The application of the tumor control probability model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three dimensional conformal treatment planevaluation胡寶文, Wu, Po-man. January 2000 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Clinical Oncology / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
Cheng, Chi-yuen, Harry., 鄭致遠.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic malignant disease in Southern China. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been employed as a standard treatment for NPC because it delivers highly conformal dose distribution to target volumes and spares organs at risk (OARs). The success of radiotherapy depends on the accurate delivery of the planned doses throughout the treatment. This can be achieved with the help of advanced image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) such as kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) which can reduce the geometric setup uncertainty, monitor the intra-course anatomic and dosimetric changes and adjust the treatment plan. The aim of this thesis is to study the role of repeat imaging for NPC and the radiation dose from CBCT to patients. The objectives of this thesis are to evaluate the volumetric and dosimetric changes during a course of IMRT for loco-regionally advanced NPC patients with the contribution of repeat computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans; to quantify the absorbed dose, effective dose and the estimation of the additional risk of inducing fatal cancers from CBCT for NPC patients undergoing IMRT; and to compare the image quality of different head protocols. Nineteen loco-regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT were recruited prospectively. Repeat CT and MRI were acquired at 30 and 50 Gy intervals. Recontouring of target volumes and OARs was based on the fused CT-MRI images. Hybrid plans with recontouring were generated. The volumetric and dosimetric changes were assessed by comparing the hybrid plans with the original plan. There was volume reduction of target volumes and parotid glands over the course of IMRT. Relative to the original plan, the hybrid plans demonstrated significantly higher dose to the target volumes with greater dose inhomogeneity, higher maximum doses to the spinal cord and brainstem, and higher medium doses to the parotid glands. The image quality and dosimetry on the Varian CBCT system between software Versions 1.4.13 (“new” protocol) and 1.4.11 (“old” protocol) were studied. A calibrated Farmer-type ionization chamber and a standard cylindrical Perspex CT dosimetry head phantom were used to measure the weighted CBCT dose index (CBCTDIw) of the Varian CBCT system. The absorbed dose of different organs was measured in a female anthropomorphic phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and the total effective dose was estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The dosimetry and image quality were studied for head-and-neck region and comparison was made between the new and old protocols. The values of the CBCTDIw, absorbed dose, effective dose of the new head protocol were much lower than the old head protocol in each imaging group. The additional fatal cancer risk from daily CBCT might be up to 1.6%. In conclusion, replanning with repeat imaging at 30 Gy is essential to keep a satisfactory dose to the target volumes and avoid overdosing the OARs for NPC patients. The new Varian CBCT provides volumetric information for image guidance with acceptable image quality and lower radiation dose. This CBCT gives a better standard for NPC patient daily setup verification. / published_or_final_version / Clinical Oncology / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
Effects of different radiation therapy techniques on swallowing function in individuals with nasopharyngeal cancerFong, Raymond, 方思行 January 2013 (has links)
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is more common in the Southern China region than the rest of the world. Radiation therapy (RT) is the contemporary and standard treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. Chronic complications arise from RT including hearing loss, xerostomia, trismus and dysphagia. Previous research has shown that dysphagia is prevalent in irradiated NPC patients. Radiation therapy techniques have improved in the last decade with the emergence of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), which allows more precise radiation beams directed at the tumor. In turn, it should also allow greater sparing of surrounding structures that are vital for preservation of swallowing function. This study was designed to investigate the difference in the degree of swallowing function preservation in two groups of irradiated NPC patients: the conventional RT and the IMRT group. Thirty patients with NPC who received RT from 1998 to 2006 in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong were randomly recruited during the period from January to December 2011. Participant’s swallowing competence and its effect on the quality of life was assessed by videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and by the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, respectively. In comparison of swallowing performance with VFSS between the two groups, only one measure (Duration of Laryngeal Elevation) out of 13 showed significant difference on thin liquid and congee diet. Results from the MDADI did not show significant difference between the two groups. From the results, it was concluded that IMRT only resulted in subtle improvement in preserving the swallowing function as compared to conventional RT. One possibility is the subject self-compensation of their swallowing impairments that led to functionally similar performance despite their differences in the anatomy and physiology. Swallowing is a highly complex body function and no single parameter can be used to accurately quantify and characterize one’s swallowing function. The interaction between the anatomical and physiological impairments resulted from radiation therapy and the compensatory mechanism could not be clearly explained with this study. Future research could adopt a longitudinal approach such that the changes in NPC patients who received radiation therapy can be better understood. / published_or_final_version / Speech and Hearing Sciences / Master / Master of Philosophy
Dose analysis of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional radiotherapy techniques in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinomaWu, Wing-cheung, Vincent, 胡永祥 January 1997 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Radiation Oncology / Master / Master of Philosophy
Randomized study on therapeutic gain by changing the chemo-radiotherapy from concurrent-adjuvant to induction-concurrentsequence, and the radiotherapy from conventional to acceleratedfractionation for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomaTung, Pui-lam., 董沛霖. January 2009 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Public Health / Master / Master of Public Health
韋霖, Wei, William I.
published_or_final_version / Surgery / Master / Master of Surgery
林小玲, Lam, Siu-ling, Karen.
published_or_final_version / Medicine / Master / Doctor of Medicine
Lee, W. M., Anne, 李詠梅
published_or_final_version / Medicine / Master / Doctor of Medicine
A validation of the FACT-G (Chinese version) and an exploration of factors affecting quality of life of Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinomapatients treated with radiotherapyYu, L. M., 余麗文 January 2000 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Community Medicine / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
Development of adaptive dose constraints templates for dose optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning advanced-stage nasopharyngeal cancer. / CUHK electronic theses & dissertations collectionJanuary 2007 (has links)
Advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) presents very difficult scenarios for radiation therapy (RT) planning. The infiltration of tumor to the skull base and beyond means that the tumor is very close to critical normal organs (organs at risk, OARs). Despite the advent of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment technique---the state-of-art RT technique, conflicting requirements between organ protection and target dose conformity is still problematic. The objectives of the present research are (1) to investigate the dosimetry properties of IMRT treatment in advanced-stage NPC in respect of its dosimetric limitations and planning problems, (2) to develop new methods and tools to resolve such problems, in particular to improve the quality of treatment plans and efficiency of the dose planning and optimization process. A series of four inter-linked studies were conducted to address these issues. / In conclusion, the solutions to several major problems in IMRT planning for advanced-stage NPC were investigated and established. It has been demonstrated in this research that, by applying these methods and tools, significant improvement in the dosimetry and efficiency of IMRT treatment planning can be accomplished as compared with conventional IMRT planning techniques. It is expected that such would translate into an improvement in treatment throughput, better tumor control and reduction in normal tissues complications. The methods developed have potential to be applied to all stages of NPC and to other tumor sites. / The first study was to improve the efficacy in target coverage and organs sparing using an "organ-splitting" approach. The OARs which overlapped with targets were split into target-overlapping and non-overlapping segments and each segment was assigned with different constraints parameters to increase the degree of flexibility during optimization. As a result, a steep gradient in the dose distribution at the regions of interface between the targets and normal critical organs could be achieved and treatment quality was improved. In the second study, a thorough dosimetric comparison between conventional 2-dimensional (2D) RT and IMRT plans was conducted to determine, with reference to outcome of 2D treatments, the extended tolerance dose limits for the critical organs, especially that of the brainstem and spinal cord, and their planning organ at risk volume. Such data could then serve as reference in IMRT planning when the dose of critical organs need be exceeded in order to allow adequate dose to a very close by target. In the third study, the feasibility of using interpolated contours for segmentation of targets and OARs in IMRT planning was investigated. The result indicated that the use of interpolated contours in IMRT planning could significantly reduce the contouring time by about 50% without degrading the target coverage and OARS sparing. In the final study, an array of dose constraint templates that could accommodate different degrees of overlap between the targets and OARs, together with a template selection program, were developed to improve the efficiency of IMRT planning. By applying the methods and tools developed, IMRT treatment planning of advanced NPC could become more efficient and less dependent on planner's experience. / Chau, Ming Chun. / Adviser: Anthony Chan Tak Cheung. / Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 69-02, Section: B, page: 0948. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2007. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 118-128). / Electronic reproduction. Hong Kong : Chinese University of Hong Kong,  System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader. Available via World Wide Web. / Electronic reproduction. [Ann Arbor, MI] : ProQuest Information and Learning, [200-] System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader. Available via World Wide Web. / Abstract also in Chinese. / School code: 1307.
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