Expectations modulate early but not late event-related potential correlates of successful recognition memoryKnight, Emily E. 07 November 2014 (has links)
Recognizing that an item has been previously encountered may not only depend on the strength of memory for that item, but also the expectation that the item will be remembered. Recent studies by O’Connor, et al (2010) and Jaeger et al (2013) revealed that a significant portion of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) “retrieval success” effect (BOLD signal for correctly identified old items > new items) depends upon whether participants expect novel or familiar stimuli. The current study examined how expectancy modulates the event-related potential (ERP) retrieval success effect. We employed a typical recognition memory task with the addition of explicit cues indicating if upcoming memory probes were “likely old”, “likely new” (with 75% validity), or “unknown”. An electrophysiological response to the cue, primarily across frontal electrodes from 700-850ms after cue onset, predicted individual differences in cue- induced bias in memory judgments. Responses to memory probes were examined 300- 400ms and 500-700ms after probe onset, corresponding to time windows previously associated with ERP correlates of memory processing. Differences between old and new items were greatest from 300-400ms when preceded by “likely old” cues, overlapping with a component previously identified as tracking familiarity-based processing. In contrast, the 500-700ms time window, previously associated with recollection, revealed significant differences between old and new items that were not modulated by cue type. Overall this pattern of results shows that cue induced biases influence earlier (300-400ms after onset of a memory probe) but not later retrieval processing (500-700ms). / text
Leung, Wing-in, 梁穎妍
The present study aims at examining the relationship between specific memory recall and future event processing. Previous research suggested that the ability in generating specific future events was closely linked with recalling specific past memories. A total of 73 participants (40 in depressed group and 33 healthy control group) completed a specific memory recall and a future event generation task with emotional cues (positive and negative) and a neutral cue. The number of specific responses generated and the mean specific memory latency were recorded for analysis. Result not only replicated previous findings that the depressed group demonstrated more difficulties in generating specific responses, it also provided new insight in exploring the relationship between specific memory recall and future events processing. Firstly, the result indicated that the number of specific responses was fewer and the mean latency of specific responses was longer in generating future events than recalling specific memories. Secondly, the number and the mean latency of specific responses depended on different emotional loaded cues. Further discussion was focused on the valence effect on specific responses. Lastly, it was revealed that depressed patients had a particular difficulty in generating positive future events. Discussion was emphasized on the emotional loaded effect and hopelessness. Both theoretical and clinical implicated were suggested based on the new findings. / published_or_final_version / Clinical Psychology / Master / Master of Social Sciences
I knew that answer before you told me ... didn't I? : subjective experience versus objective measures of the knew-it-all-along effectArnold, Michelle Marie. 10 April 2008 (has links)
The knew-it-all-along (KIA) effect occurs when individuals report that they had previously known something that they learned only recently. Participants in a traditional KIA experiment first rate on a number scale the likelihood of one or more given responses being the correct answer for trivia-like questions (Phase 1); in the feedback phase they are shown the correct answers for a portion of the questions; and in the final phase they are asked to ignore the feedback and give the same number rating for each question that they had given in the first phase. Although several studies have shown that people often have difficulty retrospectively determining the level of knowledge they had prior to the occurrence of feedback, there is no research exploring the subjective experience of the effect. We incorporated a RememberIJust KnowIGuess judgment in a traditional (Experiment 1) and a modified-traditional (Experiment 2: 2-alternative-forcedchoice) KIA paradigm. In the modified paradigm the number scale was eliminated, and participants simply chose which of two response alternatives they believed to be the correct answer for each trivia question. Experiments 3 - 5 were similar in format to Experiments 1 and 2, but the trivia stimuli were replaced with word puzzles, which were expected to be better suited to inducing a feeling of having known it all along because answers to trivia questions typically seem arbitrary, whereas solutions to word puzzles give rise to ah-ha experiences. A typical KIA effect was observed in all five experiments, but evidence for an accompanying subjective feeling of knew-it-all-along was found only with word puzzle stimuli.
Digitized by Kansas Correctional Industries
Pettit, Effie Doane
No description available.
An experiment to determine the number of repetitions necessary to memorize and retain with maximum certainty a miscellaneous collection of facts ...Wagner, Alvin E., January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Pennsylvania, 1910. / Cover title. Also available in digital form on the Internet Archive Web site.
03 September 2008
Memory unit has become a major core component in most SoC designs, and thus reusable memory IP is crucial in speeding up the design process. In this thesis, we develop a low-power SRAM generator to reduce the design efforts by producing all the files required in traditional cell-based design flow. Several methods are used to reduce power consumption in the memory circuits, including hierarchical word-line architecture and block amplifiers. The SRAM generator can be extended to generate cache memory with mixed hard IP and soft IP where cache memory cells are hard IP while the cache controller is soft IP. Based on the SRAM generator, we can also generate some popular memory units such as register files, FIFO, LIFO, and delay elements used in many applications.
Green, Bonnie A.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Lehigh University, 2002. / Includes vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 58-66).
Inaug.-diss.--Kiel. / Vita.
Peterson, Harvey Andrew.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Chicago. / "Published as Monograph supplement no. 49 of the Psychological review."
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