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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Implementation of an experimental facility and modeling studies for time varying images.

Jensen, Olav Velling January 1973 (has links)
A wealth of experiments have been performed studying image encoding techniques as applied to non-time varying or single-frame images. However, to date little work has been done to apply these techniques to time varying images, with most of such works emphasizing various ad hoc redundancy reduction techniques. In this work, a computer based experimental system is implemented which makes more methodological studies of time varying images possible. Particular attention is devoted to obtaining very accurate inter-frame registration and uniform quantization of the images. Using this system, a selection of 35 mm movie film images are digitized and stored on computer magnetic tape in a format compatible with many other computing installations, providing a standard data base for future experiments. An often used model for describing picture data is the stationary Gauss-Markov model. In this work, the appropriateness of this model for describing time varying images is studied by comparing the autocorrelation functions as described by the model and as obtained by computation from the picture data. These results indicate that the autocorrelation function is best described by a function which is separable in the time dimension and nonseparable in the spacial dimensions. A number of DPCM communication systems are then studied as a vehicle for evaluating the effect of using the Gauss-Markov model. These results indicate that, for the sample images studied here, the estimated performance using the Gauss-Markov model is good when the model is a good fit to the first data point of the computed autocorrelation function. / Applied Science, Faculty of / Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of / Graduate
2

Motion and shape from apparent flow.

January 2013 (has links)
捕捉攝像機運動和重建攝像機成像場景深度圖的測定是在計算機視覺和機器任務包括可視化控制和自主導航是非常重要。在執行上述任務時,一個攝像機(或攝像機群組)通常安裝在機器的執行端部。攝像機和執行端部之間的手眼校準在視覺控制的正常操作中是不可缺少的。同樣,在對於需要使用多個攝像機的情况下,它們的相對幾何關係也是對各種計算機視覺應用來說也是非常重要。 / 攝像機和場景的相對運動通常產生出optical flow。問題的困難主要在於,在直接觀察視頻中的optical flow通常不是完全由運動誘導出的optical flow,而只是它的一部分。這個部分就是空間圖像等光線輪廓的正交。這部分的流場被稱為normal flow。本論文提出直接利用normal flow,而不是由normal flow引申出的optical flow,去解決以下的問題:尋找攝像機運動,場景深度圖和手眼校準。這種方法有許多顯著的貢獻,它不需引申流場,進而不要求平滑的成像場景。跟optical flow相反,normal flow不需要複雜的優化處理程序去解決流場不連續性的問題,這種技術一般是需要用大量的計算量。這也打破了傳統攝像機運動與場景深度之間的問題,在沒有預先知道不連續位置的情況下也可找出攝像機的運動。這篇論提出了幾個直接方法運用在三種不同類型的視覺系統,分別是單個攝像機,雙攝像機和多個攝像機,去找出攝像機的運動。 / 本論文首先提通過Apparent Flow 正深度 (AFPD) 約束去利用所有觀察到的normal flow去找出單個攝像機的運動參數。AFPD約束是利用一個優化問題來估計運動參數。一個反复由粗到細雙重約束的投票框架能使AFPD約束尋找出運動參數。 / 由於有限的視頻採樣率,normal flow在提取方向比其幅度部分更準確。本論文提出了兩個約束條件:一個是Apparent Flow方向(AFD)的約束,另外一個是Apparent Flow 幅度(AFM)的約束去尋找運動參數。第一個約束本身是作為一個線性不等式系統去約束運動方向的參數,第二個是利用所有圖像位置的旋轉幅度的統一性去進一步限制運動參數。一個兩階段從粗到細的約束框架能使AFD及AFM約束尋找出運動參數。 / 然而,如果沒有optical flow,normal flow是唯一的原始資料,它通常遭受到有限影像分辨率和有限視頻採樣率的問題而產生出錯誤。本文探討了這個問題的補救措施,方法是把一些攝像機併在一起,形成一個近似球形的攝像機,以增加成像系統的視野。有了一個加寬視野,normal flow的數量可更大,這可以用來抵銷normal flow在每個成像點的提取錯誤。更重要的是,攝像頭的平移和旋轉運動方向可以透過Apparent Flow分離 (AFS) 約束 及 延伸Apparent Flow分離 (EAFS) 約束來獨立估算。 / 除了使用單攝像機或球面成像系統之外,立體視覺成像系統提供了其它的視覺線索去尋找攝像機在沒有被任意縮放大小的平移運動和深度圖。傳統的立體視覺方法是確定在兩個輸入圖像特徵的對應。然而,對應的建立是非常困難。本文探討了兩個直接方法來恢復完整的攝像機運動,而沒有需要利用一對影像明確的點至點對應。第一種方法是利用AFD和AFM約束伸延到立體視覺系統,並提供了一個穩定的幾何方法來確定平移運動的幅度。第二個方法需要利用有一個較大的重疊視場,以提供一個不需反覆計算的closed-form算法。一旦確定了運動參數,深度圖可以沒有任何困難地重建。從normal flow產生的深度圖一般是以稀疏的形式存在。我們可以通過擴張深度圖,然後利用它作為在常見的TV-L₁框架的初始估計。其結果不僅有一個更好的重建性能,也產生出更快的運算時間。 / 手眼校準通常是基於像圖特徵對應。本文提出一個替代方法,是從動態攝像系統產生的normal flow來做自我校準。為了使這個方法有更強防備噪音的能力,策略是使用normal flow的流場方向去尋找手眼幾何的方向部份。偏離點及部分的手眼幾何可利用normal flow固有的流場屬性去尋找。最後完整的手眼幾何可使用穩定法來變得更可靠。手眼校準還可以被用來確定多個攝像機的相對幾何關係,而不需要求它們有重疊的視場。 / Determination of general camera motion and reconstructing depth map from a captured video of the imaged scene relative to a camera is important for computer vision and various robotics tasks including visual control and autonomous navigation. A camera (or a cluster of cameras) is usually mounted on the end-effector of a robot arm when performing the above tasks. The determination of the relative geometry between the camera frame and the end-effector frame which is commonly referred as hand-eye calibration is essential to proper operation in visual control. Similarly, determining the relative geometry of multiple cameras is also important to various applications requiring the use of multi-camera rig. / The relative motion between an observer and the imaged scene generally induces apparent flow in the video. The difficulty of the problem lies mainly in that the flow pattern directly observable in the video is generally not the full flow field induced by the motion, but only partial information of it, which is orthogonal to the iso-brightness contour of the spatial image intensity profile. The partial flow field is known as the normal flow field. This thesis addresses several important problems in computer vision: determination of camera motion, recovery of depth map, and performing hand-eye calibration from the apparent flow (normal flow) pattern itself in the video data directly but not from the full flow interpolated from the apparent flow. This approach has a number of significant contributions. It does not require interpolating the flow field and in turn does not demand the imaged scene to be smooth. In contrast to optical flow, no sophisticated optimization procedures that account for handling flow discontinuities are required, and such techniques are generally computational expensive. It also breaks the classical chicken-and-egg problem between scene depth and camera motion. No prior knowledge about the locations of the discontinuities is required for motion determination. In this thesis, several direct methods are proposed to determine camera motion using three different types of imaging systems, namely monocular camera, stereo camera, and multi-camera rig. / This thesis begins with the Apparent Flow Positive Depth (AFPD) constraint to determine the motion parameters using all observable normal flows from a monocular camera. The constraint presents itself as an optimization problem to estimate the motion parameters. An iterative process in a constrained dual coarse-to-fine voting framework on the motion parameter space is used to exploit the constraint. / Due to the finite video sampling rate, the extracted normal flow field is generally more accurate in direction component than its magnitude part. This thesis proposes two constraints: one related to the direction component of the normal flow field - the Apparent Flow Direction (AFD) constraint, and the other to the magnitude component of the field - the Apparent Flow Magnitude (AFM) constraint, to determine motion. The first constraint presents itself as a system of linear inequalities to bind the direction of motion parameters; the second one uses the globality of rotational magnitude to all image positions to constrain the motion parameters further. A two-stage iterative process in a coarse-to-fine framework on the motion parameter space is used to exploit the two constraints. / Yet without the need of the interpolation step, normal flow is only raw information extracted locally that generally suffers from flow extraction error arisen from finiteness of the image resolution and video sampling rate. This thesis explores a remedy to the problem, which is to increase the visual field of the imaging system by fixating a number of cameras together to form an approximate spherical eye. With a substantially widened visual field, the normal flow data points would be in a much greater number, which can be used to combat the local flow extraction error at each image point. More importantly, the directions of translation and rotation components in general motion can be separately estimated with the use of the novel Apparent Flow Separation (AFS) and Extended Apparent Flow Separation (EAFS) constraints. / Instead of using a monocular camera or a spherical imaging system, stereo vision contributes another visual clue to determine magnitude of translation and depth map without the problem of arbitrarily scaling of the magnitude. The conventional approach in stereo vision is to determine feature correspondences across the two input images. However, the correspondence establishment is often difficult. This thesis explores two direct methods to recover the complete camera motion from the stereo system without the explicit point-to-point correspondences matching. The first method extends the AFD and AFM constraints to stereo camera, and provides a robust geometrical method to determine translation magnitude. The second method which requires the stereo image pair to have a large overlapped field of view provides a closed-form solution, requiring no iterative computation. Once the motion parameters are here, depth map can be reconstructed without any difficulty. The depth map resulted from normal flows is generally sparse in nature. We can interpolate the depth map and then utilizing it as an initial estimate in a conventional TV-L₁ framework. The result is not only a better reconstruction performance, but also a faster computation time. / Calibration of hand-eye geometry is usually based on feature correspondences. This thesis presents an alternative method that uses normal flows generated from an active camera system to perform self-calibration. In order to make the method more robust to noise, the strategy is to use the direction component of the flow field which is more noise-immune to recover the direction part of the hand-eye geometry first. Outliers are then detected using some intrinsic properties of the flow field together with the partially recovered hand-eye geometry. The final solution is refined using a robust method. The method can also be used to determine the relative geometry of multiple cameras without demanding overlap in their visual fields. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Hui, Tak Wai. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2013. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 159-165). / Abstracts in English and Chinese. / Acknowledgements --- p.i / Abstract --- p.ii / Lists of Figures --- p.xiii / Lists of Tables --- p.xix / Chapter Chapter 1 --- Introduction --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1 --- Background --- p.1 / Chapter 1.2 --- Motivation --- p.4 / Chapter 1.3 --- Research Objectives --- p.6 / Chapter 1.4 --- Thesis Outline --- p.7 / Chapter Chapter 2 --- Literature Review --- p.10 / Chapter 2.1 --- Introduction --- p.10 / Chapter 2.2 --- Recovery of Optical Flows --- p.10 / Chapter 2.3 --- Egomotion Estimation Based on Optical Flow Field --- p.14 / Chapter 2.3.1 --- Bilinear Constraint --- p.14 / Chapter 2.3.2 --- Subspace Method --- p.15 / Chapter 2.3.3 --- Partial Search Method --- p.16 / Chapter 2.3.4 --- Fixation --- p.17 / Chapter 2.3.5 --- Region Alignment --- p.17 / Chapter 2.3.6 --- Linearity and Divergence Properties of Optical Flows --- p.18 / Chapter 2.3.7 --- Constraint Lines and Collinear Points --- p.18 / Chapter 2.3.8 --- Multi-Camera Rig --- p.19 / Chapter 2.3.9 --- Discussion --- p.21 / Chapter 2.4 --- Determining Egomotion Using Direct Methods --- p.22 / Chapter 2.4.1 --- Introduction --- p.22 / Chapter 2.4.2 --- Classical Methods --- p.23 / Chapter 2.4.3 --- Pattern Matching --- p.24 / Chapter 2.4.4 --- Search Subspace Method --- p.25 / Chapter 2.4.5 --- Histogram-Based Method --- p.26 / Chapter 2.4.6 --- Multi-Camera Rig --- p.26 / Chapter 2.4.7 --- Discussion --- p.27 / Chapter 2.5 --- Determining Egomotion Using Feature Correspondences --- p.28 / Chapter 2.6 --- Hand-Eye Calibration --- p.30 / Chapter 2.7 --- Summary --- p.31 / Chapter Chapter 3 --- Determining Motion from Monocular Camera Using Merely the Positive Depth Constraint --- p.32 / Chapter 3.1 --- Introduction --- p.32 / Chapter 3.2 --- Related Works --- p.33 / Chapter 3.3 --- Background --- p.34 / Chapter 3.3 --- Apparent Flow Positive Depth (AFPD) Constraint --- p.39 / Chapter 3.4 --- Numerical Solution to AFPD Constraint --- p.40 / Chapter 3.5 --- Constrained Coarse-to-Fine Searching --- p.40 / Chapter 3.6 --- Experimental Results --- p.43 / Chapter 3.7 --- Conclusion --- p.47 / Chapter Chapter 4 --- Determining Motion from Monocular Camera Using Direction and Magnitude of Normal Flows Separately --- p.48 / Chapter 4.1 --- Introduction --- p.48 / Chapter 4.2 --- Related Works --- p.50 / Chapter 4.3 --- Apparent Flow Direction (AFD) Constraint --- p.51 / Chapter 4.3.1 --- The Special Case: Pure Translation --- p.51 / Chapter 4.3.1.1 --- Locus of Translation Using Full Flow as a Constraint --- p.51 / Chapter 4.3.1.2 --- Locus of Translation Using Normal Flow as a Constraint --- p.53 / Chapter 4.3.2 --- The Special Case: Pure Rotation --- p.54 / Chapter 4.3.2.1 --- Locus of Rotation Using Full Flow as a Constraint --- p.54 / Chapter 4.3.2.2 --- Locus of Rotation Using Normal Flow as a Constraint --- p.54 / Chapter 4.3.3 --- Solving the System of Linear Inequalities for the Two Special Cases --- p.55 / Chapter 4.3.5 --- Ambiguities of AFD Constraint --- p.59 / Chapter 4.4 --- Apparent Flow Magnitude (AFM) Constraint --- p.60 / Chapter 4.5 --- Putting the Two Constraints Together --- p.63 / Chapter 4.6 --- Experimental Results --- p.65 / Chapter 4.6.1 --- Simulation --- p.65 / Chapter 4.6.2 --- Video Data --- p.67 / Chapter 4.6.2.1 --- Pure Translation --- p.67 / Chapter 4.6.2.2 --- General Motion --- p.68 / Chapter 4.7 --- Conclusion --- p.72 / Chapter Chapter 5 --- Determining Motion from Multi-Cameras with Non-Overlapping Visual Fields --- p.73 / Chapter 5.1 --- Introduction --- p.73 / Chapter 5.2 --- Related Works --- p.75 / Chapter 5.3 --- Background --- p.76 / Chapter 5.3.1 --- Image Sphere --- p.77 / Chapter 5.3.2 --- Planar Case --- p.78 / Chapter 5.3.3 --- Projective Transformation --- p.79 / Chapter 5.4 --- Constraint from Normal Flows --- p.80 / Chapter 5.5 --- Approximation of Spherical Eye by Multiple Cameras --- p.81 / Chapter 5.6 --- Recovery of Motion Parameters --- p.83 / Chapter 5.6.1 --- Classification of a Pair of Normal Flows --- p.84 / Chapter 5.6.2 --- Classification of a Triplet of Normal Flows --- p.86 / Chapter 5.6.3 --- Apparent Flow Separation (AFS) Constraint --- p.87 / Chapter 5.6.3.1 --- Constraint to Direction of Translation --- p.87 / Chapter 5.6.3.2 --- Constraint to Direction of Rotation --- p.88 / Chapter 5.6.3.3 --- Remarks about the AFS Constraint --- p.88 / Chapter 5.6.4 --- Extension of Apparent Flow Separation Constraint (EAFS) --- p.89 / Chapter 5.6.4.1 --- Constraint to Direction of Translation --- p.90 / Chapter 5.6.4.2 --- Constraint to Direction of Rotation --- p.92 / Chapter 5.6.5 --- Solution to the AFS and EAFS Constraints --- p.94 / Chapter 5.6.6 --- Apparent Flow Magnitude (AFM) Constraint --- p.96 / Chapter 5.7 --- Experimental Results --- p.98 / Chapter 5.7.1 --- Simulation --- p.98 / Chapter 5.7.2 --- Real Video --- p.103 / Chapter 5.7.2.1 --- Using Feature Correspondences --- p.108 / Chapter 5.7.2.2 --- Using Optical Flows --- p.108 / Chapter 5.7.2.3 --- Using Direct Methods --- p.109 / Chapter 5.8 --- Conclusion --- p.111 / Chapter Chapter 6 --- Motion and Shape from Binocular Camera System: An Extension of AFD and AFM Constraints --- p.112 / Chapter 6.1 --- Introduction --- p.112 / Chapter 6.2 --- Related Works --- p.112 / Chapter 6.3 --- Recovery of Camera Motion Using Search Subspaces --- p.113 / Chapter 6.4 --- Correspondence-Free Stereo Vision --- p.114 / Chapter 6.4.1 --- Determination of Full Translation Using Two 3D Lines --- p.114 / Chapter 6.4.2 --- Determination of Full Translation Using All Normal Flows --- p.115 / Chapter 6.4.3 --- Determination of Full Translation Using a Geometrical Method --- p.117 / Chapter 6.5 --- Experimental Results --- p.119 / Chapter 6.5.1 --- Synthetic Image Data --- p.119 / Chapter 6.5.2 --- Real Scene --- p.120 / Chapter 6.6 --- Conclusion --- p.122 / Chapter Chapter 7 --- Motion and Shape from Binocular Camera System: A Closed-Form Solution for Motion Determination --- p.123 / Chapter 7.1 --- Introduction --- p.123 / Chapter 7.2 --- Related Works --- p.124 / Chapter 7.3 --- Background --- p.125 / Chapter 7.4 --- Recovery of Camera Motion Using a Linear Method --- p.126 / Chapter 7.4.1 --- Region-Correspondence Stereo Vision --- p.126 / Chapter 7.3.2 --- Combined with Epipolar Constraints --- p.127 / Chapter 7.4 --- Refinement of Scene Depth --- p.131 / Chapter 7.4.1 --- Using Spatial and Temporal Constraints --- p.131 / Chapter 7.4.2 --- Using Stereo Image Pairs --- p.134 / Chapter 7.5 --- Experiments --- p.136 / Chapter 7.5.1 --- Synthetic Data --- p.136 / Chapter 7.5.2 --- Real Image Sequences --- p.137 / Chapter 7.6 --- Conclusion --- p.143 / Chapter Chapter 8 --- Hand-Eye Calibration Using Normal Flows --- p.144 / Chapter 8.1 --- Introduction --- p.144 / Chapter 8.2 --- Related Works --- p.144 / Chapter 8.3 --- Problem Formulation --- p.145 / Chapter 8.3 --- Model-Based Brightness Constraint --- p.146 / Chapter 8.4 --- Hand-Eye Calibration --- p.147 / Chapter 8.4.1 --- Determining the Rotation Matrix R --- p.148 / Chapter 8.4.2 --- Determining the Direction of Position Vector T --- p.149 / Chapter 8.4.3 --- Determining the Complete Position Vector T --- p.150 / Chapter 8.4.4 --- Extrinsic Calibration of a Multi-Camera Rig --- p.151 / Chapter 8.5 --- Experimental Results --- p.151 / Chapter 8.5.1 --- Synthetic Data --- p.151 / Chapter 8.5.2 --- Real Image Data --- p.152 / Chapter 8.6 --- Conclusion --- p.153 / Chapter Chapter 9 --- Conclusion and Future Work --- p.154 / Related Publications --- p.158 / Bibliography --- p.159 / Appendix --- p.166 / Chapter A --- Apparent Flow Direction Constraint --- p.166 / Chapter B --- Ambiguity of AFD Constraint --- p.168 / Chapter C --- Relationship between the Angle Subtended by any two Flow Vectors in Image Plane and the Associated Flow Vectors in Image Sphere --- p.169
3

As câmeras cinematográficas nos anos 1950/1960 e o cinema brasileiro

Barbuto, Adriano Soriano 02 August 2010 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-06-02T20:23:11Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 3236.pdf: 10667295 bytes, checksum: 4577e702fe0c4a20dd47793beb779bec (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010-08-02 / The motion picture cameras have changed through the years. However, they have kept their main design which has not changed during this period. One of the goals of this text is to understand how that design was created, and also the changes it has suffered without losing its essence. Besides that, this text aims to understand how different cameras connected with the Brazilian cinema production in the fifties and sixties. A change on camera s use is noticeable in that period in Brazil. There is a change in appreciation from the more traditional cameras linked to the studio system to the European cameras developed in the thirties and forties, which were lighter and more portable. This issue coincides with a specific characteristic in Brazilian cinema at that time, when people started to believe in the independent cinema production as an answer to the studio system, which was the main thought until then. In order to show this entire context, it has been chosen the Vera Cruz and Cinema Novo, their movies and shootings, to confront and connect them to camera models and their relation to the mode of production / As câmeras cinematográficas passaram por mudanças ao longo dos anos. Porém, manteve um design que se perpetuou durante este período. Um dos objetivos do presente trabalho é entender como este design foi criado, e as variações pelas quais ele passou, sem perder a sua essência. Em paralelo a isso, entender como estas diferentes câmeras travaram relação com a produção do cinema brasileiro dos anos 1950 e 1960. É nesta época que se observa no país uma troca de postura em relação às câmeras. Passa-se de uma valorização das câmeras mais tradicionais, ligadas ao sistema de estúdio, à valorização das câmeras européias criadas no anos 1930 e 1940, que eram mais leves e portáteis. Isso coincide com um momento específico do cinema brasileiro, aquele em que se passa a crer numa solução de cinema independente como resposta ao cinema de estúdio, que era o pensamento majoritário até então. Para ilustrar todo este contexto, escolhemos a Vera Cruz e o Cinema Novo, seus filmes e filmagens, para relacioná-los e confrontá-los em relação aos tipos de câmeras e sua relação ao modo de produção.

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