Determined Wellness| The Influence of Mental Illness Models Upon Treatment Outcome Expectancies and Treatment EngagementSurace, Francisco I. 17 June 2017 (has links)
<p> Multiple campaigns geared towards reducing public and self-stigma associated with depression, and increasing help-seeking behaviors have been launched in the past two decades. There has been an increase in promoting psychoeducation on the biological bases of mental illness. Recent international studies have documented that this increase in public knowledge has not reduced stigma. Indeed, growing evidence suggests that biological models, in comparison to other causal models of mental illness, decrease people’s sense of self-efficacy and self-control, and decrease positive expectancies of treatments and prognosis–among those with and without mental illness. Individuals who have come in contact with health services, however, hold more positive and realistic expectancies of treatments than those who have not. Therefore, adequate education about mental illness and its treatment by providers is key at improving treatment expectancies and engagement. Results documented that biological explanations increased biological causes and reduced endorsement of social and psychological causes, led to decreases in endorsement of non-professional help, and increased endorsement of positive outcome expectancies for attending psychotherapy. Second, psychosocial explanations increased endorsement of social causes, increased likelihood in engaging in psychotherapy, and increased endorsement of positive outcome expectancies for attending psychotherapy and taking psychiatric medications. Third, biopsychosocial conditions produced increases in endorsement of taking psychiatric medications and increased endorsement of positive outcome expectancies for attending psychotherapy. Fourth, control condition increased endorsement of taking psychiatric medications and increased endorsement of positive outcome expectancies for attending psychotherapy. There was no interaction effect of self-stigma for attending psychotherapy or taking psychiatric medications; however, main effects of time suggest that self-stigma for attending psychotherapy and taking psychiatric medication reduced across time. Moreover, after treatment education there were no interactions between time and condition. However, main effects of time showed increased likelihood taking psychiatric medications and decreased likelihood seeking non-professional help, increases positive outcome expectancies of treatment, and decrease in self-stigma for seeking treatment. The findings of the current study suggest that biologically based psychoeducation of depression may hinder patients. It is most optimal to include and highlight the effect of psychosocial factors of depression through psychoeducation campaigns.</p>
Barriers to inclusion : a comparative study of long-term unemployment, social exclusion and mental healthTurton, Neil Graham January 2002 (has links)
No description available.
Van Eetveldt Vivier, Lincoln Morse
A thesis to be submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene, University of the Witwatersrand. / The introduction to the problem covers mainly three sections, namely. Biblical, Historical and Psychological. Various tests are then named and described. This is followed by the section dealing with the Test Results, statistical methods used and finally a summary and conclusion. The summary and conclusion are of necessity brief, and cannot be expected to cover the whole field. Special mention must here be made of & B. Cutten whose book Speaking with Tongues is considered by the present writer to be the most scholarly and extensive account of the historical aspect of GLOSSOLALIA yet systematised. Portions relevant to the present investigation were either quoted in toto or epitomised because the writer felt they could not be improved upon. An intimate knowledge of the historical instances quoted by Cutten is essential to a complete understanding of the scope of the present work. The only originality claimed lies in the selection and presentation of the material to be found in Cutten's invaluable work. Extensive references and/or quotations have also been taken from the works of A. Schweitzer - Mysticism of St. Paul the Apostle and E.B. Tylor - Primitive Culturo, both of whom are regarded as being leaders of thought in their respective fields. / WHSLYP2017
Chokoe, Mmatlou Elias
31 March 2014
No description available.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BURNOUT AND THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL PROFILE OF EMPLOYEES OF A RESIDENTIAL FACILITY FOR DEVELOPMENTALLY DISABLED PERSONSUnknown Date (has links)
The intent of this research was to investigate the relationship between a measurement of burnout and semantic differential profiles involving personal and vocational life variables. Participants were employees of a residential facility for developmentally disabled persons. The statistical analysis was to involve the use of multiple linear regression for the null hypotheses and a judgmental evaluation was to be utilized for determining levels of differences between burnout and semantic profiles. / A pilot study was completed to investigate potential problems existing in the administration and in response to two questionnaires (burnout and semantic differential profile). Corrections were made prior to administration to the primary research facility. / From the primary research administration, a total of 250 questionnaires were returned. A sample size of 169 was predetermined as adequate for use of the multiple linear regression anaylsis. However, only 81 responses were adequate in terms of completed questionnaire items. The limited responses prevented the anticipated analysis at the statistical levels prespecified. A follow-up interview with the participants revealed problems with reading comprehension and a defensive attitude about this research effort. A review of the demographic data suggested different descriptive factors between the 81 respondents and the 169 nonrespondents. / The results provided were limited to descriptive data which reflected research findings of the applicable literature review and provided impetus for this research experience; the results also offer indications for modifications in administration and future replications of this research effort. / Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 45-08, Section: B, page: 2495. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1984.
Meaning in Life in College Student Veterans: Exploring Its Relationship to Career Thoughts and DepressionUnknown Date (has links)
College student veterans may experience a variety of challenges as they transition from military life to student life, including adjusting to the academic environment, coping with mental health concerns such as depression and anxiety, redefining their identities, and balancing multiple roles (e.g., family, school, and work). In addition, research indicates that veterans may experience difficulty in finding meaning and purpose outside of the military. The purpose of the current study was to add to the career development literature related to college student veterans and explore variables which may influence meaning and purpose in their lives, specifically career thoughts and depression. The current study utilized a passive observational research design to survey 132 college student veterans attending higher education institutions across different geographic locations in the United States. Regarding demographic characteristics, participants ranged across ages, military branches, and classification levels. Career thoughts was measured using the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI), and depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale – Revised (CESD-R). Meaning in life was assessed using the presence of meaning and the search for meaning subscales of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). A linear multiple regression analysis was used to determine if the total scores on the CTI and the CESD-R were significant positive predictors of scores on the MLQ. In addition, Pearson correlation analyses were utilized to understand the relationship between meaning in life and depression, as well as meaning in life and career thoughts. Moreover, beyond career thoughts and depression, this study also sought to explore whether or not there were differences in meaning in life scores among particular demographic variables, including gender and ethnicity. ANOVA analyses were used to examine differences in meaning in life scores among participant gender and ethnicity. Results of the analyses revealed that both career thoughts and depression were statistically significant predictors of the presence of meaning in one’s life, with 46% of the variance in the presence of meaning in life scores accounted for by total scores on the CTI and the CESD-R. Pearson correlation results indicated that all variables were statistically significant at alpha level of .01. Furthermore, results of ANOVA procedures showed no statistically significant differences in the presence of meaning in life scores, as well as in the search for meaning in life scores, for the gender and ethnicity variables. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are discussed. Lastly, implications for practitioners working with student veteran populations are included. / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Spring Semester 2016. / April 18, 2016. / career development, career thoughts, college student veterans, depression, meaning in life, mental health / Includes bibliographical references. / Janet Lenz, Professor Directing Dissertation; Christopher Schatschneider, University Representative; Debra Osborn, Committee Member; James Sampson, Committee Member.
A Qualitative Inquiry into the Systemic Influences upon the Wellness of Home and Community Based CounselorsMoore, Elizabeth 24 January 2019 (has links)
<p> Home and community based counseling services have become instrumental to the treatment of children and adolescents struggling with mental illness. Counselors working in these systems of care face significant challenges in this unique setting. Most home and community based counselors (HCBCs) face these challenges as recent graduates, not having adequate preparation for the home setting, while receiving little supervision. HCBCs have reported feeling isolated and unsupported and question their effectiveness as counselors. Macchi, Johnson, and Durtschi’s (2014) results point to the importance of self-care to HCBC wellness, especially when the HCBC is lacking supervision. Yet, we are unable to glean from prior research which self-care strategies may benefit the HCBC. It is also unclear how systemic factors may affect HCBC wellness. A broad review of the literature revealed that studies examining the individual and organizational factors that may influence counselor wellness have yielded inconclusive results. Individual interviews were conducted with eight HCBCs and four supervisors working for three different home and community counseling agencies and data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. Out of the grounded analysis, this researcher identified seven concepts: helping others, confronting the realities of the work, taking care of yourself, finding support, striving for work-life balance, and moving forward. The experiences shared by the HCBCs and supervisors make it clear that it is not just the individual practices that matter, organizational and supervision practices impact wellness as well. Recommendations for supervisors, HCBCs, and agencies are provided.</p><p>
The Relation between Depression and Trait Anxiety Symptoms and Maternal Utterances during Sonogram ProceduresHamilton, Catharine Elizabeth 09 March 2019 (has links)
<p> The present study examines the relation between depression and trait anxiety symptoms and women’s utterances during a routine ultrasound procedure in the second trimester of pregnancy. Participants included a diverse group of 70 women seeking prenatal care at an academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) depression subscale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), trait form were used to assess symptoms of depression and trait anxiety, respectively. Audio and video of participants’ faces during the ultrasound examination were used to assess the content, sentiment, and number of utterances. Results of regression analyses indicated that higher levels of depression symptoms were significantly related to a lower proportion of fetus-related utterances to total utterances. Higher levels of depression symptoms and trait anxiety were significantly related to a lower proportion of positive fetus-related utterances to total fetus-related utterances, after controlling for gestational age. Higher levels of depression symptoms were significantly related to a higher proportion of negative-fetus-related utterances to total fetus-related utterances, after controlling for education. These findings suggest that pregnant women who are experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety may exhibit certain types and patterns of utterances during routine prenatal sonogram procedures. Thus, observation of pregnant women’s naturalistic speech may provide helpful supplemental information to the traditional self-report measure in screening for symptoms of depression and anxiety.</p><p>
A study to compare the frequency and type of physical complaints verbalized by emotionally disturbed children when they are serving an isolatory restriction at bedtime with the frequency and type of physical complaints verbalized by the same children when they are not serving an isolatory restriction at bedtimePerachi, Helen Connelly January 1963 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Boston University
The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool Primary Care and General Health Setting Version (GMHAT/PC) : a validity and feasibility study : Spanish versionTejada, Paola A. January 2017 (has links)
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to provide training and tools to frontline health workers in order for them to properly diagnose and treat mental illnesses in Latin-American communities, since the vast majority of people with a mental illness suffer in silence. A computer-assisted interview, the Global Mental Health Assessment Tool (GMHAT/PC) has been developed to assist general practitioners and other health professionals to make a quick, convenient, yet reasonably comprehensive and standardised mental health assessment. GMHAT/PC has been translated into various languages including German, Dutch, Chinese, Hindi and Arabic. This is the first study, of a GMHAT/PC Spanish version carried out in Latin America, to establish its validity in that culture and feasibility to be used in the health care setting. If proven a valid tool through this study, the GMHAT/PC Spanish version will be an important aid towards improving the mental health of Spanish-speaking communities within the Latin-American region. AIM: The study aims at assessing both the validity of a GMHAT/PC Spanish version, and the feasibility of utilising a computer assisted diagnostic interview by GPs. DESIGN: 1) Validation study was planned to establish whether the GMHAT/PC based diagnosis compares well with the consultants ICD-10 based diagnosis (Gold Standard) 2) Feasibility study was carried out to examine whether GMHAT/PC can be used in routine clinical care in a general health setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first study (validation), participants varied from those who were in remission i.e. without much psychopathology to those had symptoms of a severe mental illness. They were recruited from in-patient (82%) and out-patient (18%) mental health settings in Colombia. The participants were expected to have a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses (anxiety disorders, depression, psychosis, bipolar affective disorder, organic mental disorders, and other diagnoses). All consecutive patients were interviewed by GPs using GMHAT/PC and psychiatrists made an independent diagnosis applying ICD-10 criteria. The second study (feasibility) was carried out on patients hospitalised at medical, surgical and women’s wards during a period of one month in each service. The diagnosis of a medical illness was made by specialists in each service. A trained GP carried out psychiatric assessment of all participants using GMHAT/PC. RESULTS: First study (validity): two hundred ninety-nine patients (n=299) participated, 54.18% males and 45.81% females in the age range of 14-78. All patients were interviewed independently by seven psychiatrists with over five years of clinical experience. The mean duration of GMHAT/PC interview was 12.5 minutes. Most patients were pleased that they were asked about every aspect of their mental health. Psychiatrists made a single diagnosis in 183 (61%) cases, multiple (two) diagnosis in 112 (37%) cases and multiple (three) diagnosis in another four cases. GMHAT/PC in almost all cases gave additional multiple diagnoses. The results show an acceptable-to-good level of agreement between the GPs’ (GMHAT/PC) diagnoses and the psychiatrists’ (clinical) diagnoses of any mental illness, Kappa 0.58- 95% C.I (0.46, 0.72). There is a good level of sensitivity (81%) and specificity (92%), with GPs correctly identifying 242 out of the 250 participants diagnosed with a mental illness, and 27 out of 35 of those who do not present any whatsoever. The agreement (kappa value) between GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists ICD-10 based diagnosis of specific disorders were as follows: Organic disorders-0.87; Psychosis- 0.56; Depression-0.53; Mania-0.6, Alcohol and drug misuse- 0.62, Learning disorder- 0.4; Personality Disorder- 0.39 and Anxiety disorders- 0.14. The sensitivity of different disorders ranged from 63% (Mania) to 100% (Anxiety) and specificity from 71% (Anxiety) to 100% (organic). The second study (feasibility): out of 455 medically-ill patients, 4.8% had a mental illness identified by GMHAT/PC interview. Anxiety, depression and organic disorders were the most frequently identified mental disorders in internal medicine and surgery. Cancer had a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid mental illness. CONCLUSION: GMHAT/PC -Spanish version used by GPs in this study detected mental disorders accurately and it was feasible to use GMHAT/PC in Colombia and Latin-American health settings. The findings of this study will have a big impact upon mental health service provision in Spanish-speaking nations within the Latin-American region as the Spanish version for GMHAT/PC will assist primary care physicians and other health workers in detecting and managing mental health disorders in the communities. There is no other comparable easy-to-use comprehensive mental health diagnostic tool available in Spanish.
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