae original shells, with Euspira napus being the dominant original shell species for both S. dimorphus (45.45 %) and P. bouvieri (39.00 %). Questions are raised about whether these hermits exist along an evolutionary continuum of traditional shell reliance, whereby the species utilise their pseudoshells differently - P. bouvieri appears to show a stronger mutualistic symbiosis with its exclusive pseudoshell species than S. dimorphus, and may have lost the ability to change shelters entirely, utilising the pseudoshell as a brood pouch covering only the abdomen, rather than as a shell in which to retract to escape predation. Data from 1987 - 2014 surveys were used to map the distribution patterns and densities of these species in the southern Benguela, and to investigate changes in the populations over time. As it stands, no correction factor need be applied to South African parapagurid catches as a result of the 2003-2004 change in survey gear. However, further work is needed. S. dimorphus occurred at a significantly greater mean sample mass (287.88 kg.km⁻²) than P. bouvieri (31.37 kg.km⁻²). The bulk of sample mass occurred within the West Coast Benguela upwelling region, with very few parapagurids caught over the Agulhas Bank, which may be too shallow for either species, given that S. dimorphus showed a preferential depth range of 200 - 299 m (range 30 - 814 m) and P. bouvieri of 400 - 499 m (range 62 - 700 m). The highest mean sample masses occurred on muddy sand (61.00 kg.km⁻²) and sandy sediments (45.68 kg.km⁻²). Overall catchability (mean = 43.35%) has remained constant over the 23 years (R2 = 0.13) with a slight trend towards increasing catchability over time, which may correspond to a change in survey design.
Modelling the oceanographic transport of young Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis by advective processes off South AfricaShannon, Lynne Jane January 1995 (has links)
Bibliography: pages 107-121. / A Monte-Carlo type model has been developed to investigate the importance of passive transport by currents above the thermocline for anchovy recruitment off South Africa. Simulation studies indicate that mean year-class strength of Cape anchovy is relatively robust to altered advective processes off South Africa. This occurs despite the fact that changed flow alters the likelihood of offshore advection and hence losses of anchovy from the system. Two different approaches have been taken to address the effects of altered advection, and the applicability of each is discussed. One approach involves altering westward advection in proportion to the mean current field (derived from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements), and the other, altering westward and northward advection by the addition of fixed offshore current velocities. The proportional approach did not affect year-class strength significantly, whereas the other approach, which incorporated large changes in the flow field, yielded statistically significant differences in predicted year-class strengths between advection scenarios. Reduced flow in the latter approach led to a mean year-class strength 2.7 times stronger than a proposed base flow scenario (which incorporated westward and northward drift in addition to the ADCP currents), whereas enhanced flow resulted in a mean year-class strength of similar magnitude to that of the base flow scenario. Changed flow may alter the geographic distribution of eggs and larvae, which might in turn influence recruitment of young-of-the-year anchovy to the South African purse-seine fishery. The north-flowing shelf-edge jet current plays an important role in transporting anchovy eggs and larvae from spawning grounds in the south to nursery areas frn1her north along the west coast of South Africa. Enhanced model advection westward and norward from the spawning grounds in the south serves to transport anchovy into the region of the jet current. However, advection into unproductive waters offshore is also enhanced and prevents good recruitment under these flow conditions. On the other hand, reduced westward and northward advection in the model, shown through wind records to characterise El-Nino years in coastal areas of South Africa, serves to retain anchovy reproductive products and often transports young anchovy into coastal areas, preventing offshore loss. Therefore the advection model suggests that good year-class strengths (in terms of numbers) are likely to be supported in years when westward and northward advection are reduced. A further reduction in westward advection may be less favourable by causing advective losses offshore along the south coast of South Africa. This may be viewed in terms of an "optimal environmental window" hypothesis, where reduced westward advection is favourable for anchovy survival off South Africa, but further reduction of westward advection as well as enhanced westward advection appear unfavourable. It is concluded that although passive transport, of anchovy in South African waters is relatively robust, it may account for a substantial proportion of recruitment variability.
Pasnin, Charles Olivier Arvin
Includes abstract. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 53-59). / In 2007 the local government of Rodrigues gazetted four marine reserves in the north of the island based on knowledge and insights from stakeholders, mainly from the fishing community. In order to verify the stakeholder-based design, a marine reserve network was designed using Marxan, a systematic conservation planning programme.
Predictors of white shark Carcharodon carcharias presence at two recreational beaches in a major metropoleLoosen, Kristina January 2017 (has links)
The presence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa follows a clear seasonal cycle. In the austral winter months, white sharks aggregate around Seal Island with female sharks in particular moving to the inshore areas in summer. What triggers these fine scale migrations at one of the largest white shark aggregation sites in the world remains a subject of debate. Previous research identified the environmental variables, water temperature and lunar phase, as significant influences on white shark presence inshore. In this study, I attempt to investigate the influence of prey fish availability on the presence of white sharks at two inshore areas of False Bay, namely Muizenberg and Fish Hoek. In addition, I explored the influence of sea surface temperature (SST), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), dolphin presence, diatom patch presence and the occurrence of purse-seine fishing (treknetting) on shark presence. A total of 1209 shark sightings were recorded from 1 January 2006 - 31 December 2015 with 742 sightings at Muizenberg and 467 at Fish Hoek. I used randomization tests to determine whether the occurrence of shark sightings was randomly distributed across the environmental and biological variables and determined the dependencies between the predictor variables. I confirmed that shark sightings were clearly seasonal and sightings peaked between 17.49 - 18.57°C. Fish presence revealed a similar peak at 17.94°C. Randomization tests indicate that a spotter is 66% more likely to detect a shark when fish are present, which supports my prediction of a prey mediated cue. The occurrence of treknetting was also found to be non-randomly linked to white shark presence, increasing the probability to spot a shark to 38% instead of 20% at random. The presence of diatom patches was found to be negatively correlated with SST; with numbers increasing in colder waters. The presence of dolphins, as other predators in False Bay, didn't show a significant pattern with any of the analysed variables. The influence of ENSO on the presence of white sharks was also hypothesized and the data revealed that there was a significant influence of weak negative ENSO values on their inshore occurrence. In addition to providing a better understanding of the ecology of white sharks in False Bay, my results can also be used in shark safety and education programs to reduce the risk of shark human conflict.
Olivieri, Emilia T
Bibliography: pages 135-146. / The development and production of several phytoplankton communities and the consumption of these communities plankton were investigated in newly by herbivorous mesozooupwelled waters of the southern Benguela Current by means of an electronic counting and sizing technique (Coulter counter). A feasibility study was initiated to test the accuracy of the Coulter counter (Model TAII) in estimating phytoplankton size and biomass in fresh and preserved samples from the Benguela current. Counting phytoplankton using this method gave a higher degree of reproducibility than the inverted microscope method. Certain recommendations as to the counting procedures were made. The counting of preserved samples was shown to introduce artefacts, resulting in a 77 per cent reduction in particle volume after a year of preservation. Correlations of particle volume with chorophyll a, carbon and nitrogen were calculated, with highest correlations occurring between particle volume and chlorophyll a. Particle volume was shown to represent biomass as accurately as any of the other methods.
How reliable is morphological species delimitation in kelp? : a study of two closely related South African Ecklonia speciesLevy, Sarah Bernadette January 2014 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references. / Ecklonia maxima and Ecklonia radiata are both kelp bed forming macroalgae along the South African coast, and the latter is also found in considerable abundance in Australia and New Zealand. Genetically they exist as two distinct species and can usually be differentiated morphologically, especially when occurring as geographically separate entities. However, they do appear to intergrade when growing together, where plants of apparent intermediate and indeterminate morphology have been observed. This study tested the reliability of morphology in separating these two Ecklonia species across their intraspecific range of morphological variation, from locations where the species co-occur, as well as where they appear in isolation in South Africa (both species) and Australia (E. radiata only). No individual characters reliably separated between species, yet overall size distinctions as well as the morphometric separation of hollow and solid-stiped sporophytes provide good evidence for morphological differentiation of E. radiata and E. maxima. While E. radiata clusters morphometrically, a distinction between Australian and South Africa specimens is observed. In localities where the two species are reported to co-exist morphological distinction is less clear, particularly in deep water at Buffels Bay. The blade morphology of these deep water sporophytes is distinct from both E. radiata and E. maxima across all locations, while overall size distinctions contribute most prominently to the morphological separation of E. radiata and E. maxima at De Hoop. Environmental data in combination with more detailed genetic analyses, especially those aimed at hybrid identification, are necessary to resolve the nature of these subtidal plants as well as to investigate the relationship between genetic differentiation and overlapping morphology in plants at De Hoop.
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