JAPANESE IN THE SAMBA: JAPANESE BRAZILIAN MUSICAL CITIZENSHIP, RACIAL CONSCIOUSNESS, AND TRANSNATIONAL MIGRATIONLorenz, Shanna 25 January 2008 (has links)
This doctoral dissertation is an ethnographic study of musical culture among Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, the study explores how the musical culture of this community has changed in recent years as a result of the dekasegui movement, the migration of hundreds of thousands of Japanese Brazilians who have traveled to Japan since 1990 in search of work. In order to explore these questions, I conducted fieldwork between May and November of 2003 on three musical groups, Zhen Brasil, Ton Ton Mi, and Wadaiko Sho, each of which have found different ways to invoke, contest, and reinvent their Brazilian and Japanese musical heritages. By exploring these groups musical practices, texts, dance, costumes, and discourses of self-definition, this study offers insight into shifts in the ethnic self-definition and racial consciousness of the Japanese Brazilian community that have taken place as the result of face-to-face contact between Japanese Brazilians and Japanese under the conditions of contiguous globalization. This study contributes to our current understandings of the impact of circular forms of migration on the musical culture and ethnic identity of diasporic communities in the contemporary world.
Re-Creating "India" Through Musical and Ritual Performances: Music and Religion of Diasporic Indians in PittsburghEguchi, Yuko 04 June 2008 (has links)
In the suburbs of Pittsburgh, amidst former steel factories, grocery stores, hospitals, and country clubs, on a hillside overlooking Interstate 376 sits an impressive display of ancient Indian architecture: the Sri Venkateswara (SV) Temple, the oldest Hindu Temple constructed in the Penn Hills section of Pittsburgh in 1976. Although living on the opposite side of the globe, diasporic Indians in Pittsburgh reconstruct their home surroundings and rigidly follow the Indian religion, tradition, and culture especially inside the SV Temple. In fact, the SV Temple is a small version of India itself; things that are experienced in daily life in India are reproduced and materialized by priests and devotees every day inside the temple. My fieldwork revealed that immigrant Indians often feel alienated from their host society. Rituals, music and dance concerts, lectures and language classes in the SV Temple provide not only psychological consolation for diasporic Indians, but helps to construct their identities as Indian. In Indian tradition, the boundary between sacred and secular is vague, and diasporic Indians usually express their Indian identities through performance. In this thesis, I focus on Indian-Americans (especially Hindu Tamils) perceptions of religion and culture by examining musical performances during a ritual ceremony (Venkateswara Abishekam) and a childrens Sunday school session based on fieldwork research conducted in 2006 and 2007. This thesis addresses the following question: What roles do ritual ceremonies and musical practices play in constructing notions of India in Pittsburgh? My findings reveal how essentialized notions of culture have become central to identity construction in diasporic communities. My point is not to present a monolithic view of Indian-Americans perceptions regarding identity, but rather it is to use their individual perceptions of music and culture in order to understand the reality of Indian-American lives in the United States.
SOUND, LIGHT, AND MOTION: THE ABSTRACTION AND REPRESENTATION OF INNER OCCURRENCES IN SCHOENBERG'S DIE GLÜCKLICHE HANDHoover, Elizabeth 04 June 2008 (has links)
In January 1911, Arnold Schoenberg and Wassily Kandinsky initiated a correspondence which revealed extraordinary parallels in expressing the spiritual in art. Schoenberg emphasized an "art of the representation of inner occurrences" and Kandinsky repeatedly discussed an "inner spirit of art," the mantra of his book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Between 1910 and 1914, Schoenberg worked on one piece which spanned the duration of his correspondence with Kandinsky: Die glückliche Hand. Seeking to put Schoenberg's intentions in their original context, I employ the dynamic color theory outlined in Concerning the Spiritual in Art to trace spiritual motion throughout the monodrama, Die glückliche Hand. For every scene, Schoenberg indicates specific transitions of colored light which correspond to the protagonist's internal state. How does Schoenberg mirror the transformation of colored light musically in order to reflect the inner spirit of this protagonist? My analysis not only demonstrates how Schoenberg composed the monodrama with Kandinsky's theory of color in mind, but also illuminates the aural and visual possibilities of abstracting and representing human spirituality. According to Kandinsky, a work of art is defined as a "complex of vibrations;" these vibrations are the "definite activity of the soul." My analysis demonstrates how Die glückliche Hand may be considered a dynamic creation infused with vibrations of sound and light, a reflection of the artistic environment in Western Europe during the beginning of the twentieth century and its portrayal of human spirituality.
Ozah, Marie Agatha
16 June 2008
Within the complex dynamics of gender relationships and roles among African peoples, women often exercise power through song and dance. Such is the case among the women of Ogbaruland in southern Nigeria who, in their performance of the dance drama Égwú Àmàlà , act as custodians of knowledge and tradition and as transmitters of culture. Apart from being a repository of information about artistic traditions, the genre also documents and enacts the history and culture of the Ogbaru people. Égwú Àmàlà, which is the subject of my dissertation, is the most popular of all Ogbaru women dance genres. The term Égwú Àmàlà literally means "paddle dance" or "paddle drama," but it is often referred to as the "mermaid dance" or égwú mmili, that is, "water dance" because of its ritualistic associations with Onye-mmili, the water divinity. This genre is predominantly performed by women of all ages, with men playing secondary roles such as òpì(gourd horn) player and paddlers of canoes when the genre is performed in the river setting. My study of Égwú Àmàlà will add to a small but growing body of literature demonstrating how gender, a locus classicus for debates in contemporary scholarship, relates to other domains of culture such as musical performance, and how gender constructions can be articulated as well as negotiated in the genre and through the performing arts in general. Since the origin and performance of Égwú Àmàlà revolves around rituals and water, this dissertation also discusses the religious dimensions of the genre, stressing the importance of water to the dance, to the Ogbaru people and to African traditional religion as well. Considering the fact that women have for decades preserved Égwú Àmàlà, which epitomizes the culture and traditions of the Ogbaru people, the present investigation represents a significant contribution to ethnomusicological, gender, and cultural studies.
Kudisch, Erica Rachel
04 June 2008
Pygmalion is the second chamber opera I have written, but the largest and most ambitious work of mine to date that will be performed publicly. As such, I consider it a culmination of all I have learned in the Master of Music: Composition Program here at the University of Pittsburgh. In addition to the relevance of the Pygmalion subject to the craft of composition, and to the field of music itself, there are several converging factors that contribute to the relationship between this work and my own education. What follows is a musicological and theoretical discussion of the processes involved in the creation and construction of this opera; its thematic and musical conception, the libretto, the composition, the instrumentation, and ultimately the relationship between the composer and the work.
Twomey, Sean Robert
05 June 2008
The Ringgold Band of Reading, Pennsylvania, has continuously performed music for a span broaching three centuries. Founded in 1852 as the Independent American Brass Band, the ensemble has successfully maintained relevance and sustained an active place within its community. This thesis draws attention to the 156-year-old relationship between the ensemble and the city of which it is a part. The longevity demonstrated by the Ringgold Band results from the intersection of its continual adaptation with a favorable environment. This thesis summarizes environmental factorsincluding leadership, close proximity to mid-Atlantic metropolitan areas and economic vibrancy within the communityto explore the basis for the ensembles success. The Band has adapted in response to these factors as well as to meet the social needs of its members, audiences and community. The thesis posits a concept of music enacted, not merely performed, as the band has fulfilled social needs both locally and regionally, in a variety of venues and through the creation of new musical works.
Wright, Bryan S.
05 June 2008
The five-volume Novi atque Catholici thesauri musici (Novus Thesaurus), compiled by Pietro Giovanelli and issued in 1568 by the Venetian publishing firm of Antonio Gardano, stands as one of the most important collections of Renaissance motets. Its 254 motets by at least thirty-two different composers provide a rich sampling of liturgical vocal polyphony from the Habsburg court chapels in Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, and Prague. Michael Des Buissons was one of the two most prolific composers represented in the collection, and yet, he has remained a mysterious figure to scholars. Over thirty manuscript collections of the late sixteenth century bearing his pieces and a print dedicated entirely to his works attest that Des Buissons must have enjoyed some popularity in his own time; yet today, little is known of his life, and only six of his twenty-six motets in the Novus Thesaurus have been transcribed into modern editions. He may not have been among the more adventurous composers of the sixteenth century, but he was a skilled musician who worked well within established conventions and produced a sizeable body of surviving works that offer a glimpse into the day-to-day music of the Imperial chapel. As more of the music of the Novus Thesaurus is transcribed and becomes available to scholars, it will be possible to trace the broader stylistic musical currents in favor at the Habsburg courts of the mid-to-late sixteenth century, and to understand Des Buissonss artistic position within the repertory. In the meantime, I have prepared modern critical editions of six of Des Buissonss six-voice motets published in the Novus Thesaurus, complementing them with my own observations and analysis.
Greene, Stephen R
30 October 2008
In the United States during the 1920s and 1930s a loose-knit group of activists promoting what they called good music encountered the rise of commercial radio. Recognizing a tremendous resource, they sought to enlist radio in their cause, and in many ways were successful. However, commercial radio also transformed the activists, subverting an important part of their vision of a musical America: widespread preference for good music in the public at large. Instead, good music became the premium product line of commercial radio and the activists became more nearly realistic about their role in society. Charles Seeger offered a scholarly history of this effort in his 1957 paper, "Music and Class Structure in the United States." This dissertation uses the model of cultural formation from Seeger's essay as a guide to the transformation of those he calls "'make-America-musical' missionaries," between 1918 and 1935. In addition this study uses theories on community presented by Thomas Bender in Community and Social Change in America, and theories on democracy presented by Robert H. Wiebe in Self-Rule: A Cultural History of American Democracy, to further illuminate Seeger's model. Views expressed by representatives of the National Federation of Music Clubs, described by Karen J. Blair as "the largest and most influential organization uniting women's musical societies," and by conductor Walter Damrosch, who served on the NBC Advisory Panel, occupy central places in this study, as does the publication Musical America, an omnibus music periodical founded in 1898 by British émigré John C. Freund for the stated purpose of "development of music in America." Reports in Musical America, together with proceedings of the federation and of Music Teachers National Conference, and a series of books published under the auspices of the federation from 1924-29 to train music club members, function as core sources. These reveal the transformation of these activists from their expansive speculation in the years following the Great War, through a period of resistance to trends in the larger culture that peaks in the middle of the 1920s, to their accommodation and enthusiastic acceptance of commercial radio as a home for good music.
Composing, Revising, and Performing Suzhou Ballads: a Study of Political Control and Artistic Freedom in Tanci, 1949-1964Webster-Cheng, Stephanie 29 January 2009 (has links)
This dissertation explores the dynamics of political control of the arts and artistic freedom in the musical storytelling art of Suzhou tanci between 1949 and 1964, years marked by extensive revision of traditional performance repertoire, widespread creation of new, contemporary-themed stories, and composition of boldly innovative ballad music. I examine four stories and ballads either composed or revised during this time, looking broadly at the role of the State in the creative process. I consider the role of high-ranking officials whose personal comments to artists shaped their creative processes, and the role of societal political pressure placed on artists through political movements and shifting trends in the dramatic arts. I study the artists responses to these political forces as expressed in their newly composed and revised works. I examine decisions made during the creation of story and ballad texts, and analyze bold innovations taken by three artists during the composition of ballad music. I suggest that the musical innovations be viewed both as responses to the coercive political atmosphere of the 1950s and 1960s and as significant expressions of artistic freedom within this politicized atmosphere. This dissertation begins with an overview of the main research questions, theoretical framework, research methodology, and literature. This is followed in Chapter 2 by an introduction to the art form, and an exploration of the 1950s-1960s period in Chinese history in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, I examine the revision of the traditional story Jade Dragonfly, and the composition of new music in the storys climactic ballad Fighting for the Son. In Chapter 5, I study the creation of the new story We Certainly Must Fix the Huai River, and the composition of new music in the pivotal ballad Staying for the New Year. In Chapter 6, I explore the musical innovations made during the creation of two new ballads New Mulan Song and Butterfly Loves the Flower. Chapter 7 summarizes Chapters 4, 5, and 6, offers concluding thoughts regarding the nature of political control and artistic freedom in the Chinese arts during the 1949-1964 period, and suggests broader implications for the field of ethnomusicology.
Aponte, Pedro Rafael
26 January 2009
This dissertation explores the developments of art music in Venezuela during the first half of the twentieth century as an exercise in nation building. It argues that beginning in the early 1920s a nationalist movement in music emerged, which was not only determined by but also determinant in the construction of a concept of nationhood. The movement took place at a crucial time when the country had entered a process of economic transformation. The shift in Venezuelas economic system from agrarian to industrial in the 1910s triggered a reconfiguration of the countrys social and cultural structures. Industrialization brought about a new type of culture in which individual loyalties to the nation became more apparent than ever before. The institutionalization of national culture took place not only within the government, through state policies of national integration, but also less formally within social organizations. At both levels, however, the process of institutionalizing national culture involved a great deal of cultural engineering and invention. In art music, these dynamics took the form of a nationalist movement initiated by a group of native musicians in the city of Caracas around 1920. These musicians sought to modernize musical life in the country, which they saw as being old-fashioned in comparison to contemporary European music. In addition to creating a modern music infrastructure they sought to establish a national art-music culture. To that end, they set out to articulate a national ideology of music and to act on several nationalistic objectives: revising the narrative of the countrys music history, disseminating historical and ethnomusicological research, creating national policies on music and music education, and composing a nationalist musical repertoire. By looking at those musical developments against the backdrop of social change, this dissertation seeks to illuminate the constructionist nature of musical nationalism in mid-twentieth-century Venezuela. In this light, the renovation movement is to be seen as a nation-building project made possible by constructing and solidifying new modes of cultural communication and new identifying marks of national culture.
Page generated in 0.0611 seconds