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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Estudo da estabilidade de emulsões usando fluido dinâmica computacional. / Study of emulsion stability using computational fluid dynamics.

Niño Vargas, Adriana Katerine 31 October 2014 (has links)
A estimativa das taxas de coalescência em sistemas de fluxo multifásico é um factor chave para prever situações críticas , em que as fases começam a separar . Esta pode ser uma orientação para controlar a estabilidade da emulsão e para impedir a substituição desnecessária em processos em que são usados de óleo / água (O / A) dispersões . Estudos CFD apresentar alternativas atraentes para prever o aumento de tamanho de gota , devido a fenômenos de coalescência nos casos em que as emulsões fluem através de diferentes sistemas de circulação , e estão sujeitas a repentinas expansões e contrações . Neste estudo o comportamento de emulsões sob diferentes condições de fluxo foi investigada por acoplamento em equações de Navier Stokes com modelos de equilíbrio populacional e de gotículas de coalescência. Este estudo analisa os efeitos de coalescência em um sistema de O / A, quando as forças hidrodinâmicas promoverem eventos em que duas gotículas colidem para dar origem a novas gotículas. No estudo, o desempenho dos diferentes modelos de turbulência (K-, k-Q) é comparado a avaliar a sua influência sobre a interacção entre as fases. Diferentes algoritmos para acoplamento pressão-velocidade (PIMPLE, SIMPLEC, PIMPLEC) são avaliados também, uma vez que podem afetar os tempos computacionais e de convergência. O efeito das condições de fluxo e as propriedades de cada fase da distribuição de tamanho das gotículas é estudado para o fluxo de emulsões O / A numa tubagem com súbita alargamento. Os resultados permitem avaliar o efeito de coalescência e modelo de eficiência na média de gotículas de diâmetro Sauter. O desempenho de cada modelo em relação ao tempo computacional e a convergência é também discutida. / The estimation of coalescence rates in multiphase flow systems is a key factor to predict critical situations, in which phases start to separate. This can be a guideline to control emulsion stability and to prevent unnecessary replacement in processes where oil/water (O/W) dispersions are used. CFD studies exhibit attractive alternatives to predict the increase of droplet size due to coalescence phenomena in cases where emulsions flow through different circulation systems, and are subject to sudden expansions and contractions. In this study the behavior of emulsions under different flow conditions was investigated by coupling Navier Stokes equations with population balance and droplet coalescence models. This study analyzes coalescence effects in an O/W system, when hydrodynamic forces promote events in which two droplets collide to give rise to new droplets. In the study, the performance of different turbulence models (k-, k-) is compared by evaluating their influence on the interaction between phases. Different algorithms for pressure-velocity coupling (PIMPLE, SIMPLEC, PIMPLEC) are also evaluated, since they can affect computational times and convergence. The effect of flow conditions and properties of each phase on droplet size distribution is studied for the flow of O/W emulsions in a pipeline with sudden enlargement. The results enable to evaluate the effect of coalescence model and efficiency on the mean Sauter diameter of droplets. The performance of each model with respect to computational time and convergence is also discussed.
2

Modélisation et simulation numérique d’écoulements de films minces avec effet de mouillage partiel / Three-dimensional numerical modelling and simulation of thin liquid films dynamic with partial wetting effects

Lallement, Julien 08 February 2019 (has links)
L’accrétion de givre sur les surfaces rencontrées en aéronautique (ailes, entrées d’airmoteur, sonde) est considérée comme un risque majeur pour la sécurité aérienne. Lesconséquences observées sont la dégradation des performances aérodynamiques pouvantconduire au décrochage, des perturbations dans les moteurs pouvant aller jusqu’`a sonextinction ou le colmatage des sondes. C’est pourquoi les avionneurs développent dessystèmes de protection thermiques contre le givre. L’eau accumulée sur les surfaces resteainsi à l’état liquide et forme un film mince. Les propriétés dynamiques (hauteur, vitesseet étalement) et thermiques (température, taux d’évaporation) du film en présence d’unécoulement d’air cisaillé permettent de prédire un éventuel regel du film d’eau en dehorsdes zones protégées ("runback ice "). Comme les essais en vols ou en soufflerie sontsouvent complexes à mettre en ouvre et onéreux, la simulation numérique est devenueun outil efficace et complémentaire pour dimensionner ces systèmes. L’objet principal decette thèse est le développement de modèles intégrés dans un outil numérique permettantde prédire le transport d’eau liquide sur une surface sous forme de film ou de ruisseletsou de gouttes. Une approche intégrale de type Saint Venant est adoptée ce qui permet dedécrire la dynamique macroscopique d’un film 3D pour des configurations et des temps decalcul raisonnables par rapport `a un calcul DNS. Une formulation augmentée du secondordre en espace pour le traitement des termes de courbure est proposée, ce qui autorisel’utilisation de maillages surfaciques non structurés généraux. Contrairement aux modèlesdisponibles dans la littérature, celui propos´e dans ce manuscrit présente l’avantage de tenircompte des phénomènes capillaires et de mouillage sans limite de validité en termesd’angle de contact statique. Une équation de conservation de l’énergie garantissant laconsistance thermodynamique des solutions calculées est dérivée du système augmentérégissant la dynamique du fluide. Une discrétisation de type Volumes Finis du systèmed’équation est proposée. Des simulations numériques valident le modèle pour des configurationsacadémiques de mouillage statiques et dynamiques. La transition d’un film continuen ruisselets est également simulée. / The ice accretion on surfaces encountered in aeronautics (wings, nacelle lips, sensors)is considered as a major risk for aviation safety. The consequences observed are the degradationof the aerodynamic performances that can lead to the aircraft stall, disturbancesin the engines that can lead to flame out or clogging of the sensors. That is why aircraftmanufacturers are developing thermal protection systems against icing. The wateraccumulated on the surfaces thus remains in the liquid state and forms a thin film. Thedynamic properties (thickness, velocity and spreading) and thermal properties (temperature,evaporation rate) of the film in the presence of a sheared air flow make it possible apotential refreezing of the water film on unprotected surfaces (”runback ice” phenomena).Since flight or wind tunnel tests are generally expensive and difficult to set up, numericalsimulation has become an effective and complementary tool to design these systems. Themain purpose of this thesis is to develop a model integrated in a numerical tool to predictthe transport of liquid water on a surface which might take the form of a film, a rivulet ora droplet. An integral approach based on a shallow water type model is adopted. It makesit possible to describe the macroscopic dynamics of a three-dimensional liquid film onrealistic configurations and within reasonable computing times compared to a full Navier-Stokes computation. An extended formulation is proposed, it corresponds to a second orderdifferential system and thus allows to use arbitrary surface meshes. Contrary to modelsavailable in the literature, the one proposed in this manuscript has the advantage of takinginto account capillary and wetting phenomena without validity limit in term of staticcontact angle. An energy conservation equation ensuring the thermodynamic consistencyof the calculated solutions is derived from the extended model governing fluid dynamics.A Finite Volume discretization of the system is proposed. Numerical simulations validatethe model for both static and dynamic academical wetting configurations. The transitionof a continuous film into rivulets is also simulated.
3

Adaptação de um edômetro com controle de sucção para a determinação da curva característica de solos contaminados por óleo diesel / Adaptation of an edometer with suction control for the determination of the retention curve of soil contaminated by diesel oil

Taytelbaum, Leandro Bergmann January 2008 (has links)
A presença de compostos orgânicos no solo proporciona o desenvolvimento de uma fase adicional nos poros, imiscível com a fase aquosa e gasosa pré-existentes. A característica de imiscibilidade destes compostos, denominados de fase livre não aquosa (“nonaqueos phase liquid” – NAPL), torna a avaliação de um solo contaminado por tais substâncias bastante complexa. Dentre as substâncias pertencentes a este grupo NAPL, destacam-se os produtos derivados do petróleo. As propriedades mais importantes na avaliação de um solo contaminado por NAPL são suas relações constitutivas. Uma destas propriedades relaciona a sucção dos fluídos com suas respectivas saturações, enquanto que a outra relaciona a condutividade relativa dos fluidos com a saturação de cada um destes fluidos. A partir da curva de retenção de um solo contaminado, é possível quantificar de forma indireta a relação condutividade relativa-saturação. Todavia, a obtenção desta curva de retenção para um solo contaminado por NAPL é bastante complexa e está em desenvolvimento, exigindo cuidados na sua determinação. Para isso, assume-se que no interior de um poro contendo água, óleo e ar, o contaminante estará preferencialmente localizado entre a água e o ar. Isto é determinante ao admitir-se que a saturação da água Sw é uma função da sucção mátrica desenvolvida entre a água e o óleo e a saturação total dos líquidos St, (soma da saturação da água e do óleo) é dependente da sucção mátrica gerada entre o óleo e o ar. Esta hipótese possibilita a obtenção das curvas de retenção para sistemas trifásicos ar-NAPL-água a partir dos sistemas bifásicos NAPL-água e ar-NAPL. Assim sendo, o objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver, a partir de um oedômetro com controle de sucção, um equipamento, denominado de célula multifásica, que permita o controle independente das pressões do ar, do NAPL e da água. Especificamente, este equipamento permitirá a determinação das curvas de retenção para sistemas bi e trifásicos. Para atingir esta meta, foi necessário transformar uma pedra porosa cerâmica comum em uma pedra porosa hidrofóbica (repelente à água), através de um tratamento químico da pedra porosa convencional em uma solução contendo uma substância comercialmente conhecida como Glassclad 18. Este novo equipamento permite o monitoramento da variação do volume de água e de óleo no interior de uma amostra de solo para diversas pressões capilares. Ensaios preliminares foram realizados em uma mistura composta de 70% de um solo arenoso e 30% de um solo argilo-arenoso, sendo o primeiro coletado no estado do Rio Grande do Sul enquanto que o segundo em Santa Catarina. Ambos os solos possuem propriedades físicas bem conhecidas. / The presence of organic compounds in the soil provides the development of an additional phase in the pore space, immiscible with the preexisting water and gaseous phases. This characteristic of immiscibility of such substances, called nonaqueos phase liquids – NAPL’s, turns the evaluation of a soil contaminated by these substances sufficiently complex. Among the substances pertaining to this group, called NAPL, the petroleum products are distinguished. The most important properties in the evaluation of a soil contaminated by NAPL are their constitutive relationships. One of these properties relates the pressure of the fluids with their respective saturations, while the other one relates the relative permeability of the fluids with the saturation of each one of these fluids. From the pressure-saturation constitutive relationship of a contaminated soil, it is possible to quantify indirectly the relative permeability-saturation relationship. However, the evaluation of the pressure-saturation relationship for a soil contaminated by NAPL is sufficiently complex and is in development, demanding considerable care in its determination. For this, it is assumed that, in the interior of a pore contaning water, oil and air, the organic liquid will be preferentially located between the water and air. That is imperative when assuming that water saturation of Sw is a function of the suction developed between the oil-water interface and the total liquid saturation St (sum of water saturation and oil saturation) is dependent of the suction generated between the airoil interfaces. This hypothesis makes possible the evaluation of the pressure-saturation relationship for the three-phase system air-NAPL-water from the two-phase systems NAPLwater and air-oil. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop, from the edometer with pressure control, another equipment, called the multiphase cell, that allows the independent control of the air, NAPL and water pressures. Specifically, this equipment will allow the determination of the pressure-saturation relationship for bi- and three-phase systems. To reach this goal, it was necessary to transform a standard ceramic porous stone in a hidrophobic porous stone (repellent to water), through a chemical treatment of the standard porous stone in a solution containing a substance commercially known as Glassclad 18. This new equipment allows the control of the volume changes of water and oil within a soil sample for different suction. Preliminary tests have been carried out with a mixture composed by 70% of sand and 30% of silt; the first material were collected in the state of the Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the second in the state of Santa Catarina. Both materials have their physical properties well known.
4

Adaptação de um edômetro com controle de sucção para a determinação da curva característica de solos contaminados por óleo diesel / Adaptation of an edometer with suction control for the determination of the retention curve of soil contaminated by diesel oil

Taytelbaum, Leandro Bergmann January 2008 (has links)
A presença de compostos orgânicos no solo proporciona o desenvolvimento de uma fase adicional nos poros, imiscível com a fase aquosa e gasosa pré-existentes. A característica de imiscibilidade destes compostos, denominados de fase livre não aquosa (“nonaqueos phase liquid” – NAPL), torna a avaliação de um solo contaminado por tais substâncias bastante complexa. Dentre as substâncias pertencentes a este grupo NAPL, destacam-se os produtos derivados do petróleo. As propriedades mais importantes na avaliação de um solo contaminado por NAPL são suas relações constitutivas. Uma destas propriedades relaciona a sucção dos fluídos com suas respectivas saturações, enquanto que a outra relaciona a condutividade relativa dos fluidos com a saturação de cada um destes fluidos. A partir da curva de retenção de um solo contaminado, é possível quantificar de forma indireta a relação condutividade relativa-saturação. Todavia, a obtenção desta curva de retenção para um solo contaminado por NAPL é bastante complexa e está em desenvolvimento, exigindo cuidados na sua determinação. Para isso, assume-se que no interior de um poro contendo água, óleo e ar, o contaminante estará preferencialmente localizado entre a água e o ar. Isto é determinante ao admitir-se que a saturação da água Sw é uma função da sucção mátrica desenvolvida entre a água e o óleo e a saturação total dos líquidos St, (soma da saturação da água e do óleo) é dependente da sucção mátrica gerada entre o óleo e o ar. Esta hipótese possibilita a obtenção das curvas de retenção para sistemas trifásicos ar-NAPL-água a partir dos sistemas bifásicos NAPL-água e ar-NAPL. Assim sendo, o objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver, a partir de um oedômetro com controle de sucção, um equipamento, denominado de célula multifásica, que permita o controle independente das pressões do ar, do NAPL e da água. Especificamente, este equipamento permitirá a determinação das curvas de retenção para sistemas bi e trifásicos. Para atingir esta meta, foi necessário transformar uma pedra porosa cerâmica comum em uma pedra porosa hidrofóbica (repelente à água), através de um tratamento químico da pedra porosa convencional em uma solução contendo uma substância comercialmente conhecida como Glassclad 18. Este novo equipamento permite o monitoramento da variação do volume de água e de óleo no interior de uma amostra de solo para diversas pressões capilares. Ensaios preliminares foram realizados em uma mistura composta de 70% de um solo arenoso e 30% de um solo argilo-arenoso, sendo o primeiro coletado no estado do Rio Grande do Sul enquanto que o segundo em Santa Catarina. Ambos os solos possuem propriedades físicas bem conhecidas. / The presence of organic compounds in the soil provides the development of an additional phase in the pore space, immiscible with the preexisting water and gaseous phases. This characteristic of immiscibility of such substances, called nonaqueos phase liquids – NAPL’s, turns the evaluation of a soil contaminated by these substances sufficiently complex. Among the substances pertaining to this group, called NAPL, the petroleum products are distinguished. The most important properties in the evaluation of a soil contaminated by NAPL are their constitutive relationships. One of these properties relates the pressure of the fluids with their respective saturations, while the other one relates the relative permeability of the fluids with the saturation of each one of these fluids. From the pressure-saturation constitutive relationship of a contaminated soil, it is possible to quantify indirectly the relative permeability-saturation relationship. However, the evaluation of the pressure-saturation relationship for a soil contaminated by NAPL is sufficiently complex and is in development, demanding considerable care in its determination. For this, it is assumed that, in the interior of a pore contaning water, oil and air, the organic liquid will be preferentially located between the water and air. That is imperative when assuming that water saturation of Sw is a function of the suction developed between the oil-water interface and the total liquid saturation St (sum of water saturation and oil saturation) is dependent of the suction generated between the airoil interfaces. This hypothesis makes possible the evaluation of the pressure-saturation relationship for the three-phase system air-NAPL-water from the two-phase systems NAPLwater and air-oil. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop, from the edometer with pressure control, another equipment, called the multiphase cell, that allows the independent control of the air, NAPL and water pressures. Specifically, this equipment will allow the determination of the pressure-saturation relationship for bi- and three-phase systems. To reach this goal, it was necessary to transform a standard ceramic porous stone in a hidrophobic porous stone (repellent to water), through a chemical treatment of the standard porous stone in a solution containing a substance commercially known as Glassclad 18. This new equipment allows the control of the volume changes of water and oil within a soil sample for different suction. Preliminary tests have been carried out with a mixture composed by 70% of sand and 30% of silt; the first material were collected in the state of the Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the second in the state of Santa Catarina. Both materials have their physical properties well known.
5

Estudo da estabilidade de emulsões usando fluido dinâmica computacional. / Study of emulsion stability using computational fluid dynamics.

Adriana Katerine Niño Vargas 31 October 2014 (has links)
A estimativa das taxas de coalescência em sistemas de fluxo multifásico é um factor chave para prever situações críticas , em que as fases começam a separar . Esta pode ser uma orientação para controlar a estabilidade da emulsão e para impedir a substituição desnecessária em processos em que são usados de óleo / água (O / A) dispersões . Estudos CFD apresentar alternativas atraentes para prever o aumento de tamanho de gota , devido a fenômenos de coalescência nos casos em que as emulsões fluem através de diferentes sistemas de circulação , e estão sujeitas a repentinas expansões e contrações . Neste estudo o comportamento de emulsões sob diferentes condições de fluxo foi investigada por acoplamento em equações de Navier Stokes com modelos de equilíbrio populacional e de gotículas de coalescência. Este estudo analisa os efeitos de coalescência em um sistema de O / A, quando as forças hidrodinâmicas promoverem eventos em que duas gotículas colidem para dar origem a novas gotículas. No estudo, o desempenho dos diferentes modelos de turbulência (K-, k-Q) é comparado a avaliar a sua influência sobre a interacção entre as fases. Diferentes algoritmos para acoplamento pressão-velocidade (PIMPLE, SIMPLEC, PIMPLEC) são avaliados também, uma vez que podem afetar os tempos computacionais e de convergência. O efeito das condições de fluxo e as propriedades de cada fase da distribuição de tamanho das gotículas é estudado para o fluxo de emulsões O / A numa tubagem com súbita alargamento. Os resultados permitem avaliar o efeito de coalescência e modelo de eficiência na média de gotículas de diâmetro Sauter. O desempenho de cada modelo em relação ao tempo computacional e a convergência é também discutida. / The estimation of coalescence rates in multiphase flow systems is a key factor to predict critical situations, in which phases start to separate. This can be a guideline to control emulsion stability and to prevent unnecessary replacement in processes where oil/water (O/W) dispersions are used. CFD studies exhibit attractive alternatives to predict the increase of droplet size due to coalescence phenomena in cases where emulsions flow through different circulation systems, and are subject to sudden expansions and contractions. In this study the behavior of emulsions under different flow conditions was investigated by coupling Navier Stokes equations with population balance and droplet coalescence models. This study analyzes coalescence effects in an O/W system, when hydrodynamic forces promote events in which two droplets collide to give rise to new droplets. In the study, the performance of different turbulence models (k-, k-) is compared by evaluating their influence on the interaction between phases. Different algorithms for pressure-velocity coupling (PIMPLE, SIMPLEC, PIMPLEC) are also evaluated, since they can affect computational times and convergence. The effect of flow conditions and properties of each phase on droplet size distribution is studied for the flow of O/W emulsions in a pipeline with sudden enlargement. The results enable to evaluate the effect of coalescence model and efficiency on the mean Sauter diameter of droplets. The performance of each model with respect to computational time and convergence is also discussed.
6

Adaptação de um edômetro com controle de sucção para a determinação da curva característica de solos contaminados por óleo diesel / Adaptation of an edometer with suction control for the determination of the retention curve of soil contaminated by diesel oil

Taytelbaum, Leandro Bergmann January 2008 (has links)
A presença de compostos orgânicos no solo proporciona o desenvolvimento de uma fase adicional nos poros, imiscível com a fase aquosa e gasosa pré-existentes. A característica de imiscibilidade destes compostos, denominados de fase livre não aquosa (“nonaqueos phase liquid” – NAPL), torna a avaliação de um solo contaminado por tais substâncias bastante complexa. Dentre as substâncias pertencentes a este grupo NAPL, destacam-se os produtos derivados do petróleo. As propriedades mais importantes na avaliação de um solo contaminado por NAPL são suas relações constitutivas. Uma destas propriedades relaciona a sucção dos fluídos com suas respectivas saturações, enquanto que a outra relaciona a condutividade relativa dos fluidos com a saturação de cada um destes fluidos. A partir da curva de retenção de um solo contaminado, é possível quantificar de forma indireta a relação condutividade relativa-saturação. Todavia, a obtenção desta curva de retenção para um solo contaminado por NAPL é bastante complexa e está em desenvolvimento, exigindo cuidados na sua determinação. Para isso, assume-se que no interior de um poro contendo água, óleo e ar, o contaminante estará preferencialmente localizado entre a água e o ar. Isto é determinante ao admitir-se que a saturação da água Sw é uma função da sucção mátrica desenvolvida entre a água e o óleo e a saturação total dos líquidos St, (soma da saturação da água e do óleo) é dependente da sucção mátrica gerada entre o óleo e o ar. Esta hipótese possibilita a obtenção das curvas de retenção para sistemas trifásicos ar-NAPL-água a partir dos sistemas bifásicos NAPL-água e ar-NAPL. Assim sendo, o objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver, a partir de um oedômetro com controle de sucção, um equipamento, denominado de célula multifásica, que permita o controle independente das pressões do ar, do NAPL e da água. Especificamente, este equipamento permitirá a determinação das curvas de retenção para sistemas bi e trifásicos. Para atingir esta meta, foi necessário transformar uma pedra porosa cerâmica comum em uma pedra porosa hidrofóbica (repelente à água), através de um tratamento químico da pedra porosa convencional em uma solução contendo uma substância comercialmente conhecida como Glassclad 18. Este novo equipamento permite o monitoramento da variação do volume de água e de óleo no interior de uma amostra de solo para diversas pressões capilares. Ensaios preliminares foram realizados em uma mistura composta de 70% de um solo arenoso e 30% de um solo argilo-arenoso, sendo o primeiro coletado no estado do Rio Grande do Sul enquanto que o segundo em Santa Catarina. Ambos os solos possuem propriedades físicas bem conhecidas. / The presence of organic compounds in the soil provides the development of an additional phase in the pore space, immiscible with the preexisting water and gaseous phases. This characteristic of immiscibility of such substances, called nonaqueos phase liquids – NAPL’s, turns the evaluation of a soil contaminated by these substances sufficiently complex. Among the substances pertaining to this group, called NAPL, the petroleum products are distinguished. The most important properties in the evaluation of a soil contaminated by NAPL are their constitutive relationships. One of these properties relates the pressure of the fluids with their respective saturations, while the other one relates the relative permeability of the fluids with the saturation of each one of these fluids. From the pressure-saturation constitutive relationship of a contaminated soil, it is possible to quantify indirectly the relative permeability-saturation relationship. However, the evaluation of the pressure-saturation relationship for a soil contaminated by NAPL is sufficiently complex and is in development, demanding considerable care in its determination. For this, it is assumed that, in the interior of a pore contaning water, oil and air, the organic liquid will be preferentially located between the water and air. That is imperative when assuming that water saturation of Sw is a function of the suction developed between the oil-water interface and the total liquid saturation St (sum of water saturation and oil saturation) is dependent of the suction generated between the airoil interfaces. This hypothesis makes possible the evaluation of the pressure-saturation relationship for the three-phase system air-NAPL-water from the two-phase systems NAPLwater and air-oil. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop, from the edometer with pressure control, another equipment, called the multiphase cell, that allows the independent control of the air, NAPL and water pressures. Specifically, this equipment will allow the determination of the pressure-saturation relationship for bi- and three-phase systems. To reach this goal, it was necessary to transform a standard ceramic porous stone in a hidrophobic porous stone (repellent to water), through a chemical treatment of the standard porous stone in a solution containing a substance commercially known as Glassclad 18. This new equipment allows the control of the volume changes of water and oil within a soil sample for different suction. Preliminary tests have been carried out with a mixture composed by 70% of sand and 30% of silt; the first material were collected in the state of the Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the second in the state of Santa Catarina. Both materials have their physical properties well known.
7

Synthetic Design of Multiphase Systems for Advanced Polymeric Materials

Kasprzak, Christopher Ray 17 June 2022 (has links)
Multiphase systems provide an opportunity to develop both novel processing methods and create advanced materials through combining the properties of dissimilar phases in a synergistic manner. In this work, we detail the halogenation of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) through both solution-state and gel-state functionalization methods. The multiphase gel-state chemistry restricts functionalization to the amorphous regions of the semi-crystalline parent homopolymer and generates a copolymer with a blocky microstructure. Solution-state functionalization yields random copolymers which provide matched sets to the blocky analogs for fundamental investigations into the effects of polymer microstructure on material properties. Halogenating PEEK using N-halosuccinimides allows for direct installation of pendant halogens along the polymer backbone with facile control of halogen identity. For both bromination and iodination, blocky halogenation of PEEK provides faster crystallization kinetics, higher glass transition (Tg) and melting temperatures as well as superior crystallizability than random halogenation. When comparing halogen identity, increasing halogen size results in increased Tgs, decreased backbone planarity, and for copolymers with blocky microstructures, an earlier onset of phase separation. Increasing halogen size also results in decreased crystallizability and crystallization kinetics, however, these deleterious effects are mitigated in blocky microstructures due to colocalization of the pristine repeat units. Iodination also results in greater flame resistance than bromination for PEEK-based copolymers, and preserved crystallizability allows for the generation of flame retardant aerogels. Direct halogenation of PEEK in the gel-state also provided a reactive microstructural template for subsequent functionalization. Through the use of copper mediated cross-coupling chemistries, the aryl halide functionalities were leveraged to decorate the polymer backbone with pendant perfluoroalkyl chains. The blocky perfluoro alkyl PEEK demonstrated preserved crystallizability and serves as a candidate for compatibilization of poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-PEEK polymer blends. Superacid-modified PEEK was synthesized through a similar methodology and demonstrated over 50,000% increased hygroscopicity relative to the parent homopolymer, and exhibited preserved crystallizability. Multiphase systems were also designed to additively manufacture reinforced elastomers through vat photopolymerization using a degradable scaffold approach that challenged the current paradigm that the scaffold only serves as a geometrical template in vat photopolymerization. The scaffold crosslinks were cleaved through a reactive extraction process that liberated the glassy photopolymer backbone and resulted in over 200% increased ultimate strain and 50% increased ultimate stress relative to a control that was subjected to a neutral extraction. Lastly, thermoresponsive micellar ligands were synthesized as a multiphase approach to environmental remediation of metal-contaminated aqueous systems. / Doctor of Philosophy / Multiphase systems, such as a mixture of oil and water, are of great interest due to their ability to exhibit a multitude of properties from one material. Minimizing the size of the phases, through a technique called compatibilization, often improves the properties of the material. A common example is salad dressing, where the oil phase is compartmentalized into microscopic particles using surface-active molecules known as surfactants. Surfactants, also known as amphiphiles, partition to the interface between different phases due to the surfactants being comprised of dissimilar molecular constituents. One way to generate polymeric amphiphiles, where a polymer is a large molecule comprised of a molecular chain of repeating units, is through synthesizing block copolymers. Block copolymers have blocks of different constituents that are colocalized through covalent bonds in the polymer backbone and often exhibit phase separated structures, allowing for enhanced transport properties such as is seen in membranes. Using semi-crystalline polymers in membranes allows for enhanced mechanical integrity, as the crystallites act as physical crosslinks, or tie points, similar to the knots in a 3D rope ladder. These molecular knots limit the distance that the linear segments of the rope ladder can stretch, which in membranes leads to reduced swelling and increased mechanical performance. In this work we use semi-crystalline polymers to generate blocky copolymers through the use of halogenation. Halogenation installs halogen moieties as pendant groups on the polymer backbone, which can then by used as a chemical handle for subsequent reactions to further incorporate functionality into the copolymer and achieve desired properties such as proton (hydrogen nuclei) transport in fuel cell membranes. Halogenation also allows for the generation of blocky semi-crystalline copolymers for compatibilizing polymer blends of materials like poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and poly(ether ether ketone). Also in this work, we discuss the additive manufacturing of mechanically reinforced elastomers. An elastomer is another type of crosslinked network, and a mechanically reinforced elastomer can be through of as a 3D rope ladder where some of the linear segments of rope are replaced with steel bars, thus increasing the amount of work required to deform the network. The last multiphase systems discussed are similar to salad dressing, where there is a continuous water phase and a microscopic particle phase. The microscopic particles in this work are amphiphilic block copolymers that change their solubility in water with temperature and also have functionalities that should allow for the binding of metals from water-based systems.

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